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GENETICS. GREGOR MENDEL (1822- 1884)

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Presentation on theme: "GENETICS. GREGOR MENDEL (1822- 1884)"— Presentation transcript:

1 GENETICS

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5 GREGOR MENDEL ( )

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9 Self Fertilization Offspring= Purebred

10 Cross Fertilization Offspring = Hybrid

11 CROSS POLLINATION

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13 HYBRID COCKAPOO COCKER SPANIEL + POODLE

14 HYBRID PUG + BEAGLE PUGGLE

15 HYBRID DOG AND WOLF DOG AND WOLF

16 male lion and a female tiger Liger

17 Peas!

18 GENETIC TERMINOLOGY DominantDominant RecessiveRecessive HomozygousHomozygous HeterozygousHeterozygous GenotypeGenotype PhenotypePhenotype TraitTrait AlleleAllele

19 Dominant allele- trait is always expressed if present - Written as capital letter - Ex. Tall= T Recessive allele- only expressed if no dominant allele is present –(Dominant allele masks this one) - For a particular trait written as the same letter but lower case - Ex. Short= t Dominant and Recessive Alleles

20 Genotype- the genes you get from your parents –Two letters represent the two alleles –One from mom one from dad – TT, Tt, tt Phenotype- the physical trait, what you look like –Tall short, yellow or green –TT, tt what is the phenotype??

21 Homozygous - the same alleles for a gene –TT, tt Heterozygous - having different alleles for a gene –Tt

22 Trait = Height TALL SHORT  alleles 

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24 Flower Color Trait Gene- unit of inherited information in DNA Allele- alternative form of a gene ( white purple)

25 Test Cross- mate an unknown genotype ( TT or Tt) with homozygous recessive (tt)

26 Reginald Punnett

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29 In Starfish being red is dominant over being pink. What would Patrick ’ s phenotype be? What would his genotype be? What would Patrick ’ s phenotype be? What would his genotype be?

30 PINK Because Patrick is pink… his phenotype is PINK rr And since pink is recessive – his genotype would be “ rr ”

31 Red pink Red is dominant over pink red Suppose we had a HETEROZYGOUS red starfish what would the genotype be?

32 Rr

33 Let’s do some… MONOHYBRID CROSSES! Monohybrid means we are only using ONE TRAIT

34 STEP by STEP 1.Select a “good” letter to use 2.Write down your “givens” 3.Determine parents and record 4.Set up Punnett Square 5.Determine genotypes & phenotypes of offspring (use percentages or fractions) (use percentages or fractions)

35 In pea plants being Tall is dominant over being short Cross a Heterozygous Tall plant with a Homozygous Tall plant

36 Aa x AA Geno = 50% AA 50% Aa Pheno = 100% Tall A A A

37 In sponges, being blue is dominant over being yellow. Cross a heterozygous blue sponge with a yellow one.

38 Heterozygous Blue = Bb Recessive Yellow = bb so we cross… Bb x bb

39 Time for some Monohybrid Crosses on your own! Time for some LOONEY Monohybrid Crosses on your own!

40 Red is dominant over Blue

41 T TTEST EST CCRROOSSSSTTEST EST CCRROOSSSSCROSS

42 MENDELS LAWS 1. Dominance & Recessiveness 2.Segregation 3. Independent Assortment

43 PEDIGREE male female


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