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1 Chapter 6 US Foreign Policy 1945 - 72 6.1 How the Cold War Began 6.2 The Crisis over Berlin (1948 – 49) 6.3 The Red Scare and McCarthyism 6.4 The Korean.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Chapter 6 US Foreign Policy 1945 - 72 6.1 How the Cold War Began 6.2 The Crisis over Berlin (1948 – 49) 6.3 The Red Scare and McCarthyism 6.4 The Korean."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Chapter 6 US Foreign Policy How the Cold War Began 6.2 The Crisis over Berlin (1948 – 49) 6.3 The Red Scare and McCarthyism 6.4 The Korean War 1950 – Relations in the 1950s 6.6 The Cuban Missile Crisis

2 2 Introduction After WW2, Americas rivalry with the USSR dominated US Foreign Policy. The term cold was used to describe this conflict.. US and USSR were the two most powerful countries in the world but had different economic and political systems. The Cold War (1945 – 72) had a major impact on relations between the two countries.

3 3 It led to the arms and space race. Propaganda played a key role – each attempting to spread their influence throughout the world. In the US there was a growth of domestic anti communist hysteria known as McCarthyism.

4 4 6.1 How the Cold War Began 1. The US Fear of Communism 2. Origins of the War 3. The Yalta Conference – Feb The Potsdam Conference – July The Iron Curtain 6. The Truman Doctrine 7. The Marshall Plan

5 5 1. The US Fear of Communism Why? 1. Many Americans believed that communism was a threat to their civilisation and personal freedom. 2. The possibility that communism would continue to spread across the globe. 3. Debates took place within the US on how to oppose the spread of communism

6 THE US Fear of Communism 1) The US was afraid that if one country became Communist then the countries around it would become communist as well and that it would spread like virus around the world. (THE DOMINO THEORY) 2) The US feared that if enough countries became communist then they would threaten America and America may be taken over and forced to be communist also. 6

7 7 2. Origins of the Cold War Traditional great power rivalry. Divisions over the treatment of Germany and Poland Spread of Communism in Eastern Europe Ideological rivalry between capitalism and communism.

8 8 US Capitalism Capitalist - they believed in private ownership of factories etc Believed in freedom of speech, free multi-party elections and free trade

9 9 Russian Communism Government control of the economy, media and censorship Elections were held but only one party allowed take part in the elections, the communist party

10 10 The Yalta Conference – Feb The Potsdam Conference – July 1945 The Yalta Conference – Feb The Potsdam Conference – July 1945 At these two conferences, Yalta and Potsdam in 1945 the Americans and Russians had 3 areas of disagreement A) Stalin wanted to put communist governments into the newly liberated (freed) eastern European countries The USA wanted democratic governments

11 11 B) THE RUSSIANS WANTED TO KEEP CONTROL OF THE LAND IT OCCUPIED IN POLAND AT THE START OF THE WAR …THE AMERICANS AND THE BRITISH DISAGREED WITH THIS

12 12 C) THE RUSSIANS WANTED TO KEEP GERMANY A WEAK COUNTRY FOREVER MORE AND NEVER BE ABLE TO START ANOTHER WAR. THE AMERICANS AND BRITISH WANTED TO RE-BUILD A FRIENDLY GERMANY.

13 K. Mc Taggart13 YALTA

14 K. Mc Taggart14 POTSDAM

15 The Crisis over Berlin (1948 – 49) 1. Background to the causes 2. The Crisis begins 3. The US Acts 4. Propaganda in the Cold War 5. Results of the Crisis

16 16 GERMANY WAS TO BE DIVIDED INTO 4 ZONES OF CONTROL IT WAS TO BE RULED BY THE: AMERICANS BRITISH FRENCH RUSSIANS

17 K. Mc Taggart17 BERLIN WAS IN THE RUSSIAN ZONE IT WAS ALSO DIVIDED INTO 4 ZONES BETWEEN THE ALLIES

18 18 At the end of W.W.2 the Allied leaders met in Yalta and Potsdam and decided that..... Germany would be divided into 4 zones...America, Britain and France would control the West and USSR, the East. Berlin was also divided into 4 zones. Only to be a temporary arrangement

19 19 What were the conditions of post – war Germany? At the end of the war the German economy was in ruins and its currency was worthless. Qu: How would Germany be treated? Soviet view: Make Germany pay and seize their property. American and British view: Dont repeat the mistakes of W.W.1 and revive the German economy with a strong democratic government.

