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Why did they do that? Takes on the PUNIC WARS by David E Woody One of history's great moments surrounds the conflict between Hannibal of Carthage, and.

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Presentation on theme: "Why did they do that? Takes on the PUNIC WARS by David E Woody One of history's great moments surrounds the conflict between Hannibal of Carthage, and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Why did they do that? Takes on the PUNIC WARS by David E Woody One of history's great moments surrounds the conflict between Hannibal of Carthage, and the Roman Empire. Because of Hannibal's aggressiveness and militaristic philosophy, as well as a promise made to his father, these two great civilizations came into conflict in terrible and destructive ways. Your mission in this simulation is to learn about Hannibal and his Roman adversaries by making the same choices they made, and observing the results. You may choose to be either Hannibal or the Roman Generals, after which you will be given a set of choices from key moments in the conflict. If you make a choice other than that made by the historical characters, you will find a description of what might have happened had they chosen that option. Then you will be directed to another decision. If you choose the same option they chose, you will be told about the result, and then proceed. In the end, you should learn about Hannibal and Carthaginian society, as well as gaining insights into Rome and Roman values in these wars. Let's begin with some background. Good Luck! I Choose to be Hannibal

2 Hello Hannibal! You are quite the impulsive young man, aren't you? The Carthaginian Senate is extremely nervous about having you in Spain (what the Romans call Iberia), since they fear that it will cause two major problems. First, they fear that folks will come to assume that the supreme command of Carthaginian forces is passed down in family, and that as a military leader you would try to take over politically. The Senate, and especially Hanno, does not wish you to become so popular and so powerful that you might try to take control of all Carthage. The second threat in all this is that you may provoke war with Rome. If this happens, it will be assumed that you have done so in order to advance your own political aspirations. Arriving on the scene, you are faced with your first major choice. You no doubt wish to prove to the men of the army that you are indeed your father's son, deserving of the same respect they accorded him. How to go about this is, of course, debatable. What will you do? One choice is to step right into his vacated position, and show the men what you can do. As the son of the supreme commander, you could move into his big tent, dress in his fine clothes, and start issuing commands. Your other choice is to insist on working at hard labor, living modestly, and sleeping under the stars on the ground, where your men do. It would be a lot different than the luxury and comfort of Carthage, and rather unusual for a man of your position. Now, you must choose. What will you do? Step into your father's position Act like every other soldier

3 XXX-You have changed history! By attempting to step directly into your father's position, you have accomplished a number of things. You have offended your commanding officer, Hasdrubal, who has the right to command. You have offended the men in your command, because you have not yet earned their respect, and they cannot be certain whether they should trust you. By alienating your countrymen, you have given hope to your enemies, Since Rome is currently trying to decide whether to deal with you or the Gauls, they can turn their attention to the Gauls, figuring that you will be "held off" by their frontier allies. He will inevitably make the choice that will earn him respect from his men, and cause his enemies to despair. Scroll down to see the historically correct choice. **** Excellent choice! The "real" Hannibal was respected by his men for dressing plainly, he did not indulge himself in luxuries, and never expected to be exempt from the jobs of a normal soldier. By doing so, his men saw him as a friend and equal. It was said that he was the first into battle, and the last to leave the field, earning him respect for bravery and fighting prowess. These behaviors put him in excellent position when the army needed a new leader, because he had not only the name of a leader, but the qualities of one, as well. On to your next choice.next choice Hasdrubal's death (your commanding leader) left the army temporarily leaderless, but Hannibal was chosen by his men as a leader they would willingly follow anywhere. He immediately began to expand the Carthaginian presence in Spain, actions which frequently brought him into conflict with Roman garrisons and allies. While on an expedition, Hannibal finds himself in the vicinity of a Roman force some 5 times larger than his own. He could choose to stand and fight, using the river at his back as an incentive to his men to fight boldly. If his soldiers prove superior, the Romans will be unable to outflank him. If the superior number of his enemy proves overwhelming, he may still be able to withdraw his army across the river, though it will probably cost many men to do so. Either way, he is anxious to engage Roman forces soon, so that he can prove his ability. You are forced with another major choice. What did Hannibal do? Stand and Fight Cross the River and Fight Elsewhere

4 ****Excellent choice! The "real" Hannibal was respected by his men for dressing plainly, he did not indulge himself in luxuries, and never expected to be exempt from the jobs of a normal soldier. By doing so, his men saw him as a friend and equal. It was said that he was the first into battle, and the last to leave the field, earning him respect for bravery and fighting prowess. These behaviors put him in excellent position when the army needed a new leader, because he had not only the name of a leader, but the qualities of one, as well. Read below to see your next choice. Hasdrubal's death (your commanding leader) left the army temporarily leaderless, but Hannibal was chosen by his men as a leader they would willingly follow anywhere. He immediately began to expand the Carthaginian presence in Spain, actions which frequently brought him into conflict with Roman garrisons and allies. While on an expedition, Hannibal finds himself in the vicinity of a Roman force some 5 times larger than his own. He could choose to stand and fight, using the river at his back as an incentive to his men to fight boldly. If his soldiers prove superior, the Romans will be unable to outflank him. If the superior number of his enemy proves overwhelming, he may still be able to withdraw his army across the river, though it will probably cost many men to do so. Either way, he is anxious to engage Roman forces soon, so that he can prove his ability. You are forced with another major choice. What did Hannibal do? Stand and Fight Cross the River and Fight Elsewhere

5 XXX -You have changed History! It is generally considered bad policy in this era to use rivers at your back, since retreating would be slow work that could cost you many of your troops. It cuts down on your mobility. Had Hannibal chosen to stand here, he'd probably have had his army (and himself) slaughtered, and we'd have had no more problems. So, that's not what he did. Below, see why the other choice was better. ****Good decision! Hannibal realized that he could only defeat such a large force by hurrying his army across the river and hiding his cavalry near the banks. The Romans, anxious, pursued him at top speed. This led to their undoing, as it is extremely difficult to fight in 3 feet of water! While the Roman force was up to its armpits in river, the Carthaginian cavalry rushed in with them. Once the Romans retreated, Hannibal's army raced back across the river, and thumped 'em good. Fresh off his stunning victory, Hannibal was even more excited to attack his sworn enemy. Saguntum was the southernmost city in Spain, allied with Rome. Situated on the southern bank of the Iberus River, it was well fortified against invasion by land or sea. If Hannibal chooses to attack Saguntum, it will definitely precipitate a Second Punic War, and all hopes of a peaceful coexistence will be gone. Attacking Saguntum will cause the Romans to be warned of Hannibal's intentions, though there can be little doubt of them anyway. It will also cause what we will call the Fortification Problem. It takes time and troops to diminish such a city, during which time the Romans may try to reinforce the town, or find other methods of resistance, and Hannibal does not have the time or resources to do so. Faced with these options, what would you do? Saguntum by Force Pass Saguntum by

