2Sensation & Perception How do we construct our representations of the external world? To represent the world, we must detect physical energy (a stimulus) from the environment and convert it into neural signals. This is a process called sensation. When we select, organize, and interpret our sensations, the process is called perception.OBJECTIVE 1| Contrast sensation and perception, and explain the difference between bottom-up and top-down processing.
3Bottom-up ProcessingAnalysis of the stimulus begins with the sense receptors and works up to the level of the brain and mind.Letter “A” is really a black blotch broken down into features by the brain that we perceive as an “A.”
4THE CHT Top-Down Processing Information processing guided by higher-level mental processes as we construct perceptions, drawing on our experience and expectations.THE CHT
5Top-Down ProcessingAoccdrnig to rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoetnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be at the rghit pclae. The rset can be a total mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit a porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe.Our experience and expectations enable us to immediately perceive the scrambled letters as meaningful words and sentences.
6Making Sense of Complexity Our sensory and perceptual processes work together to help us sort out complex images.6 faces hidden around the picture“The Forest Has Eyes,” Bev Doolittle
7Sensing the WorldSenses are nature’s gift that suit an organism’s needs. A frog feeds on flying insects; a male silkworm moth is sensitive to female sex-attractant odor; and we as human beings are sensitive to sound frequencies that represent the range of human voice.
8Exploring the SensesWhat stimuli cross our threshold for conscious awareness?Could we be influenced by stimuli too weak (subliminal) to be perceived?Why are we unaware of unchanging stimuli, like a band-aid on our skin?
9PsychophysicsA study of the relationship between physical characteristics of stimuli and our psychological experience with them.Physical WorldPsychological WorldLightBrightnessSoundVolumePressureWeightSugarSweet
1022nd October 1850A relative increase in mental intensity, [Fechner] realized, might be measured in terms of the relative increase in physical energy required to bring it about(Wozniak, 1999).Gustav Fechner( )
11Detection Absolute Threshold Intensity No No No Yes Yes Detected Observer’s ResponseDetectedTell when you (the observer) detect the light.
12ThresholdsAbsolute Threshold: Minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time.Proportion of “Yes” ResponsesStimulus Intensity (lumens)OBJECTIVE 2| Distinguish between absolute and difference thresholds, and discuss whether we can sense stimuli below our absolute thresholds and be influenced by them.
13Subliminal ThresholdSubliminal Threshold: When stimuli are below one’s absolute threshold for conscious awareness.
14Difference ThresholdDifference Threshold: Minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time, also called just noticeable difference (JND).DifferenceThresholdNoNoYesObserver’s ResponseTell when you (observer) detect a difference in the light.
15Weber’s LawTwo stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount), to be perceived as different. Weber fraction: k = dI/I.StimulusConstant (k)Light8%Weight2%Tone3%
16Signal Detection Theory (SDT) Predicts how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus (signal) amid background noise (other stimulation). SDT assumes that there is no single absolute threshold and detection depends on:Person’s experienceExpectationsMotivationLevel of fatigueCarol Lee/ Tony Stone Images
17SDT MatrixThe observer decides whether she hears the tone or not, based on the signal being present or not. This translates into four outcomes.DecisionYesNoSignalPresentHitMissAbsentFalseAlarmCorrect Rejection
18Sensory AdaptationDiminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation.OBJECTIVE 3| Describe sensory adaptation, and explain how we benefit from being unaware of changing stimuli.Put a band aid on your arm and after awhileyou don’t sense it.
19Smelly Marker Experiment Get a partner and choose a marker that is different than your partner’s marker.Follow my directions.Have students smell their marker. Rate the pungency of the smell 0-5. Wait seconds. Smell the marker a 2nd time. Rate the pungency of the smell Wait seconds. Smell your marker a 3rd time. Rate the pungency of the smell Then switch.
21TransductionIn the definition of sensation, transduction is the transformation of stimulus energy into neural impulses. Phototransduction: Conversion of light energy into neural impulses that the brain can understand.OBJECTIVE 4| Define transduction, and specify the form of energy our visual system converts into neural messages our brain can interpret.
