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SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS IN CONCRETE INDUSTRY GSAS Sponsored Seminar / Workshop MEETING TODAY’S DEMANDS BY ADOPTING THE LOW CARBON CONCRETE REVOLUTION Christopher.

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Presentation on theme: "SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS IN CONCRETE INDUSTRY GSAS Sponsored Seminar / Workshop MEETING TODAY’S DEMANDS BY ADOPTING THE LOW CARBON CONCRETE REVOLUTION Christopher."— Presentation transcript:

1 SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS IN CONCRETE INDUSTRY GSAS Sponsored Seminar / Workshop MEETING TODAY’S DEMANDS BY ADOPTING THE LOW CARBON CONCRETE REVOLUTION Christopher Stanley, Technical Director, Unibeton Qatar National Convention Centre, Doha – Qatar 24th May 2014

2 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 2 Producing great structures that last Using least possible energy both during construction and remaining service life. Embedded CO 2 and operational CO 2 need to be considered Eliminating future maintenance costs. 120 year design life can now be extended to 400 years. Leaving a better world to our children Better durability: against chlorides, sulphates, ASR, acid attack Better colour – high light reflectance What is Sustainability?

3 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 3 Sustainability Development

4 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 4 Sustainability Development

5 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 5 Sustainability Development

6 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 6 Low Carbon Concrete is a GREEN concrete. That does not mean concrete that has not yet hardened, or is coloured with green pigment, but in the context of this presentation green concrete is taken to mean environmentally friendly concrete. This means concrete that uses less energy in its production & produces less carbon dioxide than normal traditional concrete. What is Low Carbon concrete?

7 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 7 The main ingredient in cement is Limestone (Calcium Carbonate CaCO 3 ) During manufacture the ingredients are heated to about 1200 o C During this process the Carbon Dioxide is driven off : CaCO 3 = CaO + CO 2 1kg of cement releases 700gms -1kg of Carbon Dioxide into the atmosphere during its manufacture Where does the Carbon Dioxide come from in concrete?

8 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 8 Most of CO 2 in concrete is from the cement manufacturing process (1 kg of cement produces about 1 kg of CO 2 or 5 m 3 of CO 2 ) Low Carbon Green concrete makes more effective use of cement giving a reduced carbon footprint and therefore protects the environment. Low carbon green concrete = effective use of cement means better not lower quality Low Carbon Green concrete

9 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 9 CO 2 and production energy

10 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 10 CO 2 Emissions from industry

11 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry kg of cement produces enough CO 2 to fill this balloon

12 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 12 A typical 40N concrete mix generates 100 balloons of CO 2 per cubic metre of concrete

13 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 13 Calculation of CO 2 for a Typical 40MPa Concrete

14 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 14 GGBFS (say 70%) = 294 kg x = 32 kg of CO 2 /m kg of cement x = kg CO 2 /m 3 = 32 kg CO 2 /m kg CO 2 /m 3 = kg CO 2 /m 3 REPRESENTING A REDUCTION OF kg CO 2 /m 3 If some of the cement in the mix was replaced with GGBFS

15 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 15 25% PFA = 105 kg x 0.06 = 6.3 kg of CO 2 /m kg of cement x = kg CO 2 /m 3 Total of kg, or a saving of kg of CO 2 replacing 25% of the cement with PFA A 25% replacement of Portland Cement with PFA

16 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 16 Cement production accounts for 6% of all CO 2 emission which is claimed to be one of the factors influencing global warming. In 2013 Qatar was the highest cement consumer per capita in the world. 1 Qatar 3.9 tonnes/year/capita 2 UAE 2.6 tonnes/year/capita 3 Kuwait 2.2 tonnes/year/capita 8 Saudi Arabia 1.4 tonnes/year/capita 40 Oman below 0.6 tonnes/year/capita Low Carbon Green concrete

