Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Conquest and Colonization of the Americas

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Conquest and Colonization of the Americas"— Presentation transcript:

1 Conquest and Colonization of the Americas
World History 16.1-2

2 First Encounter Columbus: 1492 Taino people Conquistadors
Grew corn, yams, cotton Friendly and generous Conquistadors Settled islands of Hispaniola, Cuba, Puerto Rico Seized gold ornaments worn by Taino Made them pan for more gold Forced to convert to Christianity

3 Disease Europeans unknowingly carried smallpox, measles, influenza
Natives had no immunity Spread rapidly Wiped out villages NA Population declined 90% in 1500s

4 Conquerors Spread stories of empires rich with gold
Adventurers followed Hernan Cortes 1519: Mexican coast 600 men 16 horses A few cannons Headed inland to Tenochtitlan Aztec capital Aided by Malinche Indian woman Translator/advisor Cortes learned that many people hated their Aztec overlords Sacrificed thousands per year Cortes formed alliance with many NA groups

5 Moctezuma Aztec emperor Mistook Spanish to be Quetzalcoatl
Sent gifts of gold and silver 1519: Cortes led forces to capital Aztecs drove Spanish from the city Moctezuma killed Cortes retreated; planned new assault 1521: Cortes captured/demolished Tenochtitlan Built Mexico City on ruins

6 Francisco Pizarro 1532: Arrived in Peru Incan ruler Atahualpa
Had just won throne in civil war Pizarro captured Atahualpa Killed thousands of followers Demanded huge ransom Incans paid it Spanish killed him anyway Spain added SA to their empire

7 Reasons for Victory Hundreds of Spanish vs. millions of NA’s
Superior military technology Horses Muskets Cannons Helmets Armor

8 Reasons for Victory Division and discontent among NA’s Disease
Spanish played on old hatreds and won allies Provided Spanish with fighting power Disease Weakened Aztec and Incas Survivors were demoralized Believed that the gods were less powerful than gods of their conquerors World’s End Believed that the disasters signified end of the world End of the reign of the sun god

9 Ongoing Resistance Continued to resist Mayans fought Spanish rule
NA’s preserved own culture Language, religious traditions, clothing Treasure and wealth flooded Europe

10 Spanish Empire 5 Provinces Strict control Council of the Indies
Most important -New Spain (Mexico) and Peru Strict control Council of the Indies Pass laws for colonies Viceroys Representatives who rule in king’s name 1 per province

11 Catholic Church Winning souls as important as gaining land
Missionaries baptized thousands of NA’s Forcibly imposed European culture over NA culture

12 Economy Controlled trade Colonists could only:
Export raw materials to Spain Buy manufactured goods from Spain Laws forbade trade with any other nation Sugar cane, gold, silver, molasses Plantations: finding workers a major problem Encomiendas Right to demand labor from NA’s Those who resisted were hunted down and killed Disease, starvation, cruel treatment caused massive population decline

13 Bartolome de las Casas Condemned evils of encomienda system
New Laws of the Indies: 1542 Forbid enslavement of NA’s Spain too far away to enforce it NA’s forced to work to pay off a debt (peons) Landowners created debts that could never be paid off in a lifetime

14 African Workers Las Casas encouraged bringing in workers from Africa
Immunity to tropical diseases Skills in farming, mining, metal working Later regretted this advice Furthered African slave trade Spanish brought in slave labor by 1530s As demand skyrocketed, so did slave trade Millions captured, imported Africans and American-born descendants outnumbered settlers in time

15 Colonial Society New social structure
Blending of peoples and traditions created new cultures

16 Cities Population of Mexico City grew rapidly
1550: Mexico City-largest Spanish speaking city in world Education University of Mexico: 1551 Harvard: 1636 Women: educated in convents

17 Portuguese in Brazil Treaty of Tordesillas: 1494 Land to nobles
Portugal claimed Brazil Land to nobles Built towns, plantations, churches No instant wealth from gold or silver Clung to coast Exported brazilwood Plantations and cattle raising New Culture: blended European/NA/African patterns

18 Challenging the Spanish
Spain: most powerful country in Europe Fueled envy French king declared… “I should like to see Adam’s will, wherein he divided the earth between Spain and Portugal.” Europeans challenged Traded illegally with colonists Dutch, French, English pirates Privateers operated with approval from European govts! Hunted for gold and NW passage to Asia

Download ppt "Conquest and Colonization of the Americas"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google