6 ****Good decision! Hannibal realized that he could only defeat such a large force by hurrying his army across the river and hiding his cavalry near the banks. The Romans, anxious, pursued him at top speed. This led to their undoing, as it is extremely difficult to fight in 3 feet of water! While the Roman force was up to its armpits in river, the Carthaginian cavalry rushed in with them. Once the Romans retreated, Hannibal's army raced back across the river, and thumped 'em good. Read below for you next decision. Fresh off his stunning victory, Hannibal was even more excited to attack his sworn enemy. Saguntum was the southernmost city in Spain, allied with Rome. Situated on the southern bank of the Iberus River, it was well fortified against invasion by land or sea. If Hannibal chooses to attack Saguntum, it will definitely precipitate a Second Punic War, and all hopes of a peaceful coexistence will be gone. Attacking Saguntum will cause the Romans to be warned of Hannibal's intentions, though there can be little doubt of them anyway. It will also cause what we will call the Fortification Problem. It takes time and troops to diminish such a city, during which time the Romans may try to reinforce the town, or find other methods of resistance, and Hannibal does not have the time or resources to do so. Faced with these options, what would you do? Reduce Saguntum by force Pass Saguntum by

7 **** You made the right choice to capture Saguntum before moving on. Ironically, Hannibal almost lost his life here, when a javelin, thrown down from the city wall, rammed through his leg. He survived quite nicely, and the destruction of Saguntum was assured. The Saguntines hated Hannibal so much that they threw themselves into a fire, rather than become his mercenaries or slaves. At home, this victory caused his popularity to grow also, as he was elected suffete. Suffete was similar to being consul in Rome, and gave Hannibal reason to carry forth his war against Rome. This position virtually guaranteed that he would get the support he needed to bring his plans to completion. Read below for your next choice. The conflict with Rome was now in full swing. Hannibal took his troops north, crossed the Pyrenees, and headed east. However he has the Replacement Factor: He is in command of a mostly volunteer army, and he needs more troops; so he uses disgruntled natives of Spain and Gaul who were dissatisfied with Roman rule. Hannibal convinced many that he was the solution to their problems with Rome. Downstream, Hannibal's cavalry found itself close to a Roman cavalry unit. Despite orders to not fight, both groups attacked, and a battle ensued. There was no clear winner, both sides now knew where their enemy was. After the battle, both troops returned to their camps Hannibal now knows that the Romans are at the mouth of the Rhone, in great numbers. Now, however, he has crossed the Pyrenees, and his men have had a taste of high altitudes and bitterly cold temperatures in the Alps which are treacherous. To travel south and engage the Romans may mean that Hannibal could destroy their army in 1 major battle, and leave Rome crippled for the rest of his assault. He would have to be able to capture their navy, in order to have the ships he would need to land in Italy. Even if he were successful in this, he would have the Port Problem. The geography of Italy has very few good harbors in which he could land, and these might be fortified against him. What choice would you make? Cross the Alps Go down the Rhone

8 XXX- You have changed History! Bypassing Saguntum would be a major mistake, because the inhabitants truly despise you, and would do everything they could to disrupt your further progress. You are already far from home, with stretched supply lines, and are surrounded by hostile natives. You can ill afford to leave a fortified city, with an enemy port in it, standing to the rear of your advance. You must make allies as you go, or at least, leave them them in fear of your retribution. Reducing the city was your correct option. **** You made the right choice to capture Saguntum before moving on. Ironically, Hannibal almost lost his life here, when a javelin, thrown down from the city wall, rammed through his leg. He survived quite nicely, and the destruction of Saguntum was assured. The Saguntines hated Hannibal so much that they threw themselves into a fire, rather than become his mercenaries or slaves. At home, this victory caused his popularity to grow also, as he was elected suffete. Suffete was similar to being consul in Rome, and gave Hannibal reason to carry forth his war against Rome. This position virtually guaranteed that he would get the support he needed to bring his plans to completion. Read below for your next choice. The conflict with Rome was now in full swing. Hannibal took his troops north, crossed the Pyrenees, and headed east. However he has the Replacement Factor: He is in command of a mostly volunteer army, and he needs more troops; so he uses disgruntled natives of Spain and Gaul who were dissatisfied with Roman rule. Hannibal convinced many that he was the solution to their problems with Rome. Downstream, Hannibal's cavalry found itself close to a Roman cavalry unit. Despite orders to not fight, both groups attacked, and a battle ensued. There was no clear winner, both sides now knew where their enemy was. After the battle, both troops returned to their camps Hannibal now knows that the Romans are at the mouth of the Rhone, in great numbers. Now, however, he has crossed the Pyrenees, and his men have had a taste of high altitudes and bitterly cold temperatures in the Alps which are treacherous. To travel south and engage the Romans may mean that Hannibal could destroy their army in 1 major battle, and leave Rome crippled for the rest of his assault. He would have to be able to capture their navy, in order to have the ships he would need to land in Italy. Even if he were successful in this, he would have the Port Problem. The geography of Italy has very few good harbors in which he could land, and these might be fortified against him. What choice would you make? Cross the AlpsGo down the Rhone

