Presentation on theme: "American Foreign Policy"— Presentation transcript:
1 American Foreign Policy 1789-1920 A Brief OverviewClickers to Ch. 48!
2 Lecture Goals:Understand and analyze major themes and events of U.S. foreign policy 1789 to 1920.Compare and contrast U.S. foreign policy during various periodsEvaluate the most effective foreign policy goals and actions for the U.S.
3 What is Foreign Policy? A country’s relationship with other countries USS ChesapeakeNaval Act of 1794Captured War of 1812http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Chesapeake_%281799%29
4 What determines U.S. Foreign Policy? National interestDemocratic idealsDefense Department (originally War Dept) vs. State DepartmentThomas Jefferson, Secretary of State 1789
5 • How active should America be in world affairs? IsolationismFocus on domestic rather than international affairsInternationalismAssume an active role in international affairs
6 Isolationist or Internationalist? Isolationist: Our National Interest (for Trade?)Internationalist: Universalist – Interests/rights of others vs. What’s best for USAA girl performs domestic labour in a rural Mauritanian encampment. The International Labour Organization estimates there are at least 10 million working children in Africa alone.
7 YOUR VIEW: What path should the U. S. follow in foreign affairs today YOUR VIEW: What path should the U.S. follow in foreign affairs today ? Why?1. Totally isolationist2. Mostly isolationist3. Mostly internationalist4. Totally internationalist
8 An Endless Argument:Should American policy be based on our own national interests (protecting our independence, borders, security, power and interests in peace) or should we take the “high road” and base our policies on moral principles (human rights, democracy, freedom) that could serve as a model for others?
9 Foreign Policy Goals Preserve independence and integrity Security for nation and citizensProsperity for nation and citizensRevenge or prestige?Protection/expansion of ideals or ideas?
10 YOUR VIEW: Which goal should have been the focus of the U. S YOUR VIEW: Which goal should have been the focus of the U.S. in the early years of our country? Why?1. Preserve independence2. Maintain security for the nation3. Seek prosperity for the nation4. Seek revenge or prestige5. Spread ideals or ideas
11 Factors that influence Foreign Policy GeographyMilitary needs/powerEconomic needs/powerEthnic/cultural tiesHistoryDISCUSS:How do these impact the USA?Factors change over time – WHY?
12 PHASES OF U.S. FOREIGN POLICY 1. ISOLATIONISM (1789 – 1890s)Nonentanglement2. CONTINENTAL EXPANSION (1830 – 1890)Manifest Destiny3. IMPERIALISM (1890s to ….)Expanding U.S. Power, Land, Valuesaround the world
13 French Alliance of 1778Two treaties- commercial agreement and a political/military allianceWe needed France to win our independence1789 French RevolutionAggressive & radical policiesEngland goes to war with FranceShould USA defend France?Jefferson (good faith), Hamilton (no obligation), and Washington’s (neutral) positions
14 Washington’s Farewell Address Established concept of isolation (dominant US foreign policy until 20th C):“Good faith and justice toward all nations”“Steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world”
15 YOUR VIEW: In 1796, would you have agreed with Washington YOUR VIEW: In 1796, would you have agreed with Washington? Why or why not?1. Completely disagree2. Mostly disagree3. Mostly agree4. Completely agree
16 Jefferson’s First Inaugural Address “kindly separated by nature and a wide ocean from the exterminating havoc of one quarter of the globe”Jefferson expanded upon Washington’s warning against “permanent alliances” to include “entangling alliances” and reinforced the principle of non-involvement in European wars.Thomas Jefferson
17 Some Key Early Decisions Jay’s Treaty (1794)Pinckney Treaty (1795)XYZ Affair (1797)Louisiana Purchase (1803)Embargo & Non-Intercourse Acts (1807)
18 War of 1812Illustrated the nation’s willingness to violate the policy of neutrality when it became advantageous to do so.Demonstrated the difficulty of non-involvement when trade and neighbors bring us into contact with European powers.
19 After the War of 1812 Treaty of Ghent (1815) Rush-Bagot Treaty (1817) Ends War with BritainRush-Bagot Treaty (1817)US-Britain Naval compromise on Great LakesAdams-Onis Treaty (1819)Agreement with Spain expands US to Pacific
20 John Quincy Adams: Secretary of State to James Monroe 1817-1825 Very successfulClear vision of U.S. policyPhilosophy: National interests should determine foreign policy
21 John Quincy Adams: Accomplishments Adams-Onis Treaty gives Florida (strategic importance) to US, eliminated Spain from contention for Oregon TerritoryArchitect of Monroe DoctrineAdams’ Vision: expansion of US to the Pacific, pursuit of good relations with newly independent nations in Latin America
23 The Monroe Doctrine (1823)Stressed America’s special interests in the Western Hemisphere and remains, with some modifications, viable today.In response to fears that European powers including Britain might expand its influence into the Western Hemisphere.
