Bison and other animals, painted mostly in red, black, and mauve, form a spectacular ensemble on a ceiling within the prehistoric cave at Altamira, in Northern Spain. These drawings are estimated to date from approximately 13,000 to 14,000 years ago. Characteristic of prehistoric cave paintings, drawings, and engravings is the absence of a painted horizon line and the apparent lack of relationship between one image and those adjacent to it. PREHISTORIA - ALTAMIRA
About 1100- 800 BC Phoenicians began colonizing Spain. Modern cities such as Cádiz and Málaga were founded by the Phoenicians during this time. 400s BCThe Carthaginians conquered much of Spain.
Spain ranks as a world leader in both wine grape and olive production. These grape vines and olive trees grow near Lérida, a city in eastern Spain. Most grapes and olives are raised in the country’s east or south, the most intensively irrigated regions of the largely hot and arid country. Photo Researchers, Inc./Porterfield-Chickering
Hannibal The Carthaginian general Hannibal is considered one of the greatest military commanders in history. In 218 BC Hannibal traveled from Spain across the Alps to attack Rome. He inflicted crushing defeats on Roman armies as he marched, but lacked the reinforcements necessary to take the city. In 202 BC Hannibal was called back to Africa to defend Carthage against invading Roman forces, and there he was finally defeated at the Battle of Zama.
200s BCSpain became an important part of the Roman Empire following the Punic Wars. As Carthage expanded into the Iberian peninsula, or what is now mostly Spain, Rome became increasingly concerned. During the Second Punic War of the second century BC, Romans finally drove the Carthaginians out of the peninsula. The area, divided into Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior, yielded rich agriculture and mining resources. Although the Roman influence in Spain largely dissolved after the 4th century AD, much of its presence can still be seen in ruins such as these aqueducts in Segovia.
Roman IberiaRoman Iberia Beginning with the Second Punic War (218-201 BC), the Roman army spent about 200 years gaining control of the Iberian Peninsula. At the height of the Roman Empire in the 2nd century, the territory now comprising Spain and Portugal was divided into three provinces. The Roman Senate controlled Baetica, in the southernmost region of the peninsula. Lusitania and Tarraconensis were Imperial provinces controlled by the emperor.
The medieval city of Toledo is situated on a high hill above the Tajo River in central Spain. Toledo was the capital of the Visigothic kingdom in Spain. The city has narrow winding streets and contains many historic sites. AD 573The Visigoths completed their conquest of the Iberian Peninsula.
711-718 The Moors conquered most of Spain. Many Spaniards converted to Islam, and Moorish culture began to flourish. 1000sThe Christian reconquest of Spain began. Moorish architecture Horseshoe arc (arco de herradura) Geometrical designs Mosaics (cut tile design) Arabic scriptures from the Koran or from famous pets LOS MOROS 711-1492
The Moorish influence in Córdoba, Spain, dates from the 8th century, when it became a Muslim caliphate. The city’s Moorish architecture includes the cathedral, originally an impressive mosque. CÓRDOBACÓRDOBA
La Alhambra The Alhambra complex sits on a hill at the base of the Sierra Nevada mountain range in Granada, Spain. The Alhambra is made up of three distinct areas: a fortress known as the Alcazaba, extensive gardens called the Generalife, and the royal palace. The Alcazaba, parts of which date to the 11th century, is the oldest part of the complex. During the 13th and 14th centuries, Spain’s Moorish rulers built the Generalife and the royal palace in the Islamic architectural style. This photo faces the Alcazaba, with parts of the royal palace showing in the background.
Spread of Islam In the 7th and 8th centuries the religion of Islam spread through conversion and military conquest throughout the Middle East and North Africa. By 733, just 100 years after the death of Muhammad, the founder of Islam, an ordered Islamic state stretched from India in the east to Spain in the west.
Isabella I In 1469 Isabella of Castile, heiress to the Castilian crown, married her cousin, Ferdinand of Aragón (later known as Ferdinand V). As Queen Isabella I, she and Ferdinand ruled the kingdoms of Castile and Aragón. Their rule brought about the permanent union of Spain and saw the beginning of an overseas empire in the Americas
Ferdinand V King Ferdinand V was a gifted statesman. Ferdinand used foreign policy to expand the domains controlled by the kingdoms of Aragón and Castille, which he and his wife Queen Isabella I ruled jointly. When Ferdinand died, both of their crowns went to their grandson, Charles I, later known as Charles V.
Cristóbal Colón Sponsored by Spain, explorer Christopher Columbus sailed west from Europe in an attempt to find a shorter route to India and China. He landed in The Bahamas in 1492. Soon after, Spain began to colonize areas of the West Indies.
By colonizing the Americas, Spain became one of the richest and most powerful countries of the 16th century. At the height of its power in 1588, the Spanish Empire included the West Indies, Cuba, Florida, Mexico, Central America, much of South America, and the Philippines.
1479 Aragón and Castile were united under Ferdinand V and Isabella I. The following year the Spanish Inquisition was established. 1492 The Kingdom of Granada was conquered, ending Moorish rule in Spain. Christopher Columbus initiated Spanish claims in the Americas, where Spain quickly established a huge colonial empire.