9 ***Good Choice: Though he had to do some fast talking to inspire his men, Hannibal convinced them that the best course was to stay on track and cross the Alps. Still, it was no easy journey. Many mountain men lived in the Alps, and they resisted Hannibal's advance by throwing rocks down upon his men from ledges above. Often the snow and ice gave way underfoot, and men plummeted to their deaths. Most difficult of his equipment to move were the elephants, and Hannibal lost most of these to the narrow paths, or the cold. Only the sight of the lush valleys below, and the thought of grassy lands they would own kept his men moving forward. Read below for your next choice. Hannibal inspired his men by reminding them that they were now all veteran soldiers, whereas the Roman had new recruits because of the Leadership Factor. Every time the Roman consulship changed, so did the leadership of the Roman army. At this point, the consul in charge of the Roman army that had been sent north was named Scipio. (The other consul, Sempronius, was sent south.) He was building a bridge across the Ticinus branch of the Po river, when word came from scouts that Hannibal and his men were only 5 miles away. Hannibal was fully aware of Scipio's presence, but debated his best course of action. He could attack now, wading across the river to meet the Romans, or he could wait, letting them finish their bridge and come to his side. His men were still somewhat tired from their trip over the Alps, and in hostile territory. Quick action, though, might prevent the Romans from bringing the full might of their army upon him. Which would you choose to do? Attack the Romans NowWait until the bridge is built

10 XXX - You have changed History! Gambling that he could both destroy the Roman army, and take their navy would have been foolish. Then, not being able to invade Italy with that navy would have made the entire undertaking worthless. Most likely, the Romans, if in danger of defeat, would simply have withdrawn to their ships and sailed away. Hannibal had very little chance to gain the decisive victory he needed. ***Good Choice: Though he had to do some fast talking to inspire his men, Hannibal convinced them that the best course was to stay on track and cross the Alps. Still, it was no easy journey. Many mountain men lived in the Alps, and they resisted Hannibal's advance by throwing rocks down upon his men from ledges above. Often the snow and ice gave way underfoot, and men plummeted to their deaths. Most difficult of his equipment to move were the elephants, and Hannibal lost most of these to the narrow paths, or the cold. Only the sight of the lush valleys below, and the thought of grassy lands they would own kept his men moving forward. Read below for your next choice. Hannibal inspired his men by reminding them that they were now all veteran soldiers, whereas the Roman had new recruits because of the Leadership Factor. Every time the Roman consulship changed, so did the leadership of the Roman army. At this point, the consul in charge of the Roman army that had been sent north was named Scipio. (The other consul, Sempronius, was sent south.) He was building a bridge across the Ticinus branch of the Po river, when word came from scouts that Hannibal and his men were only 5 miles away. Hannibal was fully aware of Scipio's presence, but debated his best course of action. He could attack now, wading across the river to meet the Romans, or he could wait, letting them finish their bridge and come to his side. His men were still somewhat tired from their trip over the Alps, and in hostile territory. Quick action, though, might prevent the Romans from bringing the full might of their army upon him. Which would you choose to do? Attack the Romans nowWait until the bridge is built

11 XXX- You have changed History! Had Hannibal crossed the Ticinus, he would probably have had to move north first, since he could not risk being caught by Scipio while crossing. Many areas in the Po region are swampy, the Ticinus is rather deep at this location. It is difficult to fight while in water, and Hannibal certainly didn't want any disadvantages. Since the actual events at the Ticinus turned on Hannibal's usual craftiness, and little bit of luck, he may not have been as successful had he crossed the river. Below is what really occurred. **** By allowing Scipio to complete his bridge, you improve the likelihood of an engagement, and that is, after all, just what Hannibal wants. He made promises every day to his men that they would have great wealth once Rome was defeated. The Romans crossed over, and went looking for Hannibal, with the two armies coming together at a point where neither was actually prepared to see the other. This sort of engagement favored Hannibal and his veteran troops, who quickly formed up and attacked, while the Romans seemed utterly discombobulated by the whole encounter. The destruction was terrible, Scipio was wounded, and the Roman army fled in retreat. They made it across the Ticinus, and destroyed their bridge. Hannibal attempted to pursue them the following day, but Scipio had kept his troops moving all night, and thus escaped from immediate danger. Hannibal was victorious, but not fulfilled. He was now faced with another decision. The wounding of Scipio put the Roman army in dread of complete collapse. They appealed to the Senate, who decided to bring Sempronius north from Sicily, and have him reinforce Scipio's troops. Here the Leadership Factor hit, as the two consuls disagreed plan of action. Scipio wished to delay until he was returned to full health and wanted to wait until the long winter was over, and also believed that Sempronius was trying too hard to make a name for himself. Sempronius did not like that choice, since it was not clear that Scipio would ever recover. He lobbied every day with Scipio to let him take one good shot at Hannibal, and made preparations to do so. Hannibal, as usual, was aware of all this disagreement. He hoped that Sempronius would win the debate soon, so that he might fight a decisive battle before the winter got any worse. It was already a very cold, rainy year, and Hannibal knew he'd soon no longer be able to carry out a battle. It would be difficult to wait much longer and expect to get anything more accomplished. In fact, he is forced to make a decision NOW. What would you have him do? Attack Sempronius now Find winter quarters, and prepare to battle in the spring

12 ****By allowing Scipio to complete his bridge, you improve the likelihood of an engagement, and that is, after all, just what Hannibal wants. He made promises every day to his men that they would have great wealth once Rome was defeated. The Romans crossed over, and went looking for Hannibal, with the two armies coming together at a point where neither was actually prepared to see the other. This sort of engagement favored Hannibal and his veteran troops, who quickly formed up and attacked, while the Romans seemed utterly discombobulated by the whole encounter. The destruction was terrible, Scipio was wounded, and the Roman army fled in retreat. They made it across the Ticinus, and destroyed their bridge. Hannibal attempted to pursue them the following day, but Scipio had kept his troops moving all night, and thus escaped from immediate danger. Hannibal was victorious, but not fulfilled. He was now faced with another decision. The wounding of Scipio put the Roman army in dread of complete collapse. They appealed to the Senate, who decided to bring Sempronius north from Sicily, and have him reinforce Scipio's troops. Here the Leadership Factor hit, as the two consuls disagreed plan of action. Scipio wished to delay until he was returned to full health and wanted to wait until the long winter was over, and also believed that Sempronius was trying too hard to make a name for himself. Sempronius did not like that choice, since it was not clear that Scipio would ever recover. He lobbied every day with Scipio to let him take one good shot at Hannibal, and made preparations to do so. Hannibal, as usual, was aware of all this disagreement. He hoped that Sempronius would win the debate soon, so that he might fight a decisive battle before the winter got any worse. It was already a very cold, rainy year, and Hannibal knew he'd soon no longer be able to carry out a battle. It would be difficult to wait much longer and expect to get anything more accomplished. In fact, he is forced to make a decision NOW. What would you have him do? Attack Sempronius now Find winter quarters, and prepare to battle in the spring

