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World History 16.1-2.  Columbus: 1492  Taino people  Grew corn, yams, cotton  Friendly and generous  Conquistadors  Settled islands of Hispaniola,

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Presentation on theme: "World History 16.1-2.  Columbus: 1492  Taino people  Grew corn, yams, cotton  Friendly and generous  Conquistadors  Settled islands of Hispaniola,"— Presentation transcript:

1 World History

2  Columbus: 1492  Taino people  Grew corn, yams, cotton  Friendly and generous  Conquistadors  Settled islands of Hispaniola, Cuba, Puerto Rico  Seized gold ornaments worn by Taino  Made them pan for more gold  Forced to convert to Christianity

3  Europeans unknowingly carried smallpox, measles, influenza  Natives had no immunity  Spread rapidly  Wiped out villages  NA Population declined 90% in 1500s

4  Spread stories of empires rich with gold  Adventurers followed  Hernan Cortes  1519: Mexican coast  600 men  16 horses  A few cannons  Headed inland to Tenochtitlan  Aztec capital  Aided by Malinche  Indian woman  Translator/advisor  Cortes learned that many people hated their Aztec overlords  Sacrificed thousands per year  Cortes formed alliance with many NA groups

5  Aztec emperor  Mistook Spanish to be Quetzalcoatl  Sent gifts of gold and silver  1519: Cortes led forces to capital  Aztecs drove Spanish from the city  Moctezuma killed  Cortes retreated; planned new assault  1521: Cortes captured/demolished Tenochtitlan  Built Mexico City on ruins

6  1532: Arrived in Peru  Incan ruler Atahualpa  Had just won throne in civil war  Pizarro captured Atahualpa  Killed thousands of followers  Demanded huge ransom  Incans paid it  Spanish killed him anyway  Spain added SA to their empire

7  Hundreds of Spanish vs. millions of NA’s 1.Superior military technology  Horses  Muskets  Cannons  Helmets  Armor

8 2.Division and discontent among NA’s  Spanish played on old hatreds and won allies  Provided Spanish with fighting power 3.Disease  Weakened Aztec and Incas  Survivors were demoralized  Believed that the gods were less powerful than gods of their conquerors 4.World’s End  Believed that the disasters signified end of the world  End of the reign of the sun god

9  Continued to resist  Mayans fought Spanish rule  NA’s preserved own culture  Language, religious traditions, clothing  Treasure and wealth flooded Europe

10  5 Provinces  Most important -New Spain (Mexico) and Peru  Strict control  Council of the Indies  Pass laws for colonies  Viceroys  Representatives who rule in king’s name  1 per province

11  Winning souls as important as gaining land  Missionaries baptized thousands of NA’s  Forcibly imposed European culture over NA culture

12  Controlled trade  Colonists could only:  Export raw materials to Spain  Buy manufactured goods from Spain  Laws forbade trade with any other nation  Sugar cane, gold, silver, molasses  Plantations: finding workers a major problem  Encomiendas  Right to demand labor from NA’s  Those who resisted were hunted down and killed  Disease, starvation, cruel treatment caused massive population decline

13  Condemned evils of encomienda system  New Laws of the Indies: 1542  Forbid enslavement of NA’s  Spain too far away to enforce it  NA’s forced to work to pay off a debt (peons)  Landowners created debts that could never be paid off in a lifetime

14  Las Casas encouraged bringing in workers from Africa  Immunity to tropical diseases  Skills in farming, mining, metal working  Later regretted this advice  Furthered African slave trade  Spanish brought in slave labor by 1530s  As demand skyrocketed, so did slave trade  Millions captured, imported  Africans and American-born descendants outnumbered settlers in time

15  New social structure  Blending of peoples and traditions created new cultures

16  Population of Mexico City grew rapidly  1550: Mexico City-largest Spanish speaking city in world  Education  University of Mexico: 1551  Harvard: 1636  Women: educated in convents

17  Treaty of Tordesillas: 1494  Portugal claimed Brazil  Land to nobles  Built towns, plantations, churches  No instant wealth from gold or silver  Clung to coast  Exported brazilwood  Plantations and cattle raising  New Culture: blended European/NA/African patterns

18  Spain: most powerful country in Europe  Fueled envy  French king declared…  “I should like to see Adam’s will, wherein he divided the earth between Spain and Portugal.”  Europeans challenged  Traded illegally with colonists  Dutch, French, English pirates  Privateers operated with approval from European govts!  Hunted for gold and NW passage to Asia


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