24 KEY GUIDING STRATEGY OF ISOLATIONISM: No permanent friends, only permanent objectives
25 Trends Over Time 1789-1824 Tendency toward isolation Creation of more secure borders, & push WestNavigation of waterways (Mississippi and later seas)Increased respect from foreign nationsIncreased boldness of some American policy-makersLinks with newly established Latin American nations
26 YOUR VIEW: From 1789-1824, which goal did the U.S. put first? 1. Preserve independence2. Maintain security for the nation3. Seek prosperity for the nation4. Seek revenge or prestige5. Spread ideals or ideas
27 Westward Expansion evolves into Manifest Destiny Movement of the “frontier line” from the Fall line in the Piedmont, to the Appalacians (Proclamation of 1763), to the Mississippi River is followed by the call for Continental Expansion as our Manifest Destiny
28 Manifest Destiny“And that claim is by right of our manifest destiny to overspread and possess the whole of the continent which providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federated self-government entrusted to us… The God of nature and of nations has marked it for our own…”John L. Sullivan, Dec. 1845John L. Sullivan
29 Discuss: What feelings & values are conveyed? American Progress by Jonathan Gast, 1872
30 Westward Expansion & Foreign Policy 1783-1853 Original U.S. + Northwest Territory (1783 GB)Louisiana Purchase (1803, FR)British Cession (1818 Rush-Bagot Treaty)Spanish Cession (1819, FL- from SP)Texas Annexation (1845)Oregon Country (1846 BR)Mexican Cession (1848 Mex War)Gadsden Purchase (1853 Mex)
31 American Indian Policy Expansion has implications for American IndiansResist, co-exist, migrateTreaty of Greenville (1795) NW Terr.Jefferson- Trans-Mississippi “reserve”Jackson- Indian Removal Act 1830
32 Major Indian Wars 1810s-1830sOld Northwest Territory (Tecumseh, The Prophet, the Fox, etc)The Creeks (Alabama, Florida, Western TennesseeSeminole- in Florida
33 Mexican American War (1846-1848) James K. Polk and Manifest DestinyWas this war consistent with previous US foreign policy?Who supported War with Mexico?Henry Thoreau and Civil Disobedience (jailed because he refused to pay a federal taxes which he believed paid for an unjust war)
34 Aftermath of the Mexican American War for Indians Continual Warfare on Great Plains & West1870’s movement to ReservationsBattle of Little Big Horn (1876) - one of the few Indian “victories”The Massacre at Wounded Knee one of the last of many brutal defeatsDawes Severalty Act, 1887
35 Northern Boundary Extends: Warhawks in 1812Rush-Bagot Treaty 1817Convention of 1818Caroline AffairAroostook War 1839Webster-Ashburton Treaty, 1842Buchanan-Pakenham Treaty, 1846Alaska Purchase and Seward, 1867
36 YOUR VIEW: From 1830 to 1890 (Manifest Destiny), which goal did the U YOUR VIEW: From 1830 to 1890 (Manifest Destiny), which goal did the U.S. put first? Explain.1. Preserve independence2. Maintain security for the nation3. Seek prosperity for the nation4. Seek revenge or prestige5. Spread ideals or ideas
37 Late 19th Century Imperialism: The USA Enters the World Stage Economic motivations: new markets, new resourcesIdeas about racial supremacy driven by Social DarwinismManifest Destiny-extended (Frontier over 1890)Military considerations (strategic, defensive)Alfred Mahan & “The New Navy”US exceptionalism (1st “crusade” for the U.S.)
38 Early Non-Contiguous Expansion Offer to purchase Cuba from Spain in 1848 and 1854Alaska 1867Pago-Pago, Samoa 1878Pearl Harbor 1884Hawaii 1898
39 1896 Republican Party Platform Strong imperialist platformEconomic expansion guides positionOverseas expansion good for US industry“sympathy for Cuba”Nicaraguan Canal and purchase of Danish West IndiesAnnexation of HawaiiQueen Liliuokalani
40 Spanish American War 1898-1900 Cuba (for “freedom”?) “Maine” incident, yellow journalism, jingoism & war feverRough Riders & Theodore RooseveltUS acquires Philippines, Puerto Rico, Guam
41 McKinley, T. Roosevelt & Taft McKinley: Open Door Policy, S-A WarRoosevelt: Panama Canal, Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine, “Walk Softly and Carry a Big Stick”Taft: Dollar Diplomacy (private funds to pursue diplomatic goals)
42 Pre-WWI Imperialism Focal Points Philippine RevolutionCuba (Platt Amend)Latin American interventions (numerous)Balancing Japan’s growing dominance in Asia with US-Japanese economic tiesPanama CanalOpen Door: getting a toehold in China trade
43 WWI: From Neutrality to Versailles Traditional neutralityChallenges to neutrality:u-boats, US business loans,munitions trade, propaganda,some pro-war advocates (ex: TR)Wilson’s 1916 Pledge: To keep us out of warWilson’s 1917 statement to “make the world safe for democracy”. (2nd “crusade” for the US)RMS Lusitania
44 Wilson’s 14 Points & Versailles Treaty & the “Lessons of War” 14 Points largely disregardedFight for Ratification of the TreatyHenry Cabot Lodge and American Isolationists prevail-reject League of NationsUS returns to its “isolationist” position vis a vis Europe“Lessons” of WWI, Red Scare & Peace Movement
45 YOUR VIEW: From 1890 to 1920, which goal did the U.S. put first? 1. Preserve independence2. Maintain security for the nation3. Seek prosperity for the nation4. Seek revenge or prestige5. Spread ideals or ideas
46 DISCUSS: Can our national interest be in doing what is right for others? Peacekeepers from the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) load the injured onto a helicopter after the Jan 2010 devastating earthquake in Haiti. (UN Photo/Logan Abassi)
47 Always consider: What are our motives? What are our goals? What are the likely outcomes?*Short and Long Term*
48 YOUR VIEW: Which goal should be most important today? Why? 1. Preserve independence2. Maintain security for the nation3. Seek prosperity for the nation4. Seek revenge or prestige5. Spread ideals or ideas
49 Sources: American Foreign Policy by Leonard James American Foreign Policy by Thomas FitzgeraldAmerican Foreign Policy.ppt by Joyce Williams & Justin Hill, RCPS (h t t p://sp.rpcs.org/faculty/HillJ/ AP US History/American Foreign Foreign Policy.pdf