13 **** Because of the Food Factor, Hannibal needed to attack the Romans, so he could find new areas to steal for food. Hannibal needed to drive the Roman army away so he'd have more territories to seek food from. As usual, Hannibal did not take the ordinary path. Knowing that Sempronius only needed some small excuse to fight, Hannibal gave him one. After laying an ambush in the high grasses along the river, Hannibal sent an infantry detachment to attack the Roman camp. When the Romans were successful in keeping away this force, Sempronius had the excuse he needed to launch an all-out assault on the Carthaginians. Sempronius gathered up his troops, and charged after the retreating enemy. Sempronius was hungry for glory. Back across the river he pushed them, charging forward at an alarming rate. When the entire Roman force had crossed the river, Hannibal's trap was sprung. The hidden troops emerged to attack the Romans from the rear, and Hannibal's reserves stopped the Roman advance in its tracks. The war elephants were especially effective in this engagement, terrorizing the Romans, and causing them to lose some organization. What few troops survived the battle were further ruined by their return trip across the dangerous river. This forced the Romans to withdraw from northern Italy altogether, and head home to gather a new army. Hannibal now had free run of a large area. This forced him into yet another major decision. Intelligence from his spies told Hannibal several things. Winter in this area would restrict his options greatly. Food would be in short supply, and proper quarters would be scarce. The locals were not happy to have him around, and he took to wearing disguises so he would not be so easily spotted and perhaps assassinated. His options were fairly limited. He could push south and try to find a better climate, but that would bring him very close to Rome, and bring even more danger. He could cross the Apennines to get to better weather and land on the other side, but with winter full upon him, the crossing would be very difficult, and, geez!, another set of mountains? Still, he had to do something. What do you suppose he did? Cross the Apennines Find local shelter for winter

14 **** Because of the Food Factor, Hannibal needed to attack the Romans, so he could find new areas to steal for food. Hannibal needed to drive the Roman army away so he'd have more territories to seek food from. As usual, Hannibal did not take the ordinary path. Knowing that Sempronius only needed some small excuse to fight, Hannibal gave him one. After laying an ambush in the high grasses along the river, Hannibal sent an infantry detachment to attack the Roman camp. When the Romans were successful in keeping away this force, Sempronius had the excuse he needed to launch an all-out assault on the Carthaginians. Sempronius gathered up his troops, and charged after the retreating enemy. Sempronius was hungry for glory. Back across the river he pushed them, charging forward at an alarming rate. When the entire Roman force had crossed the river, Hannibal's trap was sprung. The hidden troops emerged to attack the Romans from the rear, and Hannibal's reserves stopped the Roman advance in its tracks. The war elephants were especially effective in this engagement, terrorizing the Romans, and causing them to lose some organization. What few troops survived the battle were further ruined by their return trip across the dangerous river. This forced the Romans to withdraw from northern Italy altogether, and head home to gather a new army. Hannibal now had free run of a large area. This forced him into yet another major decision. Intelligence from his spies told Hannibal several things. Winter in this area would restrict his options greatly. Food would be in short supply, and proper quarters would be scarce. The locals were not happy to have him around, and he took to wearing disguises so he would not be so easily spotted and perhaps assassinated. His options were fairly limited. He could push south and try to find a better climate, but that would bring him very close to Rome, and bring even more danger. He could cross the Apennines to get to better weather and land on the other side, but with winter full upon him, the crossing would be very difficult, and, geez!, another set of mountains? Still, he had to do something. What do you suppose he did? Cross the ApenninesFind local shelter for winter XXX You have changed History! The major problem would have been finding good winter quarters in this part of the country, so it'd have been a pretty cold, wet season, through which you'd have to find food for your troops. We'll call this the Food Factor. An army away from home and its supply lines, must move frequently to find enough food for so many men. So, he either had to attack, or try to work his way around the Roman force, which would not be easy, since they knew the terrain and he did not. Scroll down to see what he actually did.

15 ***Although you made the correct decision it was one of Hannibal’s worst decisions, and it cost you both. Because of the terrible winter in the Apennines, he lost many men and all but one of his elephants. He ended up having to return to the Po valley and spend his winter there anyway. It was an uneasy season, and emotionally taxing on Hannibal and his men. When the spring of 216 BC came 'round, the Carthaginian army was not as powerful as it might have been, and future events may have been avoided. Having survived the winter, Hannibal moved south to pressure Rome itself. He labored forward, always with one thought on his mind: Destroy Rome. The Romans had held another election, and the consul now assigned to pursue Hannibal was named Flaminius. Flaminius greatly desired such glory, and so he moved north with his army in eager anticipation. Hannibal had reached Lake Thrasymene. Here was a narrow pass where the lake comes directly to the foot of the mountain. From his camp on the north side of the pass, Hannibal could clearly see the approaching Roman army. Once again, his heart leapt with the anticipation of battle. His excitement was heightened by the knowledge that Flaminius would probably jump at the wrong opportunity for attack, and once again leave Hannibal victorious. All he had to do, was make the right decision. Would you? Attack Flaminius nowWait on Flaminius to come to you

16 ***Although you made the correct decision it was one of Hannibal’s worst decisions, and it cost you both. Because of the terrible winter in the Apennines, he lost many men and all but one of his elephants. He ended up having to return to the Po valley and spend his winter there anyway. It was an uneasy season, and emotionally taxing on Hannibal and his men. When the spring of 216 BC came 'round, the Carthaginian army was not as powerful as it might have been, and future events may have been avoided. Having survived the winter, Hannibal moved south to pressure Rome itself. He labored forward, always with one thought on his mind: Destroy Rome. The Romans had held another election, and the consul now assigned to pursue Hannibal was named Flaminius. Flaminius greatly desired such glory, and so he moved north with his army in eager anticipation. Hannibal had reached Lake Thrasymene. Here was a narrow pass where the lake comes directly to the foot of the mountain. From his camp on the north side of the pass, Hannibal could clearly see the approaching Roman army. Once again, his heart leapt with the anticipation of battle. His excitement was heightened by the knowledge that Flaminius would probably jump at the wrong opportunity for attack, and once again leave Hannibal victorious. All he had to do, was make the right decision. Would you? Attack Flaminius nowWait on Flaminius to come to you XXX - You have changed History! This time, you probably would have even improved it. Hannibal made one of his few bad decisions. Winter had come so heavily that these mountains were worse to cross than the Alps. He lost all but one of his elephants, and eventually ended up turning back. Had he not gone here, he would have had more men and elephants for the spring assault. Your choice is what he should have done, but instead... Scroll down.

