2Anatomy is Structure, Physiology is function Study of internal and external structurei.e. structure of heart and blood flowPhysiologyStudy of how organisms perform specific functionsi.e. how does the heart pump blood
4Inorganic versus Organic Compounds Small molecules that generally do not contain carbon and hydrogen atoms.Molecules composed of carbon and hydrogen moleculesLarger and more complex than inorganic molecules
5Carbohydrates Sugars and Starches Monosaccharides – building blocks for all sugarsContain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratioMain source of energy for bodyMonosaccharidesGlucose, fructose, galactoseDisaccharidesLactose, maltose, sucrosePolysaccharidesGlycogen, starch, cellulose
7Dehydration Synthesis HydrolysisRemove water to build large molecules from smaller onesi.e. making proteins from amino acidsSplit water to break down large molecules into smalli.e. digestive tract
8Lipids saturated Fats, oils and waxes Contain large amounts of carbon and hydrogen in a 1:2 ratio, but very little oxygen.Insoluble in water (hydophobic), makes a great barrier.Energy reserves, insulates and cushions organsComposed of fatty acid chains and glycerolsaturatedunsaturated
9SaturatedNo double bonds, all carbon atoms are saturated with hydrogenAnimal fats, are solid at room temperatureLarge amounts in your diet increases the risk of heart diseaseUnsaturatedContain at least one double bondMost Plant oils, liquid at room temperatureTriglycerides are the most common fats in body.
10Phospholipids How is structure related to function? Consists of a glycerol and two fatty acid chains linked to a phosphate group (PO4)The phosphate group is attracted to water (hydrophilic), Why?The fatty acid chains are hydrophobic.Make up all cell membranes
11Cell membrane composed of phospholipids and proteins.
13Proteins Composed of amino acids, 20 different amino acids Most abundant organic compounds in the bodyComposed of amino acids, 20 different amino acidsStructure of an amino acidAmino groupHCarboxyl groupR (remaining), varies from one amino acid to anotherPeptide bond joins two amino acids together
14ProteinsThe structure of the R group makes the amino acids different from each other.The R groups between the different amino acids help create the proteins shape.Folds and bonds form creating distinct protein shapes
15Shape Determines Function Structure of a protein is determined by sequence of amino acidsProteins are made at the _________ and sent to the ____________ to be packaged into their specific shape.Small differences can have large effects… mutations
17Protein Function Support: provide structure to cells and organs Movement: contractile proteins in musclesTransport: carrier protein found in cell membranesMetabolic Regulation: Enzymes speed up chemical reactionsCoordination and Control: Protein hormones influence the chemical reactions in cellsDefense: keratin in the skin, antibodies, clotting proteins
18Enzyme Function Enzymes are Proteins Speed up chemical reactions in a cell by reducing the activation energy needed to start the reaction.Enzymes control all life processes.Enzyme shape determines function.Shape of proteins can be altered by pH, temperature, or ion composition
19Enzyme Function Substrate – reactant that enzyme affects Active site – region on enzyme that substrate attaches to.Lock and Key arrangementEach enzyme catalyzes only one type of reaction (specificity)
20Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA Basic building block is a nucleotide.Structural similarities:Structural differences:
25Transcription – rewriting of DNA into RNA; controlled by RNA polymerase Translation- changing the message of nucleic acids into an amino acid chain (protein) Which nucleic acid carries the code for the protein?
27Translation- occurs in the ribosome Role of mRNA:tRNA:rRNA:Codons:Anticodons:
28How is gene expression controlled in Eukaryotic cells? HeterochromatinRNAi (RNA interference)Double stranded RNA molecules that inhibit gene expression (What?)Small interfering RNAs (siRNA) attach to mRNAThe mRNA is then cut up by a number of enzymes (agronaute and dicer).Why does this affect gene transcription?What advantage doe s this give our cells?Epigenetics – study of changes in gene expression caused by histone modification and DNA methylation other than changes in the DNA sequence (mutations)Regulates gene expression w/o changing the DNAChanges have been shown to be heritable.