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Simple Machines Physics Mrs. Coyle

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What are some simple machines? Lever Incline Plane Pulley

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Simple Machines Multiply the effort force (allows you to use a smaller effort force to raise a heavier object). Change the direction of the force. Do not reduce the work input.

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Archimedes: ”GIVE ME A PLACE TO STAND AND I WILL MOVE THE EARTH” http://www.math.nyu.edu/~crorres/Archimedes/Lever/leverBigCorners.gif

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Lever

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Mechanical Advantage MA= Output Force(Weight of Object) Input Force (Effort) MA shows how much you are multiplying your effort force.

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What is the trade off? What happens to the effort distance, when a machine multiplies the effort force? Answer: Effort distance increases

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Ideal Mechanical Advantage IMA= Effort Distance (d in ) Output Distance (d out ) IMA is equal to MA in the absence of friction (ideal case).

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IMA for a Lever IMA= Effort Distance = Effort Arm Output Distance Load Arm

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Problem What is the ideal mechanical advantage of the lever shown? IMA=3 Fulcrum Load Effort

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Lever http://www.walter- fendt.de/ph11e/lever.htmhttp://www.walter- fendt.de/ph11e/lever.htm

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Types of Levers Type1 Type 2 Type 3

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Incline Plane

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http://www.edinformatics.com/math_science/simple_machines/Inclined_plane.gif d IN d OUT

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Problem: Which has a greater IMA? A B

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Problem: Find the IMA. 10m 5m

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Pulleys

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Single Fixed Pulley Ideally: W in =W out F in d in = F out d out IMA= d in /d out =1

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Single Moveable Pulley IMA= 2

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Combination of Fixed and Moveable Pulleys IMA= 2

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IMA for Pulleys The IMA of pulleys can quickly be found by counting the number of lifting strands.

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Question What is the IMA of the following pulleys?

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Efficiency Efficiency indicates the percentage of the input work that was converted to useful work and not lost to friction. % eff = (W out / W in ) x 100 % % eff = (MA / IMA) x 100 %

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