17 XXX - You have changed History! And this time, with probably disastrous results. It would be very foolish to try to fight in any way relative to this pass except on the other side of it. If you put this narrowness to your back you cannot retreat. The only logical thing to do is to try to entice Flaminius into coming to your side. Scroll down to see what happened. ****Hannibal hid some men upon the mountainside, and withdrew somewhat from the pass, which Flaminius took as a signal that Hannibal was afraid. Hastening to chase Hannibal down and pound on him, Flaminius ran directly into the trap. Hannibal knew that, once through the pass, no army could retreat, and that worked perfectly for him. Flaminius' ambition cost him his army, and his life. It also caused tremendous concern in Rome, forcing tough decisions to be made there. In despair, the Romans resorted to their final option: to appoint a dictator. The dictator had supreme power over every operation of the military and civil government, to ensure the best possibility of success. The Romans chose Fabius for the job. He was, by all accounts, a level-headed person, with no desire to be a god or lifetime ruler. He began by ordering all the residents of small northern towns to evacuate, and to burn all the buildings they owned, as well as any food they could not take with them. This would leave Hannibal with precious few resources, and, due to the Food Factor, force him to move more frequently, in search of supplies. Fabius then originated the style of fighting that is now named for him. As if in a great Chess match, the two armies circled and danced with each other, with the Roman force always remaining just out of range of Hannibal's jabs. These "Fabian tactics" caused Hannibal to struggle for food, while remaining constantly on the defensive. Fabius was certain that, eventually, he would maneuver Hannibal into a bad position. Fabius' strategy eventually paid off, when Hannibal found himself drawn into a natural "box". Surrounded by high hills on all sides, Hannibal, unfamiliar with the territory, wandered through a narrow pass, and found himself trapped. Fabius was able to bottle him up by stationing a thin line of troops all around the rim of the mountains, and placing a large force at the entrance to the pass. Still, Hannibal must do something in this situation, or he would be doomed. He could try to fight his way through the narrow pass, or try to go up one of the hills, and thus out of the box. If he chose incorrectly, Fabius would destroy him, and the war would be over. Which choice would you make? Charge up the hillEscape through the pass

18 ****Hannibal hid some men upon the mountainside, and withdrew somewhat from the pass, which Flaminius took as a signal that Hannibal was afraid. Hastening to chase Hannibal down and pound on him, Flaminius ran directly into the trap. Hannibal knew that, once through the pass, no army could retreat, and that worked perfectly for him. Flaminius' ambition cost him his army, and his life. It also caused tremendous concern in Rome, forcing tough decisions to be made there. In despair, the Romans resorted to their final option: to appoint a dictator. The dictator had supreme power over every operation of the military and civil government, to ensure the best possibility of success. The Romans chose Fabius for the job. He was, by all accounts, a level-headed person, with no desire to be a god or lifetime ruler. He began by ordering all the residents of small northern towns to evacuate, and to burn all the buildings they owned, as well as any food they could not take with them. This would leave Hannibal with precious few resources, and, due to the Food Factor, force him to move more frequently, in search of supplies. Fabius then originated the style of fighting that is now named for him. As if in a great Chess match, the two armies circled and danced with each other, with the Roman force always remaining just out of range of Hannibal's jabs. These "Fabian tactics" caused Hannibal to struggle for food, while remaining constantly on the defensive. Fabius was certain that, eventually, he would maneuver Hannibal into a bad position. Fabius' strategy eventually paid off, when Hannibal found himself drawn into a natural "box". Surrounded by high hills on all sides, Hannibal, unfamiliar with the territory, wandered through a narrow pass, and found himself trapped. Fabius was able to bottle him up by stationing a thin line of troops all around the rim of the mountains, and placing a large force at the entrance to the pass. Still, Hannibal must do something in this situation, or he would be doomed. He could try to fight his way through the narrow pass, or try to go up one of the hills, and thus out of the box. If he chose incorrectly, Fabius would destroy him, and the war would be over. Which choice would you make? Charge up the hillEscape through the pass

19 XXX - You have changed History! Still, you may deserve partial credit, as you will see. The Romans were sure it would be foolhardy for Hannibal to attack uphill, but he did have a way of pulling off actions lesser Generals could not. He did use the hills in his strategy, though. Scroll down to see what happened. *** Hannibal had no desire to take on the main force of the Roman army, so he tried a bit of trick. In the dark of night, Hannibal tied torches to the horns of oxen he had in camp. When his troops were ready to move, the torches were set on fire, and the oxen were sent off up the hill. To the Roman troops guarding the pass, this appeared to be a great threat. As the torches burned, the oxen brushed against trees and shrubs, setting them afire as well. Finally, the torches began to burn the horns of the oxen, who ran about wildly. The Romans mistook this as an attempt by the Carthaginians to assault them from above, and the Romans prepared to respond. Pulling troops away from the pass, they eventually found themselves fighting forest fires and oxen. While they did so, Hannibal sneaked his army out through the pass, and off to safety. Amazing, isn't it? This presented him with new opportunities and choices. Hannibal's escape caused a number of problems for the Romans. The Romans in general, and the Senate particularly, had always hoped that Fabius would be their savior. The cost of delays, in food and other supplies, as well as the inconvenience of having an enemy army roaming the neighborhood, was becoming too much to bear. Into this mix came the personality of Minucius, Master of the Horse. Minucius was Fabius' second- in-command, and had frequently advised Fabius to strike at Hannibal in a more aggressive way. The Senate call Fabius home where he refused to change his strategy, and they ordered him to accept Minucius as an equal partner. Now, the Romans were faced with an even larger problem. Since the two generals could not agree on the best course of action, they would have to decide on the best way to divide the responsibility. Minucius suggested that they should alternate days of command, but Fabius thought they should divide the army in two. Hannibal, of course, was well aware of all this intrigue, and must have had some opinion about which choice he would prefer to occur. Which do you suppose Hannibal preferred? Fabius & Minucius will split days Fabius & Minucius will split the army