17 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 17 Highly optimized mix design Self-compacting concrete Ground granulated blastfurnace slag Pulverised fly ash. (Pfa) Portland limestone cement Rice husk ash cement Rice husk cement Cement free concrete Concrete wood Low cost construction LOW CARBON GREEN CONCRETE OPTIONS

18 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 18  Better Performance Enhanced cohesion workability, finishability and consistency Reduced shrinkage / creep. Lower compressive strength SD Durability - Increased service life of concrete  Greater Value Minimizes amount of steel needed Higher MOE can allow reduced section thickness weight Optimizes use of available materials  Greener LEED Contributes to Certification points Reduced carbon footprint Affordable “green” alternative Optimized Concrete Means Value Engineering

19 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 19 Mix optimization; A New Approach

20 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 20 Mix optimization

21 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 21 The basis for optimization is that the small particles can fill the space between the large ones to minimize the void content which creates maximum stability. MIX OPTIMIZATION

22 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 22 Particle packing – voids content (1)

23 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 23 Particle packing – voids content (2)

24 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 24 Aggregates – natural angle of repose

25 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 25 Slump test - 20mm aggregate

26 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 26 Slump test – Dune sand

27 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 27 The slump of the concrete and its flow are a function of the angle of repose, shape & the quantity of the predominant size of the aggregate in the mix. Use of more fine aggregate, because of the smaller angle of repose, gives higher slump & flow. But the optimum proportions of coarse & fine aggregate are critical to the properties of both fresh & hardened concrete. Aggregate proportions affect the properties of concrete

28 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 28 “ Particle-Packing Optimization” to meet requirements of plastic and hardened properties ”

29 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 29 Typical spread of an optimized mix – note the aggregate distribution & that it does not bleed

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33 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 33 Life Cycle Analysis

34 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 34 The heat of hydration of optimized modified concrete is significantly lower than traditional concrete This results in a lower temperature rise in large concrete pours which is a distinct advantage. The peak temperature rise can be reduced by up to about 14 o C. Heat of hydration

35 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 35 A typical 40N optmized mix produces only 27 balloons of CO 2 per cubic metre of concrete

36 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 36  Better performance Enhanced workability,finishability & consistency Reduced creep & shrinkage Increased service life  Greater value Minimises amount of reinforcement Higher Modulus of Elasticity – reduced thickness Ease of compaction – less labour  Greener Contribution towards LEED Certification points Upto two ESTIDAMA points in UAE Reduced Carbon Footprint Affordable Green construction Low Carbon Optimized Green concrete gives value engineering

37 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 37 Embodied GHG - Estidama

38 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 38 Concrete Mix Design

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41 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 41 Unibeton is now developing a technology to make very green concrete, sometimes even without Portland Cement, using a special process. This concrete will produce only about 7 balloons of CO 2 per cubic metre. The concrete sets and hardens like Ordinary Portland Cement. It has a one day strength of about 22MPa and 28day strengths of 60 – 75 Mpa can be achieved. VERY GREEN CONCRETE

42 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 42 By 2050 global use of cement likely to be 5,000Mt (steel will be 8,000Mt). No-cement concrete could be 1/3rd so 1,666Mt or 4,700Mm3 of cement-free concrete. Highly likely that PFA and other byproduct pozzolans will increasingly make “greener” concrete and reduce embedded CO. No-cement concrete

43 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 43 Use a cement replacement (binder) based on the activation of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) and pulverised fuel ash (PFA) byproducts. Both are widely available and relatively inexpensive. GGBS and PFA must be activated to produce a binder. There are recently invented new types of activators. Resulting binder used in much the same way as Portland Cement without the carbon legacy. Our solution

44 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 44 Sets chemically with very low heat of hydration Vast areas poured without joints- increased productivity No early-age thermal cracking – take out reinforcement 30 MPa in 7 days, >50 MPa at 90 days, and >70MPa at 365 days Greater dimensional stability – low shrinkage and creep Resistant to chloride, sulphates and acids Maintenance-free. Much extended service life Complies with performance based standards such as ASTM C1157 Low Heat Concrete category No Cement Concrete The technical advantages