22The Stimulus Input: Light Energy VisibleSpectrumBoth Photos: Thomas Eisner
24Wavelength (Hue)Hue (color) is the dimension of color determined by the wavelength of the light. Wavelength is the distance from the peak of one wave to the peak of the next.
25Different wavelengths of light result Wavelength (Hue)VioletIndigoBlueGreenYellowOrangeRed400 nm700 nmShort wavelengthsLong wavelengthsDifferent wavelengths of light resultin different colors.
26Intensity (Brightness) Intensity Amount of energy in a wave determined by the amplitude. It is related to perceived brightness.
27Intensity (Brightness) Blue color with varying levels of intensity.As intensity increases or decreases, blue colorlooks more “washed out” or “darkened.”
28Purity (Saturation) Monochromatic light added to green and red SaturatedSaturatedMonochromatic light added to green and redmakes them less saturated.
29Represents all three characteristics of light stimulus on this model. Color SolidRepresents all three characteristics of light stimulus on this model.
30The EyeOBJECTIVE 5| Describe the major structure of the eye, and explain how they guide the incoming ray of light toward the eye’s receptor cells.
31Parts of the eyeCornea: Transparent tissue where light enters the eye.Iris: Muscle that expands and contracts to change the size of the opening (pupil) for light.Lens: Focuses the light rays on the retina.Retina: Contains sensory receptors that process visual information and sends it to the brain.
32The LensLens: Transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to focus images on the retina. Accommodation: The process by which the eye’s lens changes shape to help focus near or far objects on the retina.
33The LensNearsightedness: A condition in which nearby objects are seen more clearly than distant objects. Farsightedness: A condition in which faraway objects are seen more clearly than near objects.
34RetinaRetina: The light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing receptor rods and cones in addition to layers of other neurons (bipolar, ganglion cells) that process visual information.OBJECTIVE 6| Contrast the two types of receptor cells in the retina, and describe the retina’s reaction to light.
35Optic Nerve, Blind Spot & Fovea Optic nerve: Carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain. Blind Spot: Point where the optic nerve leaves the eye because there are no receptor cells located there. This creates a blind spot. Fovea: Central point in the retina around which the eye’s cones cluster.
36Test your Blind SpotUse your textbook. Close your left eye, and fixate your right eye on the black dot. Move the page towards your eye and away from your eye. At some point the car on the right will disappear due to a blind spot.
38Bipolar & Ganglion Cells Bipolar cells receive messages from photoreceptors and transmit them to ganglion cells, which are for the optic nerve.
39Visual Information Processing Optic nerves connect to the thalamus in the middle of the brain, and the thalamus connects to the visual cortex.OBJECTIVE 7| Discuss the different levels of processing that occur as information travels from the retina to the brain’s cortex.
40Ganglion & Thalamic Cells Retinal ganglion cells and thalamic neurons break down visual stimuli into small components and have receptive fields withcenter-surround organization.ON-center OFF-SurroundAction Potentials
41Feature DetectionNerve cells in the visual cortex respond to specific features, such as edges, angles, and movement.Ross Kinnaird/ Allsport/ Getty Images
42Shape DetectionSpecific combinations of temporal lobe activity occur as people look at shoes, faces, chairs and houses.Ishai, Ungerleider, Martin and Haxby/ NIMH
43Perception in BrainOur perceptions are a combination of sensory (bottom-up) and cognitive (top-down) processes.
44Visual Information Processing Processing of several aspects of the stimulus simultaneously is called parallel processing. The brain divides a visual scene into subdivisions such as color, depth, form and movement etc.OBJECTIVE 8| Discuss parallel processing and discuss its role in visual processing.
45From Sensation to Recognition Tim Bieber/ The Image Bank
46Theories of Color Vision Trichromatic theory: Based on behavioral experiments, Helmholtz suggested that the retina should contain three receptors that are sensitive to red, blue and green colors.OBJECTIVE 9| Explain how the Young-Helmholtz and opponent-process theories help us understand color vision.
47Subtraction of ColorsIf three primary colors (pigments) are mixed, subtraction of all wavelengths occurs and the color black is the result.
