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Biochemistry to Cells Chapters 2 and 3.

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Presentation on theme: "Biochemistry to Cells Chapters 2 and 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biochemistry to Cells Chapters 2 and 3

2 Anatomy is Structure, Physiology is function
Study of internal and external structure i.e. structure of heart and blood flow Physiology Study of how organisms perform specific functions i.e. how does the heart pump blood

3 Levels of Organization in the Body.

4 Inorganic versus Organic Compounds
Small molecules that generally do not contain carbon and hydrogen atoms. Molecules composed of carbon and hydrogen molecules Larger and more complex than inorganic molecules

5 Carbohydrates Sugars and Starches
Monosaccharides – building blocks for all sugars Contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio Main source of energy for body Monosaccharides Glucose, fructose, galactose Disaccharides Lactose, maltose, sucrose Polysaccharides Glycogen, starch, cellulose

6 From Monomers to Polymers

7 Dehydration Synthesis
Hydrolysis Remove water to build large molecules from smaller ones i.e. making proteins from amino acids Split water to break down large molecules into small i.e. digestive tract

8 Lipids saturated Fats, oils and waxes
Contain large amounts of carbon and hydrogen in a 1:2 ratio, but very little oxygen. Insoluble in water (hydophobic), makes a great barrier. Energy reserves, insulates and cushions organs Composed of fatty acid chains and glycerol saturated unsaturated

9 Saturated No double bonds, all carbon atoms are saturated with hydrogen Animal fats, are solid at room temperature Large amounts in your diet increases the risk of heart disease Unsaturated Contain at least one double bond Most Plant oils, liquid at room temperature Triglycerides are the most common fats in body.

10 Phospholipids How is structure related to function?
Consists of a glycerol and two fatty acid chains linked to a phosphate group (PO4) The phosphate group is attracted to water (hydrophilic), Why? The fatty acid chains are hydrophobic. Make up all cell membranes

11 Cell membrane composed of phospholipids and proteins.

12 Function? Structure?

13 Proteins Composed of amino acids, 20 different amino acids
Most abundant organic compounds in the body Composed of amino acids, 20 different amino acids Structure of an amino acid Amino group H Carboxyl group R (remaining), varies from one amino acid to another Peptide bond joins two amino acids together

14 Proteins The structure of the R group makes the amino acids different from each other. The R groups between the different amino acids help create the proteins shape. Folds and bonds form creating distinct protein shapes

15 Shape Determines Function
Structure of a protein is determined by sequence of amino acids Proteins are made at the _________ and sent to the ____________ to be packaged into their specific shape. Small differences can have large effects… mutations

16 Formation of Proteins

17 Protein Function Support: provide structure to cells and organs
Movement: contractile proteins in muscles Transport: carrier protein found in cell membranes Metabolic Regulation: Enzymes speed up chemical reactions Coordination and Control: Protein hormones influence the chemical reactions in cells Defense: keratin in the skin, antibodies, clotting proteins

18 Enzyme Function Enzymes are Proteins
Speed up chemical reactions in a cell by reducing the activation energy needed to start the reaction. Enzymes control all life processes. Enzyme shape determines function. Shape of proteins can be altered by pH, temperature, or ion composition

19 Enzyme Function Substrate – reactant that enzyme affects
Active site – region on enzyme that substrate attaches to. Lock and Key arrangement Each enzyme catalyzes only one type of reaction (specificity)

20 Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA
Basic building block is a nucleotide. Structural similarities: Structural differences:

21 Nucleus – Composed of Chromatin (DNA)

22 Chromatin DNA wrapped around 8 histone proteins, creates a subunit called a nucleosome. How tightly packed the DNA is around the nucleosome and its tails helps determine gene expression

23 Two Types of Chromatin Euchromatin Heterochromatin

24 Transcription

25 Transcription – rewriting of DNA into RNA; controlled by RNA polymerase Translation- changing the message of nucleic acids into an amino acid chain (protein) Which nucleic acid carries the code for the protein?


27 Translation- occurs in the ribosome
Role of mRNA: tRNA: rRNA: Codons: Anticodons:

28 How is gene expression controlled in Eukaryotic cells?
Heterochromatin RNAi (RNA interference) Double stranded RNA molecules that inhibit gene expression (What?) Small interfering RNAs (siRNA) attach to mRNA The mRNA is then cut up by a number of enzymes (agronaute and dicer). Why does this affect gene transcription? What advantage doe s this give our cells? Epigenetics – study of changes in gene expression caused by histone modification and DNA methylation other than changes in the DNA sequence (mutations) Regulates gene expression w/o changing the DNA Changes have been shown to be heritable.


30 Cells are composed of organic compounds.



33 ATP – energy currency for cell
ATP → ADP + P Energy is released

34 Mitochondria – Powerhouse of cell. How does form relate to function?

35 Cell Specialization

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