45 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 45 VERY GREEN CONCRETE

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48 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 48 Green Pre-stressed Concrete 64MPa at 28days

49 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 49 Cost similar to most concrete used in GCC containing Slag or PFA Green alternative only 7% of carbon footprint of traditional OPC concrete Significant Carbon Credits due to reduction of CO 2 emissions Track record of use in pre-tensioned pre-stressed concrete in USA Green Pre-stressed Concrete Advantages

50 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 50 Green cement free concrete can currently be produced in strengths ranging from 20MPa to over 75MPa Current pre-stressed production normally calls for a concrete strength of 24MPa at the time the tendons are released and with a final strength of in excess of 35MPa. The early strength gain can be adjusted to suit the production process but is normally in the region of 24hr-48hr before tendon release. Green Pre-stressed Concrete Advantages

51 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 51 Green Pre-stressed Concrete

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55 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 55 Green Pre-stressed Concrete

56 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 56 Green Pre-stressed Concrete

57 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 57 Green Pre-stressed Concrete

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59 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 59 THREE MILLION TONNES OF GGBFS WILL PRODUCE 7.8 MILLION TONNES OF GREEN LOW-CARBON CONCRETE. THAT IS EQUIVALENT IN TERMS OF REDUCED CO 2 TO: TAKING 800,000 CARS OFF THE ROAD 85,000 SPACE SHUTTLE LAUNCHES SAVING 2.5 MILLION TONNES OF CO 2 BY NOT USING PORTLAND CEMENT SAVING CO 2 NEEDED TO SUPPLY 3.8 MILLION HOUSES WITH HOT WATER

60 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 60 Take out crack control reinforcement (saving up to 30% steel) Reduce binder content using performancebased specifications to achieve C40, C50, C60 … concretes Reduce concrete cover by 10mm by Q C measures on site. Use Eurocode 2:1992:1-1; 2004 Clause Sustainability and durability are compatible. We can use the enhanced properties of concrete to avoid over-design Doing more with less

61 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 61 Reduced energy consumption Reduced CO 2 emissions Diversion of industrial by-products from landfilling Lower water consumption Reduced steel use Environmental advantages

62 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 62 Recently finished 10,000 sq ft (1,000 sqm) warehouse – Cambridge, Laid in one day with no joints.

63 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 63 This large scale field trial was conducted for Crossrail in East London. It marked the first occasion that No Cement Concrete concrete was pumped. Large Scale Field Trials

64 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 64 FOR EVERY m 3 OF NO CEMENT CONCRETE, 281 KG OF EMBEDDED CO 2 ARE REDUCED THE EMPIRE STATE BUILDING WAS CONSTRUCTED FROM 47,400 m 3 OF CONRETE. IF IT HAD BEEN CONSTRUCTED FROM NO CEMENT CONCRETE = A SAVING OF 13,319 TONNES OF CO 2 IT TAKES 1.87 TONNES OF CO 2 TO FLY ONE PASSENGER FROM LONDON TO QATAR OR 7000 RETURN FLIGHTS FROM LONDON TO QATAR WOULD BE THE SAVINGS IN CO 2 BY BUILDING THE EMPIRE STATE BUILDING IN CEMENT FREE CONCRETE RATHER THAN TRADITIONAL CONCRETE.

65 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 65  Substantially reduced CO 2 emissions and energy use in the construction sector  Utilisation of by-products which would be otherwise land filled (certain geographical locations, India, China etc;)  Improved durability because: Much decreased capillary porosity (prevents ingress of aggressive chemicals, including chlorides, acids and sulphates, into concrete) Much denser cement-aggregate interface (reduces permeability) Much better bond to steel reinforcement Advantages of using No Cement Concrete

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69 Sustainable Solutions in Concrete Industry 69 Concrete Spring!

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73 THANK YOU


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