49PhotoreceptorsBlueConesGreenConesRedConesMacNichol, Wald and Brown (1967) measured directly the absorption spectra of visual pigments of single cones obtained from the retinas of humans.ShortwaveMediumwaveLongwave
50Turn all the lights off in the room and have student stare at the center of the red star for 4 minutes. Because the image falls on the center part of the retina, which is mostly cones, the red star will disappear and the blue star can still be seen.
51Color BlindnessGenetic disorder in which people are blind to green or red colors. This supports the Trichromatic theory.Ishihara Test
52Opponent Colors Gaze at the middle of the flag for about 30 Seconds. When it disappears, stare at the dot and reportwhether or not you see Britain's flag.
53Opponent Process Theory Hering proposed that we process four primary colors combined in pairs of red-green, blue-yellow, and black-white.ConesRetinalGanglionCells
54Color ConstancyColor of an object remains the same under different illuminations. However, when context changes the color of an object may look different.OBJECTIVE 10| Explain the importance of color constancy.R. Beau Lotto at University College, London
56TasteTraditionally, taste sensations consisted of sweet, salty, sour, and bitter tastes. Recently, receptors for a fifth taste have been discovered called “Umami”.OBJECTIVE 19| Describe the sense of taste, and explain the principle of sensory interaction.SweetSourSaltyBitterUmami(FreshChicken)
57Taste Receptors on the Tongue The receptors for the human sense of taste are located on the tongue and on the soft palate. There are just five stimuli to which these receptors respond. These are:sweet (as in sugar)sour (as in acidic substances like lemon juice)bitter (strong coffee or quinine in tonic water)salt (table salt)umami (monosodium glutamate, savouries, soya sauce, crisps)
58Old ResearchThe traditional view is that tastes are detected on different parts of the tongue.New researchThe taste buds are still found in the same areas on the tongue but each one can detect all five tastes.
60Perception of TasteSmell: chewing helps to transfer more odor from the mouth to the back of the nose.several million receptor cells per square centimeter respond to thousands of chemicals in the food.Sight: plays an unexpectedly important role in our perception of flavors. The taste of a colorless, shapeless food is extremely difficult to recognize.
61How can we hear what we do? AuditionHow can we hear what we do?
62The Stimulus Input: Sound Waves Sound waves are composed of compression and rarefaction of air molecules.OBJECTIVE 11| Describe the pressure waves we experience as sound.Rarefaction – the act or process of making less dense or the state of being less dense.Acoustical transduction: Conversion of sound waves into neural impulses in the hair cells of the inner ear.
63Sound Characteristics Frequency (pitch)Intensity (loudness)Quality (timbre)
64Frequency (Pitch)Frequency (pitch): The dimension of frequency determined by the wavelength of sound. Wavelength: The distance from the peak of one wave to the peak of the next.
65Our Friends the Elephants Elephants are very vocal creatures and yet we didn't really know this until Katy Payne discovered in 1984 that much of their talk is below the threshold of human hearing.We can only hear 40% of the sounds elephants make.An Elephant greeting!
66Intensity (Loudness)Intensity (Loudness): Amount of energy in a wave, determined by the amplitude, relates to the perceived loudness.
67Loudness of Sound 70dB 120dB Thunder Rock Band Subway Noises Richard Kaylin/ Stone/ Getty Images70dB120dBThunderRock BandSubway Noises
68Quality (Timbre)Quality (Timbre): Characteristics of sound from a zither and a guitar allows the ear to distinguish between the two.ZitherGuitar
69Overtones: Makes the distinction among musical instruments possible.
70The EarDr. Fred Hossler/ Visuals UnlimitedOBJECTIVE 12| Describe the three regions of the ear, and outline the series of events that triggers the electrical impulses sent to the brain.
71The EarOuter Ear: Pinna. Collects sounds. Middle Ear: Chamber between eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones (hammer, anvil, stirrup) that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea’s oval window. Inner Ear: Innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs.
72CochleaCochlea: Coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear that transforms sound vibrations to auditory signals.
73Theories of AuditionPlace Theory suggests that sound frequencies stimulate the basilar membrane at specific places resulting in perceived pitch.OBJECTIVE 13| Contrast place and frequency theories, and explain how they help us to understand pitch perception.
