Presentation on theme: "The Problems of Overpopulation"— Presentation transcript:
1The Problems of Overpopulation Chapter 9The Problems of Overpopulation
2Population and Quality of Life Environmental degradationHungerPersistent povertyEconomic stagnationUrban deteriorationHealth issuesPrimary problems with overpopulation:
3Population and Quality of Life Population and World Hunger
4Population and Quality of Life Different proposed strategies for reducing hunger:1) Strictly control population growth2) Stimulate economic development3) Provide better equitability of resources(Who should provide/enforce these?)
5Population and Quality of Life Economic Effects of Continued Population GrowthCompeting hypotheses:Hyp 1: Rapid population growth ↑economic development + ↑technological innovation.Why would they think this?Hyp 2: Rapid population growth does the opposite.
6Population and Quality of Life Economic Effects of Continued Population GrowthDebt in Developing Countries: Loans from:- World Bank,- InternationalMonetaryFund (IMF)
7Reducing the Total Fertility Rate Why is Total Fertility Typically High?Gender defined rolesHigh fertility to compensate for high mortalityWork expectations of childrenReligious beliefs
8Reducing the Total Fertility Rate The Social and Economic Status of WomenGender inequity is common worldwidePercent illiteracy of men and women in select developing countries, 2002
9Reducing the Total Fertility Rate The Social and Economic Status of WomenGender inequity is common worldwideYounger age of marriage ↑ fertility rates
10Reducing the Total Fertility Rate The Social and Economic Status of WomenGender inequity is common worldwideYounger age of marriage ↑ fertility ratesHigher level of education ↓ fertility rates
11Reducing the Total Fertility Rate Family Planning Services
12Achieving Population Stabilization Discuss some of the ethical issues associated with overpopulation:Is it ethical to have more than 2 children?Is it ethical to consume too much in the way of material possessions?Is it ethical to try to influence a couple’s decision about family size?
13Government Policies and Fertility Case-in-Point: The Global Summit on Population and Development (Cairo, 1994)Focused on:Reproductive rightsEmpowerment of womenReproductive healthResults??
14Government Policies and Fertility China’s Controversial Family Planning PolicyOne child per familySince 1979Financial incentivesMain problems with policy:Eroded personal freedom - penaltiesDisproportionate number of males born (abortion/killing of female infants?)
15Government Policies and Fertility India’s Severe Population PressureEarly efforts (1976) centered on compulsory sterilization after three kids.(which was a complete failure)Currently attempting to integrate economic development and family planning.(total fertility rates have dropped from 5.3 to 3.1 over 20 years)
16Government Policies and Fertility Mexico’s Young Age StructureStrong positive population growth momentum due to high (35%) young.Government measures (e.g., education reform) have reduced the fertility rate from 6.7 to 2.8 over 30 years.Radio, TV advertising, public schools.
17Government Policies and Fertility The Population Challenge in NigeriaMost populous African country with high a fertility rate (5.7) & low life expectancy (52).Birth control use very low (8%).Government attempting to improve health care and encourage marrying later (50% women married by age 17).
18Government Policies and Fertility Population Concerns in Europe:Opposite of most areas — fertility rate very low, population declines.Pronatalists predict overwhelmed pension programs and loss of economic growth.Government policies should give incentives for larger families.Opponents predict technological innovations will spur economic growth and the elderly will be asset to society.
19Reducing the Total Fertility Rate Family Planning ServicesSelected Birth Control Methods:Oral contraceptivesImplantsIUDSpermicidesCondom, maleRhythm