20 *** Hannibal had no desire to take on the main force of the Roman army, so he tried a bit of trick. In the dark of night, Hannibal tied torches to the horns of oxen he had in camp. When his troops were ready to move, the torches were set on fire, and the oxen were sent off up the hill. To the Roman troops guarding the pass, this appeared to be a great threat. As the torches burned, the oxen brushed against trees and shrubs, setting them afire as well. Finally, the torches began to burn the horns of the oxen, who ran about wildly. The Romans mistook this as an attempt by the Carthaginians to assault them from above, and the Romans prepared to respond. Pulling troops away from the pass, they eventually found themselves fighting forest fires and oxen. While they did so, Hannibal sneaked his army out through the pass, and off to safety. Amazing, isn't it? This presented him with new opportunities and choices. Hannibal's escape caused a number of problems for the Romans. The Romans in general, and the Senate particularly, had always hoped that Fabius would be their savior. The cost of delays, in food and other supplies, as well as the inconvenience of having an enemy army roaming the neighborhood, was becoming too much to bear. Into this mix came the personality of Minucius, Master of the Horse. Minucius was Fabius' second- in-command, and had frequently advised Fabius to strike at Hannibal in a more aggressive way. The Senate call Fabius home where he refused to change his strategy, and they ordered him to accept Minucius as an equal partner. Now, the Romans were faced with an even larger problem. Since the two generals could not agree on the best course of action, they would have to decide on the best way to divide the responsibility. Minucius suggested that they should alternate days of command, but Fabius thought they should divide the army in two. Hannibal, of course, was well aware of all this intrigue, and must have had some opinion about which choice he would prefer to occur. Which do you suppose Hannibal preferred? Fabius & Minucius will split days Fabius & Minucius will split the army

21 XXX - You have changed History! If the days had been split, he'd still have had to face the entire Roman army in battle, even if he could have enticed Minucius to attack on his own day. It is always dangerous to fight a complete force. It must have pleased him to have the army split in two, giving him a smaller army to fight. Historically, this decision certainly worked in his favor. Scroll down to see. **** By splitting the army, the Romans gave Hannibal what he wanted... maybe. Hannibal lured Minucius' part of the army to come after him, and lured them up a hill. Minucius, pursued Hannibal into a trap, by which his entire force should have been destroyed. Fabius used his half of the army, to come to Minucius' rescue, and saved them from certain destruction. Minucius was wise enough to admit that he had made a mistake. He apologized to Fabius, and promised to follow him wherever he went. The army was rejoined, and all was forgiven. Now, there would be a change in Roman leadership, and Hannibal would have more choices to make. Hannibal found that his food supply had become impossibly low. He desperately needed supplies, and had to go in search of new sources. Nearly surrounded, Hannibal tried another ruse, by pretending to abandon his camp and move away. The Romans did not fall for this trick, so Hannibal pulled the same ploy again, and really did move away. This enabled him to go south to greener fields in Cannae, where the two armies finally came into conflict. The Roman consuls were now Aemilius and Varro. Having learned one lesson from the experience of Fabius & Minucius, Aemilius & Varro split days of control, rather than splitting the army. On days of his command, Aemilius maneuvered around Hannibal, keeping his troops at a safe distance, but preventing Hannibal from going his own way. On his days, Varro prepared to have conflict. The Battle at Cannae was one of the most horrific battles in history. Some 50,000 Carthaginians faced about 80,000 Romans, and the killing was vicious on both sides. Hannibal once again used a trick, having a large segment of his army pretend to desert to the Romans. Because of the ferocity of the battle, the Romans could not spare many men to guard the Carthaginians, and, at an appointed moment, the "prisoners" attacked the Roman army from behind. Many Romans were slaughtered, including the consul Aemilius. The Romans believed all was lost. Hannibal was now faced with his greatest decision. Rome lay before him, with no army to protect it. To lay siege to a city so large, with high walls and an immense population, would take a very long time, and it appeared to Hannibal that the citizens would fight him with rocks and sticks if necessary. He was still subject to the impossibility of getting reinforcements from anywhere in the vicinity. His Generals advised him to attack immediately, taking advantage of their temporary dominance. It was nearly winter again, and Hannibal knew it would be difficult to besiege a city in poor weather, when his troops would have to live in the open. At the gates of his ultimate obstacle, Hannibal faced the ultimate decision. What would you do? Attack Rome nowWait for Spring & Reinforcements

