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Unit 3-B (B): Older Brain Structures Mr. McCormick A.P. Psychology.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 3-B (B): Older Brain Structures Mr. McCormick A.P. Psychology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 3-B (B): Older Brain Structures Mr. McCormick A.P. Psychology

2 Do-Now (Discussion) What type of information can be gained through the following neurological measurement tools? What type of information can be gained through the following neurological measurement tools? E.E.G. (Electroencephalogram) E.E.G. (Electroencephalogram) C.T. (Computed Tomography) Scan C.T. (Computed Tomography) Scan P.E.T. (Positron Emission Tomography) Scan P.E.T. (Positron Emission Tomography) Scan M.R.I. (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) M.R.I. (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) f.M.R.I. (Functional M.R.I.) f.M.R.I. (Functional M.R.I.)

3 The Brain Brain-to-Body Weight Ratios of Living Organisms: Brain-to-Body Weight Ratios of Living Organisms: Dinosaurs: Dinosaurs: 1/10,000th 1/10,000th Elephants: Elephants: 1/600th 1/600th Mice: Mice: 1/40th 1/40th Marmosets: Marmosets: 1/25th 1/25th

4 The Brain Other than size, what else determines a species’ intelligence?

5 Older Brain Structures: The Brainstem The complexities of brain structures serve as indicators of a species’ intellectual capacities The complexities of brain structures serve as indicators of a species’ intellectual capacities Brainstem: Brainstem: Oldest part and central core of the brain Oldest part and central core of the brain Beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull Beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull Function: Function: Automatic survival functions Automatic survival functions

6 Older Brain Structures: The Brainstem Medulla: Medulla: Base of the brainstem Base of the brainstem Functions: Functions: Controls heartbeat Controls heartbeat Controls breathing Controls breathing Pons: Pons: Located above the medulla Located above the medulla Function: Function: Coordinates movement Coordinates movement Reticular Formation: Reticular Formation: A nerve network in the brainstem A nerve network in the brainstem Function: Function: Controlling arousal Controlling arousal

7 Older Brain Structures: The Brainstem What types of automatic survival functions are controlled by the brainstem? What types of automatic survival functions are controlled by the brainstem? How do the medulla and reticular formation interact with the autonomic nervous system? How do the medulla and reticular formation interact with the autonomic nervous system? How do the pons interact with the somatic nervous system? How do the pons interact with the somatic nervous system?

8 Older Brain Structures: The Brainstem and Thalamus

9 Older Brain Structures: The Thalamus & Cerebellum Thalamus: Thalamus: Brain’s sensory switchboard Brain’s sensory switchboard Located on top of the brainstem Located on top of the brainstem Functions: Functions: Directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex Directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex Transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla Transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla Cerebellum: Cerebellum: “ Little Brain” “ Little Brain” Located at rear of brainstem Located at rear of brainstem Functions: Functions: Processing sensory input Processing sensory input Coordinating movement output and balance Coordinating movement output and balance

10 Older Brain Structures: The Thalamus & Cerebellum With which types of neurons does the thalamus interact? With which types of neurons does the thalamus interact? With which types of neurons does the cerebellum interact? With which types of neurons does the cerebellum interact?

11 Older Brain Structures: The Cerebellum

12 Older Brain Structures: The Limbic System Limbic System: Limbic System: Doughnut-shaped neural system Doughnut-shaped neural system Located below the cerebral hemispheres Located below the cerebral hemispheres Includes: Includes: Hippocampus Hippocampus Amygdala Amygdala Hypothalamus Hypothalamus Functions: Functions: Linked to Emotions/Drives Linked to Emotions/Drives

13 Older Brain Structures: The Limbic System

14 Hippocampus: Hippocampus: Function: Function: Processes Memory Processes Memory Amygdala: Amygdala: Two lima bean-sized neural clusters Two lima bean-sized neural clusters Function: Function: Linked to Emotion Linked to Emotion Hypothalamus: Hypothalamus: Located below the thalamus Located below the thalamus Functions: Functions: Maintenance activities: eating, drinking, body temperature Maintenance activities: eating, drinking, body temperature Helps govern endocrine system (via pituitary gland) Helps govern endocrine system (via pituitary gland) Linked to emotion and reward Linked to emotion and reward

15 Older Brain Structures: The Limbic System Imagine that you encounter an angry cat. Its back is arched, fur is fluffed, and pupils are dilated. Imagine that you encounter an angry cat. Its back is arched, fur is fluffed, and pupils are dilated. Which division of the autonomic nervous system is activated by this stimulation of its amygdala (neural center of emotion)? Which division of the autonomic nervous system is activated by this stimulation of its amygdala (neural center of emotion)?

16 Brain Structures and their Functions

17 Review Describe the functions of the following parts of the brain: Describe the functions of the following parts of the brain: Brainstem Brainstem Medulla Medulla Pons Pons Reticular Formation Reticular Formation Thalamus Thalamus Cerebellum Cerebellum Limbic System: Limbic System: Hippocampus Hippocampus Amygdala Amygdala Hypothalamus Hypothalamus

18 Homework Unit 3 Key People: Unit 3 Key People: Research Study Response #1: “One Brain or Two?” (Pgs. 1-11) Research Study Response #1: “One Brain or Two?” (Pgs. 1-11) Unit 3-B Quiz: “The Brain” Unit 3-B Quiz: “The Brain” Unit 3 Project: “3-D Brain Model” Unit 3 Project: “3-D Brain Model”


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