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Growth of Monarch and Holy Roman Empire vs. Church Chapter 9.1-2.

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Presentation on theme: "Growth of Monarch and Holy Roman Empire vs. Church Chapter 9.1-2."— Presentation transcript:

1 Growth of Monarch and Holy Roman Empire vs. Church Chapter 9.1-2

2 Who shall lead? Feudal Monarchs Head of society Limited power Wanted greater control Nobles and the Church Levied taxes Maintained own armies Maintained own court system

3 Centralized Power Monarch set up – Bureaucracy – Court – Standing Army – Tax System Ties to middle class – Supported rulers for peace and unity they provided

4 English Monarch Invasion by Angles, Saxons, Vikings 1066: Anglo-Saxon king Edward died with no heir – Council chose brother-in-law Harold – Duke William of Normandy also claimed throne Raised army, won backing of pope Battle of Hastings: Normans defeated Harold William the Conqueror took the throne Blend of Norman French and Anglo-Saxons

5 Royal Power Firm control Granted fiefs to Church, Norman lords (barons) Monitored building of castles First allegiance to him Census in 1086 Domesday Book – Listed every property in England (both large and small) – No one could escape – Aided in tax collecting Royal exchequer – Treasury – Collected taxes, fines, fees

6 Legal System Henry II: 1154 Expanded existing customs into law Foundation of English common law – Legal system based on custom and court rulings – Applied to all of England – Court charged a fee – Preferred royal court over Church’s court Jury – Group of men sworn to speak the truth – Determined if cases would be brought to trial – 12 neighbors of an accused

7 Conflict with Church Henry vs. Church Right to try clergy in royal courts Archbishop of Canterbury opposed king – 4 knights murdered him – Henry denied any part – Eased attempts to regulate clergy – Archbishop declared a saint

8 Traditions of Government Royal authority vs. Traditional feudal rights John – Henry’s son – Clever, greedy, cruel, untrustworthy – 3 enemies Phillip II of France, Pope Innocent III and English nobles – 1205: lost English-held lands in France to Phillip – Rejected Pope Innocent III’s nominee, so he was excommunicated » English were placed under interdict » To save crown, John accepted England as fief of Pope Paid yearly fee to Rome

9 Magna Carta John angered nobles with taxes and abuse of power 1215: forced him to sign Magna Carta – Great Charter – Affirmed feudal rights – Protected from arbitrary arrest and imprisonment – “due process” – No new taxes – “no taxation without representation” – 2 things Nobles had certain rights Monarch must obey law

10 Parliament Great Council Evolved into Parliament Unified England Framework for English legislature 2-house body House of Lords: nobles, high clergy House of Commons: knights and middle class citizens “power of the purse” Checked or limited power of monarch

11 French Monarchs Patchwork territories Capetians – Feudal nobles elected Hugh Capet – Increased royal power – Made throne hereditary – 300 year succession – Built bureaucracy Tax and law Philip Augustus – Phillip II – Paid middle-class workers to fill govt positions instead of nobles Loyalty to king – New towns, standing army – Won war with John of England, took back English-ruled lands – Most powerful ruler in Europe Louis IX – 1226 – Generous, noble, devoted to justice and chivalry – Declared a saint – Religious – Persecuted heretics and Jews – Led French in 2 wars against Muslims – Improved royal govt – Ended serfdom – Centralized monarch in France

12 Philip IV vs. Pope Louis’s grandson Extended royal power Collected new taxes from clergy Clash with Pope Boniface VIII Pope forbade Philip to tax clergy Philip threatened to arrest any clergy that didn’t pay up Philip sent troops to seize Pope Pope escaped badly beaten, died later

13 Estates General Body of representatives – Clergy – Nobles – Townspeople Didn’t develop like English Parliament

14 Holy Roman Empire Duke Otto I King of Germany Took title “Holy Roman Emperor” Saw themselves heirs to emperors of Ancient Rome Worked to control vassals Emperors conflicted with Popes

15 Popes vs. Emperors Pope Gregory VII – Wanted Church independent of secular rulers – Banned lay investiture Emperor presented bishops with ring and staff that symbolized their office Only pope had right to install bishops Emperor Henry IV – Argued that bishops held lands as royal fiefs – Felt entitled to give symbol of office – Exchanged insulting notes with pope – Gregory excommunicated him – Forced to make peace – Presented himself as a repentant sinner – Gregory knew he was just trying to save throne, but forgave him – Returned later for revenge, led army to Rome, and forced pope into exile

16 Concordat of Worms Struggle for 50 years 1122: both sides accepted treaty Agreed that Church had sole power to elect and invest bishops Emperors had right to invest them with fiefs

17 Frederick Barbarossa Emperor Frederick I “Red Beard” Fought to bring N. Italy under his control – Italians joined forces with pope, defeated Red Beard Arranged marriage between son Henry and Constance- heiress to Sicily and S. Italy

18 Frederick II Son of Henry and Constance Raised in Italy Able and arrogant Spent little time in Germany Clashed with popes in Italy Failed to gain cities in N. Italy

19 Effects German nobles more independent Germany fragmented into many feudal states Would not achieve unity for 600 years Italy also faced upheaval 200 years of chaos Thriving cultural center left in ruins

20 Church Power Pope Innocent III 1198 Triumph of Church Supremacy over all other rulers Pope clashed with rulers and often won Innocent ordered interdict on France when Phillip II tried to annul his marriage 1209: Innocent launched crusade (holy war) against Albigensians in S. France – Albigensians wanted to purify Church – 10,000+ slaughtered Papacy entered period of decline


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