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Intelligence Testing.

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Presentation on theme: "Intelligence Testing."— Presentation transcript:

1 Intelligence Testing

2 Types of Tests Stanford-Binet- 2-23 years
Really want to use after 3, 2 doesn’t tell us too much Developmental delays may not be seen until 5 Verbal Reasoning, Quantitative Reasoning, Abstract/Visual Reasoning Short-Term Memory

3 Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI)-
3-7 years of age Assess intellectual functioning Subtests like object assembly, geometric design, block design, mazes, picture completion, animal pegs, comprehension, arithmetic, vocabulary, similarities, sentences

4 Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)-
Ages 6-16 Verbal subtests are oral Performance tests are times and allows bonus points for quickness

5 WISC Within the Verbal Scale are the following subtests and what they measure: Information (measures a child's range of factual information) Similarities (measures a child's ability to categorize) Arithmetic (measures the ability to solve computational math problems) Vocabulary (measures the ability to define words) Comprehension (measures the ability to answer common sense questions) Digit Span (short-term auditory memory)

6 Within the Performance Scale are the following subtests and what they measure:
Picture Completion (telling what's missing in various pictures) Coding (copying marks from a code; visual rote learning) Picture Arrangement (arranging pictures to tell a story) Block Design (arranging multi-colored blocks to match printed design) Object Assembly (putting puzzles together - measures nonverbal fluid reasoning)

7 Description of the possible scores and their meaning
Test Standard Score Percentile Meaning % very superior (gifted) % superior 110 – % high average – % average – % low average – % borderline and below % mentally impaired

8 Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-
16-74 Determines vocational ability Assesses adult intellectual ability Determines organic deficits Used for neurological defects

9 Woodcock-Johnson III Can be used from ages 2 – 90+
Measures general intellectual ability, specific cognitive abilities, scholastic aptitude, oral language and achievement Uses of the WJ III: Diagnosing learning disabilities, plan educational and individual programs, assess growth, provide guidance in educational and clinical settings

10 Differential Ability Scales
Purpose: Assess multidimensional abilities For: Ages years Administration: Individual Time: Full cognitive battery: minutes Achievement tests: minutes

11 What do they measure? Mental ability tests
Intelligence testing-measure general mental ability-tends to measure future potential Aptitude tests-assess specific mental abilities – but more importantly it measures future potential Achievement tests-measures what a person had learned (used a lot in vocational planning)

12 Personality testing Evaluates aspects such as: Motives Interests
Values Attitudes These tests tend to be questioned because they often “back you into a corner” with specific answers when personality is not quite like that One of the most widely utilized personality tests is the MMPI

13 Concepts in psychological testing
Why are tests standardized? So that everyone takes the test under the same conditions. When there are special conditions (e.g., if a bee flies in the room during SAT testing or there is a fire drill) they may have to be reported as they may affect results.

14 Norming This is the group that we base scores on. This is referred to as the sample. When creating a psychological test, the group that was utilized to create the standard scores must be reported (e.g., age, gender, ethnicity)

15 Types of reliability Test reliability
Refers to the ability of a test to yield the same scores consistently – however, refers to different administrations of the same test Test-retest reliability refers to the ability of the same exact test yielding similar scores Split-half reliability – when there are two sets of questions asked within the same test – they should yield similar scores (usually they are normed prior to distributing)

16 Validity Validity – does the test measure what it is supposed to measure? Construct validity-does the test comprehend the domain it is supposed to? Content validity – does content actually measure what the test is supposed to measure? Are there enough questions to actually reflect a diagnosis?

17 Validity Criterion-related validity-when the scores from one test correlate with another measure – can be in the form of another written test or a performance test Face validity – if people don’t take your test seriously, there answers may not accurately reflect how they feel

18 Concurrent validity-the ability to distinguish between groups that it should theoretically be able to distinguish between. For example, if we come up with a way of assessing manic-depression, our measure should be able to distinguish between people who are diagnosed manic-depression and those diagnosed paranoid schizophrenic or those who are “normal” Predictive validity-we assess the ability to predict something it should theoretically be able to predict. Businesses often give tests to future employees that are supposed to predict how well they will do on the job.

19 Convergent validity-the degree to which the test/program is similar to (converges on) others that it theoretically should be similar to. Divergent validity-the degree to which the test/program is not similar to (diverges from) others that it theoretically should be not be similar to.

20 Intelligence testing scores
Remember, intelligence tests are really not reliable predictors of future potential before the age of 7!!

21 Two-factor theory of intelligence
Spearman and the concept of g and s g refers to general intelligence s refers to specific intelligence

22 L.L. Thurstone-Multiple intelligences
Verbal Comprehension  Word Fluency  Number Facility  Spatial Visualization  Associative Memory  Perceptual Speed  Reasoning 

23 Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence Theory
Visual / Spatial Intelligence Musical Intelligence Verbal Intelligence Logical/Mathematical Intelligence Interpersonal Intelligence Intrapersonal Intelligence Bodily / Kinesthetic Intelligence

24 Sternberg Fluid intelligence – refers to speed at which one is able to process information. Tends to decrease with age. Crystallized intelligence – Stored knowledge and experience. How much wisdom or vocabulary we have does not decrease with age.