22 **** By splitting the army, the Romans gave Hannibal what he wanted... maybe. Hannibal lured Minucius' part of the army to come after him, and lured them up a hill. Minucius, pursued Hannibal into a trap, by which his entire force should have been destroyed. Fabius used his half of the army, to come to Minucius' rescue, and saved them from certain destruction. Minucius was wise enough to admit that he had made a mistake. He apologized to Fabius, and promised to follow him wherever he went. The army was rejoined, and all was forgiven. Now, there would be a change in Roman leadership, and Hannibal would have more choices to make. Hannibal found that his food supply had become impossibly low. He desperately needed supplies, and had to go in search of new sources. Nearly surrounded, Hannibal tried another ruse, by pretending to abandon his camp and move away. The Romans did not fall for this trick, so Hannibal pulled the same ploy again, and really did move away. This enabled him to go south to greener fields in Cannae, where the two armies finally came into conflict. The Roman consuls were now Aemilius and Varro. Having learned one lesson from the experience of Fabius & Minucius, Aemilius & Varro split days of control, rather than splitting the army. On days of his command, Aemilius maneuvered around Hannibal, keeping his troops at a safe distance, but preventing Hannibal from going his own way. On his days, Varro prepared to have conflict. The Battle at Cannae was one of the most horrific battles in history. Some 50,000 Carthaginians faced about 80,000 Romans, and the killing was vicious on both sides. Hannibal once again used a trick, having a large segment of his army pretend to desert to the Romans. Because of the ferocity of the battle, the Romans could not spare many men to guard the Carthaginians, and, at an appointed moment, the "prisoners" attacked the Roman army from behind. Many Romans were slaughtered, including the consul Aemilius. The Romans believed all was lost. Hannibal was now faced with his greatest decision. Rome lay before him, with no army to protect it. To lay siege to a city so large, with high walls and an immense population, would take a very long time, and it appeared to Hannibal that the citizens would fight him with rocks and sticks if necessary. He was still subject to the impossibility of getting reinforcements from anywhere in the vicinity. His Generals advised him to attack immediately, taking advantage of their temporary dominance. It was nearly winter again, and Hannibal knew it would be difficult to besiege a city in poor weather, when his troops would have to live in the open. At the gates of his ultimate obstacle, Hannibal faced the ultimate decision. What would you do? Attack Rome nowWait for Spring & Reinforcements

23 XXX- You have changed History! There is no guarantee that he would have been successful, because it is certain that the Roman citizens would have fought tooth & nail through the streets. Rome was still in the flower of its Republic, and the people would not likely have taken well to being ruled by an "outsider". Of all the people who despised and resisted Rome, Hannibal was the only one to come so close to bringing about its destruction. Yet, when faced with the opportunity to destroy it, he withdrew for reasons we may never fully understand. Scroll down... **** By choosing to withdraw, Hannibal lost his only chance to defeat his hated Romans. He removed his army to Capua, which he intended to make a second capitol. The Carthaginian Senate was not particularly impressed that he would sent them so much gold and then request money and reinforcements in the same message. They debated for a long time, before granting his wishes. Hannibal's men, living in style in Capua, lost the edge that had made them so successful in the past. For 9 years, they skirmished infrequently with the Romans, and found themselves in a standoff. The end result was a stalemate that required the introduction of a new element to change the balance. That element leads to your next great choice. Carthage decided to send Hannibal's reinforcements by the same path Hannibal himself had taken. This force was led by Hannibal's brother, Hasdrubal. Hasdrubal had come over the Alps in much easier fashion than Hannibal had been able to. Hasdrubal knew that Hannibal had been a in a strange land for many years, and would welcome the assistance from home that he had craved. Descending from the Alps, Hasdrubal could barely contain his enthusiasm for battle. He was now faced with a decision of his own. Should he send word to his brother that he had arrived? The news would surely be appreciated, and would help Hannibal maneuver into position to link the two armies. Hasdrubal could also keep pressing forward, until he encountered Hannibal, but Hasdrubal was unfamiliar with the territory, and was not certain of the best path. What would you do? Send word to HannibalProceed with your army

24 **** By choosing to withdraw, Hannibal lost his only chance to defeat his hated Romans. He removed his army to Capua, which he intended to make a second capitol. The Carthaginian Senate was not particularly impressed that he would sent them so much gold and then request money and reinforcements in the same message. They debated for a long time, before granting his wishes. Hannibal's men, living in style in Capua, lost the edge that had made them so successful in the past. For 9 years, they skirmished infrequently with the Romans, and found themselves in a standoff. The end result was a stalemate that required the introduction of a new element to change the balance. That element leads to your next great choice. Carthage decided to send Hannibal's reinforcements by the same path Hannibal himself had taken. This force was led by Hannibal's brother, Hasdrubal. Hasdrubal had come over the Alps in much easier fashion than Hannibal had been able to. Hasdrubal knew that Hannibal had been a in a strange land for many years, and would welcome the assistance from home that he had craved. Descending from the Alps, Hasdrubal could barely contain his enthusiasm for battle. He was now faced with a decision of his own. Should he send word to his brother that he had arrived? The news would surely be appreciated, and would help Hannibal maneuver into position to link the two armies. Hasdrubal could also keep pressing forward, until he encountered Hannibal, but Hasdrubal was unfamiliar with the territory, and was not certain of the best path. What would you do? Send word to HannibalProceed with your army

25 **** You picked the same decision as Hasdrubal but a bad choice by both of you, Because there were spies everywhere, Hasdrubal's messengers were captured, and their plans became known. Hasdrubal had sent his brother explicit description of his plans, and the Romans used this to their advantage. The Romans were able to defeat Hasdrubal completely. According to legend, Hasdrubal, realizing that the battle was lost, threw himself into the middle of the fight, where he was eventually killed. The Romans cut off Hasdrubal's head, and threw it into Hannibal's camp as a message that all was lost to the Carthaginians. With no further hope for help from home, it seemed that the situation could not get worse for Hannibal. See his next choice. While the death of Hasdrubal was a tremendous emotional loss for Hannibal, his biggest concern as a commander were coming from other quarters. Word had been received that Carthage itself was now under siege. Following the Battle at Cannae, Scipio Africanus Major, took force to North Africa, with the intention of removing Hannibal from Italy by forcing him to come home to defend his own city. This created the unique possibility that Scipio might take Carthage while Hannibal took Rome. This situation did not happen however. Hannibal received an appeal from his Senate to return home to defend them. He had Rome in front of him, and the possibility of his own siege to consider in the process. He could take Rome, but also lose Carthage in the process. On the other hand, if Hannibal took Rome, Scipio might be forced to surrender, having no city to support him. What did he do? Attack RomeReturn Home

