Presentation on theme: "Andrzej Berowski I A Air pollution - the substances that enter the atmosphere from natural sources or human activities. Some of these substances, such."— Presentation transcript:
Air pollution - the substances that enter the atmosphere from natural sources or human activities. Some of these substances, such as chlorofluorocarbons, are natural components of air. Other substances are components of air, but appear in quantities in excess of their natural share. The types of air pollution Gaseous pollutants SO2, SO3, CO, NO X, NH3, CO2, HF, O 3, phenols, chlorofluorocarbons, some hydrocarbons Particulate pollutants Coal dust, soot, particles of soil, dust The causes of air pollution: deforestation, industry, transport and vehicles, furnaces, fireplaces, agriculture. Effects of Air Pollution For people i animals: disruption of the respiratory system, allergy, skin diseases, cancer, reduction of resistance to pathogenic micro-organisms For plants: damage to the leaves, needles and roots, reduction of resistance to pests and pathogenic micro-organisms, the deterioration of plant growth and dying Gas pollution is not: a) chlorofluorocarbonsb) sootc) CO
Smog - is particularly dangerous for the human nature of air pollution, which is a mixture of dust and gaseous pollutants. Harmful substances is saturated layer of air directly above the surface of the earth. Arise in the industrial cities, it looks like a dense fog. Ozonosphere - ozone layer is located at an altitude of 20-50 km above the Earth. Absorbs part of the radiation emitted by the ultraviolet sun. Much of the UV is harmful to humans and animals. The ozone hole - a phenomenon of reducing the thickness of the ozone layer ozonosphere. Cause of the ozone hole are chlorofluorocarbons and nitrogen oxides. The effects of the ozone hole are: DNA damage in cells burns and skin diseases damage to both eyes in humans, and animals as accelerate the aging process decrease in weight plant and animal plankton increase in the amount of CO 2 The greenhouse effect - a phenomenon caused by atmospheric warming is the increased amount of gaseous pollutants, especially the increase of CO 2 in the atmosphere. For other substances with similar properties to CO 2 are: methane, nitrous oxide and ozone. Layer located at an altitude of 20-50 km above the surface of the Earth are: a) ozonosferab) termosferac) smog
Air pollution can be reduced by: o the use of purification filters gases discharged by the chimney o total isolation from the environment of the production processes o the use of catalytic converters in cars o the use of unleaded petrol as a source of energy in engines o maintaining vehicles in good condition o development of bicycle transportation o desulphurization of coal for combustion o the use of renewable energy sources o substitution of other chemicals freons o replacing the chemical protection of biological crop protection. Air pollution can be reduced by: a) car transportation car transportationb) tree-felling c) the development of bicycle transportation
Pollution of water - substances and micro-organisms present in water in quantities exceeding their natural division. Assessment of water quality parameters: Physicochemical - temperature, the amount of oxygen, acidification, salinity Biological - the presence and composition of species of organisms hydromorphological - the dynamics of water flow, depth and width of the troughs, the type of substrate, the structure of the coast, barrier. Types of water pollution: natural, anthropogenic, municipal sewage, industrial effluent and agricultural. An example of water pollution is not: a) Municipal sewage b) Agricultural waste water c) eutrophication The effects of water pollution: eutrophication, contact with contaminated water or eating them can cause allergies, skin irritation, as well as food poisoning, water pollution causes the accumulation of chemicals in the tissues and transferring them further in the food chains, weakening growth and development of organisms and may become a cause of sudden death of organisms or their slow extinction.
An example is the protection of waters: a) eutrophication b The use of catalytic converters in cars c) The construction of urban sewage treatment plant Protection of water should include, among others: build a municipal wastewater treatment plants and sewage treatment plants in the home in rural areas reducing the use of chemical crop protection agents and discontinue the use of chemical fertilizers implementation of modern technologies of industrial water consumption and limiting the use of closed water circuits rational and economical use of water in households.
An example of industrial pollution is not: a) saltb) wastec) CO 2 Pollution of soils - are chemicals found in soils in an amount exceeding its natural level. Sources of pollution of soils Industry Waste, dust, salt, sulfur and nitrogen oxides, heavy metals Agriculture Plant protection products, excess fertilizer, sewage from breeding farms Transport Dust, carbon emissions, CO 2 The effects of soil pollution: physical - change the soil structure chemical - or alkalisation soil acidification, salinity, poisoning, leaching mineral salts Biological - extinction of organisms such as soil Transport Dust, carbon emissions
The way the use of waste is not: a) recycling b) karstic phenomenon c) utilization Realizing the waste Recycling - is re-applied to the production of waste, eg glass, paper, plastic, etc. As a result, reduces the amount of waste, reduce production costs, are saving materials and raw materials and energy. Utilization - relies on the use of waste as raw materials for processing, eg the waste of meat, fish and bone, used in the manufacture of bone meal, fish, gelatin and glue. The most important way, recycling is burning to dispose of certain substances or to obtain energy.