2Types of Tests Stanford-Binet- 2-23 years Really want to use after 3, 2 doesn’t tell us too muchDevelopmental delays may not be seen until 5Verbal Reasoning, Quantitative Reasoning, Abstract/Visual ReasoningShort-Term Memory
3Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI)- 3-7 years of ageAssess intellectual functioningSubtests like object assembly, geometric design, block design, mazes, picture completion, animal pegs, comprehension, arithmetic, vocabulary, similarities, sentences
4Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)- Ages 6-16Verbal subtests are oralPerformance tests are times and allows bonus points for quickness
5WISCWithin the Verbal Scale are the following subtests and what they measure:Information (measures a child's range of factual information)Similarities (measures a child's ability to categorize)Arithmetic (measures the ability to solve computational math problems)Vocabulary (measures the ability to define words)Comprehension (measures the ability to answer common sense questions)Digit Span (short-term auditory memory)
6Within the Performance Scale are the following subtests and what they measure: Picture Completion (telling what's missing in various pictures)Coding (copying marks from a code; visual rote learning)Picture Arrangement (arranging pictures to tell a story)Block Design (arranging multi-colored blocks to match printed design)Object Assembly (putting puzzles together - measures nonverbal fluid reasoning)
7Description of the possible scores and their meaning Test Standard Score Percentile Meaning% very superior (gifted)% superior110 – % high average – % average – % low average – % borderline and below % mentally impaired
9Woodcock-Johnson III Can be used from ages 2 – 90+ Measures general intellectual ability, specific cognitive abilities, scholastic aptitude, oral language and achievementUses of the WJ III:Diagnosing learning disabilities, plan educational and individual programs, assess growth, provide guidance in educational and clinical settings
11What do they measure? Mental ability tests Intelligence testing-measure general mental ability-tends to measure future potentialAptitude tests-assess specific mental abilities – but more importantly it measures future potentialAchievement tests-measures what a person had learned (used a lot in vocational planning)
12Personality testing Evaluates aspects such as: Motives Interests ValuesAttitudesThese tests tend to be questioned because they often “back you into a corner” with specific answers when personality is not quite like thatOne of the most widely utilized personality tests is the MMPI
13Concepts in psychological testing Why are tests standardized?So that everyone takes the test under the same conditions. When there are special conditions (e.g., if a bee flies in the room during SAT testing or there is a fire drill) they may have to be reported as they may affect results.
14NormingThis is the group that we base scores on. This is referred to as the sample.When creating a psychological test, the group that was utilized to create the standard scores must be reported (e.g., age, gender, ethnicity)
15Types of reliability Test reliability Refers to the ability of a test to yield the same scores consistently – however, refers to different administrations of the same testTest-retest reliability refers to the ability of the same exact test yielding similar scoresSplit-half reliability – when there are two sets of questions asked within the same test – they should yield similar scores (usually they are normed prior to distributing)
16ValidityValidity – does the test measure what it is supposed to measure?Construct validity-does the test comprehend the domain it is supposed to?Content validity – does content actually measure what the test is supposed to measure? Are there enough questions to actually reflect a diagnosis?
17ValidityCriterion-related validity-when the scores from one test correlate with another measure – can be in the form of another written test or a performance testFace validity – if people don’t take your test seriously, there answers may not accurately reflect how they feel
18Concurrent validity-the ability to distinguish between groups that it should theoretically be able to distinguish between. For example, if we come up with a way of assessing manic-depression, our measure should be able to distinguish between people who are diagnosed manic-depression and those diagnosed paranoid schizophrenic or those who are “normal”Predictive validity-we assess the ability to predict something it should theoretically be able to predict. Businesses often give tests to future employees that are supposed to predict how well they will do on the job.
19Convergent validity-the degree to which the test/program is similar to (converges on) others that it theoretically should be similar to.Divergent validity-the degree to which the test/program is not similar to (diverges from) others that it theoretically should be not be similar to.
20Intelligence testing scores Remember, intelligence tests are really not reliable predictors of future potential before the age of 7!!
21Two-factor theory of intelligence Spearman and the concept of g and sg refers to general intelligences refers to specific intelligence
22L.L. Thurstone-Multiple intelligences Verbal Comprehension Word Fluency Number Facility Spatial Visualization Associative Memory Perceptual Speed Reasoning
24SternbergFluid intelligence – refers to speed at which one is able to process information. Tends to decrease with age.Crystallized intelligence – Stored knowledge and experience. How much wisdom or vocabulary we have does not decrease with age.