26 **** You picked the same decision as Hasdrubal but a bad choice by both of you, Because there were spies everywhere, Hasdrubal's messengers were captured, and their plans became known. Hasdrubal had sent his brother explicit description of his plans, and the Romans used this to their advantage. The Romans were able to defeat Hasdrubal completely. According to legend, Hasdrubal, realizing that the battle was lost, threw himself into the middle of the fight, where he was eventually killed. The Romans cut off Hasdrubal's head, and threw it into Hannibal's camp as a message that all was lost to the Carthaginians. With no further hope for help from home, it seemed that the situation could not get worse for Hannibal. See his next choice. While the death of Hasdrubal was a tremendous emotional loss for Hannibal, his biggest concern as a commander were coming from other quarters. Word had been received that Carthage itself was now under siege. Following the Battle at Cannae, Scipio Africanus Major, took force to North Africa, with the intention of removing Hannibal from Italy by forcing him to come home to defend his own city. This created the unique possibility that Scipio might take Carthage while Hannibal took Rome. This situation did not happen however. Hannibal received an appeal from his Senate to return home to defend them. He had Rome in front of him, and the possibility of his own siege to consider in the process. He could take Rome, but also lose Carthage in the process. On the other hand, if Hannibal took Rome, Scipio might be forced to surrender, having no city to support him. What did he do? XXX - You have changed History! Even though this was not his decision, your decision would have been possibly better. We have no way to prove it, but it seems very likely that Hasdrubal could have defeated the Roman army in the north, while Hannibal fought the Romans in the south. Together, they may have totally destroyed Roman resistance, and finally, conquered Rome itself. However, Hasdrubal was foolish and discounted the effect of the spies. Scroll down... Attack Rome Return Home

27 XXX - You have changed History! Even though it makes an interesting scenario, it would have been worthless to Hannibal to rule Rome while Scipio destroyed Carthage. If it became a race, Carthage would probably have fallen first, since the Romans had made many allies in North Africa, and could use their help to cut off Carthage from its surroundings. The only logical thing he could do, as a loyal Carthaginian, was to return home and defend his people. Scroll down... **** With an army that felt they had done enough, and an immense city in his way, Hannibal's only real choice was to return home. It was the hope of his people that he would be their savior, but Hannibal felt that fortune had deserted him, and all his years of fighting had gone to waste. His next decision will be your final choice. Outside Carthage lay the Plain of Zama, where the Roman army held its camp. It was now 201 BC, and the Second Punic War had been in effect for nearly a generation. Hannibal went into the camp of Scipio to discuss the terms of engagement. Negotiations were opened, and each gave his terms. Hannibal proposed that the Romans withdraw their army, and the Carthaginians would, in return, avoid any further attacks on Rome or Italy, allow free trade in the Mediterranean, and pay a great monetary tribute. Scipio claimed that this was not enough. He ordered Carthage to become a minor state, to dissolve their army, and to give Rome nearly all of their wealth. Hannibal was faced with this decision; he must give Rome what it asked for, or fight them once again. What would you do? Battle Once More Surrender and Concede

28 **** With an army that felt they had done enough, and an immense city in his way, Hannibal's only real choice was to return home. It was the hope of his people that he would be their savior, but Hannibal felt that fortune had deserted him, and all his years of fighting had gone to waste. His next decision will be your final choice. Outside Carthage lay the Plain of Zama, where the Roman army held its camp. It was now 201 BC, and the Second Punic War had been in effect for nearly a generation. Hannibal went into the camp of Scipio to discuss the terms of engagement. Negotiations were opened, and each gave his terms. Hannibal proposed that the Romans withdraw their army, and the Carthaginians would, in return, avoid any further attacks on Rome or Italy, allow free trade in the Mediterranean, and pay a great monetary tribute. Scipio claimed that this was not enough. He ordered Carthage to become a minor state, to dissolve their army, and to give Rome nearly all of their wealth. Hannibal was faced with this decision; he must give Rome what it asked for, or fight them once again. What would you do? Battle Once MoreSurrender and Concede

29 ***By choosing to do battle, Hannibal took the honorable, but destructive, path to destiny. There, on the Plain of Zama, two immense armies clashed. In this case, the number, and the years of wear and tear, overcame his ability. The Carthaginian army seemed to have no greatness left in it, and Hannibal had run out of effective tricks. Soon, it became obvious that the Romans had won. According to Abbott, Hannibal went to the Carthaginian Senate and said, "The fortune which once attended me is lost forever, and nothing is left to us but to make peace with our enemies on any terms that they may think fit to impose." The Second Punic Wars were over. Epilogue

30 XXX- You have changed History! It really isn't in Hannibal's nature to concede, but under these conditions especially, it could not happen. If he had given in, Carthage would have been reduced to a small state, and could not have retained its status, or wealth. He likely knew that he would lose, since his army, like any team that has played too many games, seemed defeated before the battle began. Scroll down... ***By choosing to do battle, Hannibal took the honorable, but destructive, path to destiny. There, on the Plain of Zama, two immense armies clashed. In this case, the number, and the years of wear and tear, overcame his ability. The Carthaginian army seemed to have no greatness left in it, and Hannibal had run out of effective tricks. Soon, it became obvious that the Romans had won. According to Abbott, Hannibal went to the Carthaginian Senate and said, "The fortune which once attended me is lost forever, and nothing is left to us but to make peace with our enemies on any terms that they may think fit to impose." The Second Punic Wars were over. Epilogue

31 The settlement of peace required Carthage to give up all foreign possessions, and give its navy to Rome. This was an extreme hardship for a state based on profit by trade. All war elephants were given to the Romans, and the Carthaginians were forbidden from training more. They were not allowed to take their army outside Africa, and they could not declare war on enemies within Africa unless they had first obtained permission from Rome. They also had to pay Rome a large sum of money for the next 50 years. For 8 years, Hannibal remained in Carthage, and became a political leader. He was always on the edge of violating the peace treaty, leading forces against local enemies without the permission of the Romans. Slowly, he built a cadre of enemies in Carthage, who were sick of his continual bringing of unwanted attention. These enemies eventually reported to Rome that Hannibal was conspiring with Antiochus, ruler of Syria and Phoenicia, to once again bring war upon Rome. Though the reports were completely untrue, Hannibal had no choice but to flee from all Roman vengeance. He left Carthage, hoping to spare it the wrath the Romans felt for him, personally, but it would make no real difference. Though he hid well, Roman "FBI" agents pursued him from place to place, making his life miserable. Finally, Hannibal found himself surrounded (in 182 BC) in Bithynia (in Asia Minor). He had for many years carried with him a vial of poison for just such a case. He drank his poison, and died, finally bringing a major chapter of world history to a close.


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