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Settling the Western Frontier 1862-1890. The Great Plains A vast stretch of land between the Missouri River and the Rocky mountains Few early settlers.

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Presentation on theme: "Settling the Western Frontier 1862-1890. The Great Plains A vast stretch of land between the Missouri River and the Rocky mountains Few early settlers."— Presentation transcript:

1 Settling the Western Frontier

2 The Great Plains A vast stretch of land between the Missouri River and the Rocky mountains Few early settlers stayed Most just passed through on their way to the West Coast

3 The Stagecoach Horse-drawn coaches Carried people and the mail Westward It took 3 weeks to get from St. Louis, Mo. to Sacramento, Ca. Often attacked by robbers and American Indians

4 Wagon Trains Ox-drawn wagons were heavy and slow Large numbers traveled together for safety Most people actually walked next to their wagons

5 The Transcontinental Railroad Linked East and West Central Pacific Railroad Union Pacific Railroad Built by Irish and Chinese immigrants May 1869: Met in Promontory Point, Utah The final link is a Golden Spike News of its completion goes by telegraph

6 Mining Gold discovered near Pikes Peak, Co. at the start of the Civil War Prospectors mined for gold Gold and silver are discovered in Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming Similar to the California gold rush of 1849 Lack of “law & order”

7 Cattle Country Longhorn cattle Raised in Texas Every calf is branded Cowhands drive herds over the Chisholm Trail New railroads helped grow the industry Stampedes & rustlers Saloons and gambling houses

8 The Law Outlaws disrupted towns and commerce People needed protection U.S. Marshalls like Wild Bill Hickok enforced the law

9 The Homestead Act In 1862, Congress passed a law making it easy for pioneers to own land Settlers got 160 acres of land You had to promise to live on it for 5 years

10 Homesteaders Ground hard to plow Little rain Few trees for fuel Sod houses Sod houses Windmills pumped water above ground

11 The Plains Indians Hunters and nomads Depended on the buffalo for sustenance buffalo Cheyenne, Comanche, Blackfeet, Sioux

12 Buffalo Bill Cody Famous buffalo hunter Slaughtered more than 4,000 buffalo in 18 months His Wild West Shows glorify settlement of the Great Plains

13 Indian Wars Indians are forced onto reservations Many battles kill thousands by 1870 The government promised their way of life would be protected Most treaties were fraudulent

14 Gold Causes More Trouble In 1874, gold was discovered in the Black Hills, S.D. The land was sacred to the Sioux Chiefs Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse defended their land Gen. George Custer and his men are killedkilled

15 Chief Joseph The Nez Perez flee to Canada from Idaho They travel 1,500 miles from their reservation pursed by the U.S. Army Chief Joseph surrenders 30 miles from the Canadian border

16 Chief Red Cloud Chief of the Oglala Sioux In 1870, Red Cloud traveled to Washington D.C. and pleads for peace He spoke of broken treaties, dishonest government agents, fear, and misunderstanding

17 A Voice for Justice Helen Hunt Jackson Writer and activist A Century of Dishonor Details mistreatment of Native Americans

18 The Dawes Act Congress forces Native Americans to assimilate Lands divided into family sized farms Those who accepted land became citizens This destroyed Native American culture and traditional living styles

19 Burry My Heart at Wounded Knee Ghost Dance-religious movement 7 th Cavalry massacres 290 men, women, and children Marked end of fighting between the U.S. government and American Indians

20 New States Many people settled on the western frontier lands 13 states were created from The frontier was finally “conquered” 1864 Nevada 1867 Nebraska 1876 Colorado 1889 North Dakota 1889 South Dakota 1889 Montana 1889 Washington 1890 Idaho 1890 Wyoming 1896 Utah 1907 Oklahoma 1912 New Mexico 1912 Arizona


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