Charles V was born Charles I, the grandson of Ferdinand of Castile and Isabella I and heir to Burgundy and Spain. He then acquired Austria, Hungary, and Bohemia through succession. He bribed the electors of the Holy Roman Empire to name him emperor, crowning him Charles V and giving him rule over more countries than any other European monarch. Carlos V
1512 The Kingdom of Navarre was absorbed into the unified Kingdom of Spain. Spanish culture flourished and Spain became a world power. 1588 The English navy defeated the Spanish Armada, beginning a period of slow decline for Spain.
Spanish churchman Ignatius of Loyola founded a pious fraternal order in Paris in 1534, that received papal confirmation as the Order of the Jesuits in 1540. Motivated by the desire to restore piety, Loyola and the Jesuits were later strong proponents of the Counter Reformation. Saint Ignatius of Loyola
Philip II – Felipe II The Spanish Empire reached its height during the reign of Philip II (1556-1598), and Spain’s great Golden Age of art, literature, and learning began under him. However, Philip’s efforts to stamp out Protestantism in Europe, including attempts to conquer England, permanently impaired the financial resources of Spain.
Spanish Armada Spanish king Philip II planned to build a fleet unequaled in power in the 1580s in hopes of not only ending English raids on Spanish towns and ships but also to invade and conquer England. Eight years later, 130 large battleships sailed for England. The English failed to stop the fleet in long-range cannon duels. They next used ships laden with gunpowder and set afire to attack the Armada. The Spanish force eluded the fire ships by sailing out to sea, but strong gales wrecked most of the ships off the coast of Ireland, and only 67 ships returned to Spain.
Madrid’s Plaza Mayor Built during the reign of Philip III in the early 17th century, the Plaza Mayor was used for a variety of activities, including bullfights, executions during the Inquisition, and festivals. Today it is one of Madrid’s main tourist attractions.
Cervantes Spanish writer Miguel de Cervantes changed the face of fiction with his early 17th century masterpiece, Don Quixote (part I, 1605; part II, 1615). In the book, a distinguished country gentleman becomes a knight after reading too many chivalric novels. Intended as a spoof on the romantic literature of the time, Don Quixote exposed and satirized Spanish society, medieval romance, and the pastoral novel. Don Quixote reveals the essential humanity of its complex, crazed characters and has influenced many subsequent works.
Windmills dot the landscape in the region of La Mancha, Spain. The area is known as the land of Don Quixote and Sancho Panza, characters in a novel by Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. Considered the first modern novel, it was published in the early 17th century and was set in La Mancha.
Insurrection and the loss of territory marked the reign of Philip IV. While ruler of Spain, Naples, and Sicily during the 17th century, the weak monarch lost Portugal (1640) and then experienced rebellion in Catalonia (1640-53) and Naples (1647). He precipitated the decline of his native country, Spain, through exhaustive wars with Portugal, the Netherlands, and France. As a result, Philip IV was forced to cede Spanish territory to both the Netherlands and France in 1648 and 1649. Philip IV (of Spain, Naples, and Sicily) Felipe IV
1808 Napoleon I of France invaded Spain and captured Madrid. Spanish, English, and Portuguese forces did not drive the French from Spain until 1814. Ferdinand VII, king of Spain, instituted an oppressive reign, revoking the liberal constitution drafted in 1812 and ruling as an absolute monarch. He was forced from his throne by French Emperor Napoleon I in 1808 and, in 1820, by his own people, who opposed his harsh rule Ferdinand VII
El tres de mayo, 1808 Spanish artist Francisco de Goya painted Third of May, 1808 in 1814. His purpose was to commemorate the Spanish war of liberation, during which a number of innocent civilians were shot by soldiers from Napoleon’s army.
1810-1825 Most of Spain's American colonies won their independence. 1- Simon Bolívar el Libertador de Venezuela y Colombia 2- José de San Martín, el Libertador de Chile y Argentina
Six nations Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia venerate Simón Bolívar as their liberator from the rule of Spain. This great statesman, writer, and revolutionary general is known as the George Washington of South America. He inspired men to follow him through trackless wilderness to fight and die for liberty. Bolívar's followers, however, did not support him as loyally in his struggle to set up stable governments. Simón Bolívar was born in Caracas (now in Venezuela) on July 24, 1783, of a noble Spanish family. Orphaned in boyhood, the youth was educated in Europe. He absorbed the spirit of revolution then widespread in Europe and vowed to free Venezuela. When Napoleón Bonaparte overran Spain, the restive colonies of Spanish America seized the opportunity to revolt. Venezuela was the first to declare its independence, in 1811. The revolt failed and in 1812 the colony was again under stern Spanish rule. For 20 years Bolívar led the fight to free northern South America. His small, poorly equipped forces won amazing victories and met overwhelming defeats. At one time he might be a conquering hero, with honors and autocratic power at another, a fugitive in exile. At his height, between 1825 and 1828, he was president or protector of Gran Colombia (now Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, and Ecuador), Peru, and the newly formed Bolivia. The spirit of disunion and opposition, however, was strong. Bitter and broken in health, he died at a friend's estate in Colombia on Dec. 17,1830 seven months after he resigned his offices. Bolívar was a sincere patriot, devoted to the cause of liberty and equality. While ruler of Venezuela he proclaimed the liberation of slaves. He also was a pioneer in urging the formation of a union of American republics Simón Bolívar (1783-1830), el Libertador Venezuela.