20 20 Results of the Crisis This had an important impact on both the Cold War and US Foreign Policy 1. Containment worked and the spread of communism was halted – 1949 N.A.T.O. was established to co-ordinate their defence against Russia. 2. The division of Germany was permanent – East (communist) and West (capitalist)

21 21 3. As a result of US aid, West Germany became a loyal ally to the US and joined NATO in In response to this, the eastern countries formed The Warsaw Pact hostile alliances were now formed. 4. The Cold War dominated diplomacy in those years – the US and USSR were confirmed enemies.

22 The Red Scare and McCarthyism Anti – communist feeling had been strong in the US before the second world war. The Cold War revived this hostility. They feared the threat of home grown communists to the American Way of Life and were loyal to Moscow and not the US – President Truman set up the Federal Employee Loyalty Program, which aimed to remove government employees who were considered a security risk.

23 23 It led to the dismissal of about 300 Federal employees. In Congress, the rooting out of Communists took place through the activities of the House Un- American Activities Committee (HUAC) and was led by Senator Joseph Mc Carthy

24 24 Question Write a long paragraph on The Red Scare referring to the causes, HUAC, Alger Hiss, Mc Carthyism, the impact and the fall of Mc Carthy.

25 The Korean War Background 2. The Cold War goes global 3. China Intervenes 4. Stalemate 5. Consequences of the Korean War

26 26 1. Background After W.W.2. Korea was divided in two and the border was drawn along the 38 th Parallel. North Korea (led by Kim ll Sung and supported by USSR, established a Communist government) South Korea was led by Syngman Rhee and supported by the US. In June 1948, the United Nations called for free elections in both North and South Korea, however elections only took place in the south and a new Republic of Korea was set up with its capital in Seoul.

27 27 Action during the Korean War

28 K. Mc Taggart28

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30 30 Korean refugee woman Carries her belongings in a jug on her head, while fleeing from Pohang, South Korea. Original photo is dated 17 October 1950.

31 31 Korean refugees On the road, probably in the Pohang area in October Note hand-barrows used to carry their belongings. Official U.S. Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives.

32 K. Mc Taggart32

33 K. Mc Taggart33 Korean War: Chinese troops

34 34 Vietnam's forgotten older brother. In the U.S., it is known as the "Korean War." In China, it is known as "The War to Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea." In North Korea it is known as the "Fatherland Liberation War." On June 25, 1950 the communist North Korean army, supplied by China and the Soviet Union, crossed the 38th parallel and invaded South Korea. The UN, led by the U.S., rushed to the aid of South Korea as civil strife quickly erupted into a cold war hot spot and threatened to become another world war.

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36 36 On 25 June ,000 troops of the North Korean Peoples Army invaded South Korea. This was the beginning of a three- year conflict on the Korean Peninsula that remains unresolved to this day. The Korean Conflict was an undeclared war that some called a police action; however, to those involved it was a serious war. The first major war of the Cold War between communism and democracy

37 K. Mc Taggart37 The Korean War Veterans Memorial

38 38 The Cuban Missile Crisis 1. In 1958 Fidel Castro took power of Cuba, after two years of fighting against the Cuban dictator, President Batista. He introduced social reforms and his policies were directed at American interests in Cuba. 2. America broke off trade links with the Cubans and Castro signed trade agreements with Khrushchev (Russia)

39 39 3. In May 1961, America helped Batistas invasion at the Bay of Pigs, however it was a failure. When the American spy planes began to take aerial photographs (Oct. 1962) it showed the Russians building missile – launching sites in Cuba (capable of delivering nuclear warheads to the US) 4. Kennedy had 3 options….. A). Give in to the Soviet Union B). Attack the missile sites in Cuba C). Blockade the island- preventing Soviet ships from arriving.

40 40 5. Kennedy on 22 nd Oct. announced a naval blockade of Cuba and demanded that the Russians withdraw their missiles as tension increased, the worst crisis between the Superpowers began. 6. Thus on the 24 th Oct. Khrushchev backed down and agreed to dismantle and withdraw the missiles in return that America would not invade Cuba.

41 41 6. Outcome of the Cuban Missile Crisis A). America proved to Russia that she would stand firm on major issues. B). Russia had shown to America that she could be reasonable and did not relish the prospect of a nuclear war. C). The installation of a hotline between the White House (Washington) and the Kremlin (Moscow). D). Kennedy had acted with firmness and allowed Khrushchev to retreat with dignity.

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43 43 Capture at the Bay of Pigs

44 K. Mc Taggart44

45 K. Mc Taggart45 Newspaper Heading

46 K. Mc Taggart46

47 K. Mc Taggart47 What is the message here?

48 48 How did the Arab-Israeli war of 1973 put Détente under pressure? In what way did the CIA interfere in Chile in the early 70s and why?


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