74Theories of AuditionFrequency Theory states that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch.Auditory NerveAction PotentialsSoundFrequency200 Hz100 Hz
75Localization of Sounds Because we have two ears, sounds that reach one ear faster than the other ear cause us to localize the sound.OBJECTIVE 14| Describe how we pinpoint sounds.
76Localization of Sound1. Intensity differences 2. Time differences Time differences as small as 1/100,000 of a second can cause us to localize sound. The head acts as a “shadow” or partial sound barrier.
77Hearing LossConduction Hearing Loss: Hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea. Sensorineural Hearing Loss: Hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea’s receptor cells or to the auditory nerve, also called nerve deafness.OBJECTIVE 15| Contrast two types of hearing loss, and describe some of their causes.
78Hearing DeficitsOlder people tend to hear low frequencies well but suffer hearing loss when listening for high frequencies.
80What sensations do we feel and how? TouchWhat sensations do we feel and how?
81Other Important Senses The sense of touch is a mix of four distinct skin senses—pressure, warmth, cold, and pain.OBJECTIVE 17| Describe the sense of touch. “Touch is both the alpha and omega of affection” (James, 1890).Bruce Ayers/ Stone/ Getty Images
82Skin SensesOnly pressure has identifiable receptors. All other skin sensations are variations of pressure, warmth, cold and pain.PressureVibrationVibrationBurning hotCold, warmth and pain
83Ashley Blocker (right) feels neither pain Pain tells the body that something has gone wrong. Usually pain results from damage to the skin and other tissues. A rare disease exists in which the afflicted person feels no pain.OBJECTIVE 18| State the purpose of pain, and describe the biopsychosocial perspective on pain.AP Photo/ Stephen MortonAshley Blocker (right) feels neither painnor extreme hot or cold.
85Gate-Control TheoryMelzak and Wall (1965, 1983) proposed that our spinal cord contains neurological “gates” that either block pain or allow it to be sensed.One way to treat chronic pain is to stimulate it through massage by electrical stimulation or acupuncture. Rubbing causes competitive stimulation to pain thus reduces its effect.Gary Comer/ PhototakeUSA.com
88Sensory InteractionWhen one sense affects another sense, sensory interaction takes place. So, the taste of strawberry interacts with its smell and its texture on the tongue to produce flavor.
89SmellLike taste, smell is a chemical sense. Odorants enter the nasal cavity to stimulate 5 million receptors to sense smell. Unlike taste, there are many different forms of smell.OBJECTIVE 20| Describe the sense of smell and explain why specific odors so easily trigger memories.
90Age, Gender, and SmellAbility to identify smell peaks during early adulthood, but steadily declines after that. Women are better at detecting odors than men.
91Smell and MemoriesThe brain region for smell (in red) is closely connected with the brain regions involved with memory (limbic system). That is why strong memories are made through the sense of smell.
92Body Position and Movement The sense of our body parts’ position and movement is called kinesthesis. The vestibular sense monitors the head (and body’s) position.OBJECTIVE 21| Distinguish between kinesthesis and vestibular sense.Bob Daemmrich/ The Image WorksWhirling DervishesWire Walk
93Chapter 6 PerceptionThe process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting sensory information, which enables us to recognize meaningful objects and events.
94Selective AttentionPerceptions about objects change from moment to moment. We can perceive different forms of the Necker cube; however, we can only pay attention to one aspect of the object at a time.OBJECTIVE 1| Describe the interplay between attention and perception.Necker Cube
95Inattentional Blindness Inattentional blindness refers to the inability to see an object or a person in our midst.Simmons & Chabris (1999) showed that half of the observers failed to see the gorilla-suited assistant in a ball passing game.Brain Games video clip.
97Perceptual IllusionsIllusions provide good examples in understanding how perception is organized. Studying faulty perception is as important as studying other perceptual phenomena.OBJECTIVE 2| Explain how illusions help us understand some of the ways we organize stimuli into meaningful perceptions.Line AB is longer than line BC.
98Tall ArchIn this picture, the vertical dimension of the arch looks longer than the horizontal dimension. However, both are equal.Rick Friedman/ Black Star