25Intelligence and raceThe book The Bell Curve sparked heated debate about the issue of race and intelligence testsResearch tends to demonstrate that it is not a matter of race, rather socioeconomicsStereotype threat (vulnerability)-people of different races tend to exhibit lower test scores when they feel that they may be judged based on their race/ethnicity
26Mental Retardation and Giftedness Approximately 2 in 100 have an IQ below 70Approximately 2 in 100 have an IQ above 13095% of the people fall between 70 and 130
27IQ scores help us identify people with mental retardation IQ tests should be measured against observations of adaptive skills (social, home living, communication skills)
28How to diagnoseThe first step in diagnosis is to have a qualified person give one or more standardized intelligence tests and a standardized adaptive skills test, on an individual basis.The second step is to describe the person's strengths and weaknesses across four dimensions. The four dimensions are:1. Intellectual and adaptive behavior skills 2. Psychological/emotional considerations 3. Physical/health/etiological considerations 4. Environmental considerations
29Levels of Mental Retardation 1) Borderline (mild) with special training, they can read and write, become socially competent, master simple occupational skills and become self-supporting.Can achieve a 6th grade education level85% fall in this category
302) Moderate – with special training and education, they can learn to become partially independent in their everyday lives – need help from familyCan achieve a 4th grade level education10% fall in this category
313) Severely – With help can acquire skills in regards to taking care of themselves. Requires full supervision.Can achieve that of a 3-4 year oldApproximately 4% fit in here
32Profoundly – 20 and below-very little they can do on their own Profoundly – 20 and below-very little they can do on their own. Lowest level of functioning. May need help feeding and going to the bathroom.Cannot achieve that much, very similar to a babyApproximately 1% fit in here
33Causes of Mental Retardation Genetic causes –Down’s syndrome-Results from having an extra chromosome on the 21st pairSlanted eyesShortened limbsWidened nose
34Other Genetic Conditions These result from abnormality of genes inherited from parents, errors when genes combine, or from other disorders of the genes caused during pregnancy by infections, overexposure to x-rays and other factors.More than 500 genetic diseases are associated with mental retardation. PKU (phenylketonuria), an inborn error of metabolism because caused by a defective enzyme, is one.
35Problems during pregnancy Use of alcohol or drugs by the pregnant mother can cause mental retardation. Recent research has implicated smoking in increasing the risk of mental retardation.Other risks include malnutrition, certain environmental contaminants (teratogens), and illnesses of the mother during pregnancy, such as rubella and syphillis. Pregnant women who are infected with HIV may pass the virus to their child, leading to future neurological damage.
36Problems at birth - Although any birth condition of unusual stress may injure the infant's brain, prematurity and low birth weight predict serious problems more often than any other conditions.Problems after birth - Childhood diseases such as whooping cough, chicken pox, measles, and Hib disease which may lead to meningitis and encephalitis can damage the brain, as can accidents such as a blow to the head or near drowning. Lead, mercury and other environmental toxins can cause irreparable damage to the brain and nervous system.
37Poverty and cultural deprivation - Children in poor families may become mentally retarded because of malnutrition, disease-producing conditions, inadequate medical care and environmental health hazards.Children in disadvantaged areas may be deprived of many common cultural and day-to-day experiences provided to other youngsters. Research suggests that such under-stimulation can result in irreversible damage and can serve as a cause of mental retardation.
38Other interventions have reduced the chance of mental retardation Removing lead from the environment reduces brain damage in children.Child safety seats and bicycle helmets reduce head trauma.Early intervention programs with high-risk infants and children have shown remarkable results in reducing the predicted incidence of subnormal intellectual functioning.
39Early comprehensive prenatal care and preventive measures prior to and during pregnancy increase a woman's chances of preventing mental retardation.Pediatric AIDS is being reduced by AZT treatment of the mother during pregnancy, and dietary supplementation with folic acid reduces the risk of neural tube defects.
40Correlations of IQ and Relationship Genetic OverlapRelationshipCorrelation Coefficient100%Identical Twins raised together.85Identical Twins raised apart.7150%Fraternal Twins raised together.60Siblings raised together.47Siblings raised apart.25Biological parent and child living together.42Biological parent and child living apart.230%Adoptive parent and child living togetherAdoptive siblings living apart.3112.5%Cousins raised apart.15
41Goleman’s theory of Emotional Intelligence Goleman argues that conventional IQ tests are too narrow and that a person’s EQ may be a better determinant of success than IQThis is because some people with a high IQ are sometimes socially and interpersonally inept
42To have a high EQ one must have: An understanding of themselves, their goals, intentions, responses and behaviorAn understanding of others and their feelingsFive domains of EQ:Knowing your emotionsManaging your own emotionsMotivating yourselfRecognizing and understanding other’s emotionsManaging relationships – managing emotions of others
43Stereotype Threat and Intelligence Girls and low-income minorities tend to have lower test scoresGirls tend to have lower math scoresMinorities tend to have lower reading and vocabulary scoresCan be improved by teaching them to get around the pressure associated with negative stereotypes of these groups
44Some observations: 62% of African-Americans do not finish college Only 41% of whites do not finish collegeGirls appear to do well in math/science in elementary school, but we see a decline in middle and high schoolIn college, women are 43% of the population, but only 22% are in the field of science
45Why do these differences occur? Some suggest that we have innate “math” genes – but then why do girls do okay early on?Perhaps limited access to a good education is the reasonCultural constraints – cultural expectations about women and mathPoor performance grades for minorities exist across social classes
46Stereotype ThreatSeems to arise in situation in which a stereotype might be relevantTest is perceived to have stereotype-relevant qualitiesSeems to affect those who identify themselves according to culture (and stereotype)The threat is to their self identity
47The threat occurs when group members become concerned about confirming the stereotype This concern may cause the person to perform poorly on testSeem to perform better when they are performing under neutral conditions
48Inherited vs. Heritability Heritability is the proportion that a trait is due to genetic factors with the remaining factors attributed to the environmentFor IQ, some estimate that the heritability rate is about 80%, that is, 80% of one’s intelligence is due to genetic factors and 20% is due to environmental factors. This is not for ONE individual but a generalization we can make about humans in general.
49Inherited is what we individually receive from our parents