José de San Martín - El Libertador By the 1820s, the cumbersome methods by which taxation was extracted by a stagnant and complacent Spain allowed a flowering pan-American identity to blossom into a push for full independence. Simón Bolívar and José de San Martín led armies of freedom fighters from Venezuela to Peru, and from Argentina into Chile. Bernardo O'Higgins, son of an Irish immigrant and erstwhile viceroy of Peru, became supreme director of the new Chilean republic. The newly independent Chile was a fraction of its eventual size, consisting of Santiago and Concepción, and with fuzzy borders with Bolivia and Argentina. The coming of the railways and military triumphs over Peru and Bolivia in the War of the Pacific (1879-83) incorporated the mineral-rich Atacama desert to the north and the southern temperate territories. Chile quickly achieved a degree of political stability and relative democracy, enabling rapid agricultural development and the advancement of mining, industry and commerce. The now empowered working class and the nouveau riche both challenged the political power of the landowning oligarchy in a brief but bloody civil war in the 1890s.
Isabella II The reign of Isabella II, queen of Spain, was marred by intrigues and political instability. She was deposed in the Revolution of 1868.
1898 Spain lost the rest of its important overseas possessions following the Spanish-American War. Cuba Puerto Rico Guam The Phillipines 1931King Alfonso XIII fled from Spain, and the country became a republic. In 1936 a group of military leaders tried to overthrow Spain’s elected government, beginning the Spanish Civil War. Together with their supporters, such as the troops shown here, they became known as the Nationalists.
This series of photographs was taken by Hungarian-American photographer Robert Capa during the Spanish Civil War. Capa supported the Republican forces who fought durign 1936 through 1939 to defend Spain's elected government from an attempted military coup. As he documented the Republicans’ efforts, Capa became the first to capture on film a soldier being killed in action. Republicans in the Trenches Expand R e p u b li c a n S o l d i e r s i n B a tt l e S o l d i e r K il l e d i n A c ti o n
1936-1939 Spanish Nationalist forces led by General Francisco Franco defeated Republican forces during the Spanish Civil War. During the Spanish Civil War, General Francisco Franco was the leader of the Nationalist forces that fought to overthrow Spain’s elected government. As a result of the Nationalist victory in 1939, Franco became el Caudillo (the leader) of Spain and ruled the country until his death in 1975. Francisco Franco Salutes a Crowd
SPANISH CIVIL WAR 1936 - 1939. King Alfonso XIII abdicated the throne and went in exile in Rome. The country chose in favor of a Republic rather than continue the Monarchy. Two parties emerge in Spain, the Nationalists and the Republicans / Loyalists. The Civil War saw both sides in fierce battles: - The Nationalists with the help of Italy and Germany, headed by General Francisco Franco - The Republicans / Loyalists with the help of Russia, France and the U.S. The Germans destroyed Guernica with their bombers. This was immortalized by Picasso in his painting of the same name, Guernica. The Republicans lost. Franco became Presidente / Dictator of the country, (el país) for almost 40 years. Franco repressed freedom of speech and expression. Most artists were imprisoned or had fled to France. Franco appointed Juán Carlos, grandson of Alphonso XIII, as his successor to the leadership of Spain. The Monarchy was restored at his death in 1975. El Rey Juán Carlos y la Reina Sofía de Grecia tienen 3 hijos: Elena, Cristina and Felipe. Felipe, Príncipe de Asturias should later inherit the throne. The Memorial to the victims of the Civil War (la Guerra Civil) is El Valle de los Caídos, not far from El Escorial
1968 Buoyed by strong economic growth, the government eased censorship restrictions. Protests erupted in Barcelona and Madrid, and regional separatist groups gained strength. The Basque Country – own language Euskara Cataluña– own language Catalán Galicia– own language Gallego
S.M. El Rey de España el Rey Don Juán Carlos de Borbon Roma, el 5 de enero 1938 Rey de España en 1975 1975 Franco died and was succeeded by King Juan Carlos. Spain began the transition to a democratic government.
ETA Basque Separatists Shown here are disguised members of the Basque separatist group known as the ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna, Basque for “Basque Homeland and Liberty”). The ETA has used terrorist tactics to push for the Basque Country’s independence from Spain
1980sSpain joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) the European Community (now the European Union and increasing its ties with the rest of Europe.
Spanish politician José María Aznar became prime minister of Spain in 1996.
LOS OLÍMPICOS EN BARCELONA 1992The Summer Olympic Games were held in Barcelona Los Olímpicos de 1992 Es un estadio muy grande Celebración frente al Palacio Nacional
1994 1999 Spain threatened to block expansion of the European Union until a compromise guaranteed protection of Spanish fishing rights. Agreements were reached in March and December giving Spain wider access. January no more pesetas! Spain adopts the €uro currency.