25 Intelligence and race The book The Bell Curve sparked heated debate about the issue of race and intelligence tests Research tends to demonstrate that it is not a matter of race, rather socioeconomics Stereotype threat (vulnerability)-people of different races tend to exhibit lower test scores when they feel that they may be judged based on their race/ethnicity

26 Mental Retardation and Giftedness
Approximately 2 in 100 have an IQ below 70 Approximately 2 in 100 have an IQ above 130 95% of the people fall between 70 and 130

27 IQ scores help us identify people with mental retardation
IQ tests should be measured against observations of adaptive skills (social, home living, communication skills)

28 How to diagnose The first step in diagnosis is to have a qualified person give one or more standardized intelligence tests and a standardized adaptive skills test, on an individual basis. The second step is to describe the person's strengths and weaknesses across four dimensions. The four dimensions are: 1.  Intellectual and adaptive behavior skills 2.  Psychological/emotional considerations 3.  Physical/health/etiological considerations 4.  Environmental considerations

29 Levels of Mental Retardation
1) Borderline (mild) with special training, they can read and write, become socially competent, master simple occupational skills and become self-supporting. Can achieve a 6th grade education level 85% fall in this category

30 2) Moderate – with special training and education, they can learn to become partially independent in their everyday lives – need help from family Can achieve a 4th grade level education 10% fall in this category

31 3) Severely – With help can acquire skills in regards to taking care of themselves. Requires full supervision. Can achieve that of a 3-4 year old Approximately 4% fit in here

32 Profoundly – 20 and below-very little they can do on their own
Profoundly – 20 and below-very little they can do on their own. Lowest level of functioning. May need help feeding and going to the bathroom. Cannot achieve that much, very similar to a baby Approximately 1% fit in here

33 Causes of Mental Retardation
Genetic causes – Down’s syndrome-Results from having an extra chromosome on the 21st pair Slanted eyes Shortened limbs Widened nose

34 Other Genetic Conditions
These result from abnormality of genes inherited from parents, errors when genes combine, or from other disorders of the genes caused during pregnancy by infections, overexposure to x-rays and other factors. More than 500 genetic diseases are associated with mental retardation. PKU (phenylketonuria), an inborn error of metabolism because caused by a defective enzyme, is one.

35 Problems during pregnancy
Use of alcohol or drugs by the pregnant mother can cause mental retardation. Recent research has implicated smoking in increasing the risk of mental retardation. Other risks include malnutrition, certain environmental contaminants (teratogens), and illnesses of the mother during pregnancy, such as rubella and syphillis. Pregnant women who are infected with HIV may pass the virus to their child, leading to future neurological damage.

36 Problems at birth - Although any birth condition of unusual stress may injure the infant's brain, prematurity and low birth weight predict serious problems more often than any other conditions. Problems after birth - Childhood diseases such as whooping cough, chicken pox, measles, and Hib disease which may lead to meningitis and encephalitis can damage the brain, as can accidents such as a blow to the head or near drowning. Lead, mercury and other environmental toxins can cause irreparable damage to the brain and nervous system.

37 Poverty and cultural deprivation - Children in poor families may become mentally retarded because of malnutrition, disease-producing conditions, inadequate medical care and environmental health hazards. Children in disadvantaged areas may be deprived of many common cultural and day-to-day experiences provided to other youngsters. Research suggests that such under-stimulation can result in irreversible damage and can serve as a cause of mental retardation.

38 Other interventions have reduced the chance of mental retardation
Removing lead from the environment reduces brain damage in children. Child safety seats and bicycle helmets reduce head trauma. Early intervention programs with high-risk infants and children have shown remarkable results in reducing the predicted incidence of subnormal intellectual functioning.

39 Early comprehensive prenatal care and preventive measures prior to and during pregnancy increase a woman's chances of preventing mental retardation. Pediatric AIDS is being reduced by AZT treatment of the mother during pregnancy, and dietary supplementation with folic acid reduces the risk of neural tube defects.

40 Correlations of IQ and Relationship
Genetic Overlap Relationship Correlation Coefficient 100% Identical Twins raised together .85 Identical Twins raised apart .71 50% Fraternal Twins raised together .60 Siblings raised together .47 Siblings raised apart .25 Biological parent and child living together .42 Biological parent and child living apart .23 0% Adoptive parent and child living together Adoptive siblings living apart .31 12.5% Cousins raised apart .15

41 Goleman’s theory of Emotional Intelligence
Goleman argues that conventional IQ tests are too narrow and that a person’s EQ may be a better determinant of success than IQ This is because some people with a high IQ are sometimes socially and interpersonally inept

42 To have a high EQ one must have:
An understanding of themselves, their goals, intentions, responses and behavior An understanding of others and their feelings Five domains of EQ: Knowing your emotions Managing your own emotions Motivating yourself Recognizing and understanding other’s emotions Managing relationships – managing emotions of others

43 Stereotype Threat and Intelligence
Girls and low-income minorities tend to have lower test scores Girls tend to have lower math scores Minorities tend to have lower reading and vocabulary scores Can be improved by teaching them to get around the pressure associated with negative stereotypes of these groups

44 Some observations: 62% of African-Americans do not finish college
Only 41% of whites do not finish college Girls appear to do well in math/science in elementary school, but we see a decline in middle and high school In college, women are 43% of the population, but only 22% are in the field of science

45 Why do these differences occur?
Some suggest that we have innate “math” genes – but then why do girls do okay early on? Perhaps limited access to a good education is the reason Cultural constraints – cultural expectations about women and math Poor performance grades for minorities exist across social classes

46 Stereotype Threat Seems to arise in situation in which a stereotype might be relevant Test is perceived to have stereotype-relevant qualities Seems to affect those who identify themselves according to culture (and stereotype) The threat is to their self identity

47 The threat occurs when group members become concerned about confirming the stereotype
This concern may cause the person to perform poorly on test Seem to perform better when they are performing under neutral conditions

48 Inherited vs. Heritability
Heritability is the proportion that a trait is due to genetic factors with the remaining factors attributed to the environment For IQ, some estimate that the heritability rate is about 80%, that is, 80% of one’s intelligence is due to genetic factors and 20% is due to environmental factors. This is not for ONE individual but a generalization we can make about humans in general.

49 Inherited is what we individually receive from our parents

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