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Woodrow Wilson’s Foreign Policy and Attempt at Neutrality U.S. History 2 AP Mr. Melvin Unit 3, Lesson 3.

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Presentation on theme: "Woodrow Wilson’s Foreign Policy and Attempt at Neutrality U.S. History 2 AP Mr. Melvin Unit 3, Lesson 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 Woodrow Wilson’s Foreign Policy and Attempt at Neutrality U.S. History 2 AP Mr. Melvin Unit 3, Lesson 3

2 Foreign Policy Philosophy The Force of the U.S. is its moral principles Work for peace through example

3 How to Accomplish? –Teach semi-developed nations to live according to US constitutional system –Spread US society, culture, government, and law to semi-developed nations (efficient and ethical) –Definable body of international law for international community rather than alliances or military strength (moral nations need to follow it) –Placed hope for peace in international law –Wilson distrusted career men in navy, army, and state departments

4 Bryan’s Work Passed 30 treaties requiring international arbitration –Investigate issue with 1 year cooling off period Ended US participation in Manchurian RR (wouldn’t interfere in Chinese sovreignty 1 st Nation to recognize new Republic of China

5 Bryan’s Work New Japanese Crisis: –CA wanted to deny landownership to Japanese –Ended through Wilson’s conciliatory diplomacy –Crisis ended but problems still there

6 Bryan’s Work 2 nd Crisis with Japan: –1915 – Japan puts 21 demands on China –If accepted, China becomes subservient –Wilson sends harsh message to Japan –US wouldn’t stand for violation of: Open Door Policy Chinese territorial integrity US treaty rights

7 Latin America Wanted to abandon Dollar Diplomacy Goal: –1. Make Friends –2. Help Achieve higher standard of living Attempted to apologize to Columbia (Canal) –Blocked by TR’s friends in the Senate

8 Latin America Problem: –Most Latin American countries were poor and couldn’t care less about morals, laws, etc –Turbulent governments can’t help –In end, set up puppet governments in: Nicaragua Santo Domingo Haiti Resembled Dollar Diplomacy = Criticism

9 Crisis with Mexico 1911 – Middle Class revolution overthrew government 1913 – Counter- revolution (Huerta) restores regime (Europe recognized) 2 sides: Huerta vs. Carranza (Constitutionalists)

10 Crisis with Mexico Wilson engages in “watchful waiting” until October 1913 –Huerta declares himself dictator Wilson – refuse to recognize Huerta govt. Also sought repeal of British recognition –1914 – US passed law repealing English tolls to use Panama Canal –March 1914 – British repealed recogntion

11 Crisis with Mexico Wilson to Carranza: “Keep revolution orderly and we’ll intervene” Carranza – No, but we need your weapons February 1914 – US lifts weapons embargo on Mexico (help Carranza)

12 Crisis with Mexico Tampico Incident (April 10, 1914) –Huerta officer arrests US sailors that went ashore –Apologized, but refused to salute US flag –April 20 – Wilson asked Congress to attack Vera Cruz –April 21 – Sends navy without approval Protect harbor from Germans

13 U.S. Invasion of Vera Cruz

14 Crisis with Mexico Both Carranza and Huerta criticize US actions Argentina, Brazil, and Chile mediate issue –Not signed by Carranza July 1914 – Huerta overthrown August 1914 – Carranza in power –Becomes US enemy – US violation of Mexican sovreignty

15 Crisis with Mexico Carranza intensifies revolution 1915 – orders foreign property nationalized US popular support – send the troops! Wilson refuses and de facto recognizes Carranza government (October 1915)

16 Pancho Villa Was provincial governor of Carranza and US ally against Huerta Betrayed by Carranza Hated U.S. for still helping Carranza

17 Pancho Villa Launches invasion of New Mexico from January – March 1915 Wilson sends Pershing and army into Mexico to chase Villa –Couldn’t find Villa! US presence in Mexico angers Carranza –2 minor battles fought

18 End of Mexican Crisis July 1916 – issue sent to international arbitrator January 1917 – Wilson calls troops home and de facto recognizes Carranza. Wilson’s restraint outweighed his moralism –Ended up upsetting those he wanted to help –Avoided pressures for war –US/Mexican relations tenuous, but still present

19 WWI in Europe Assassination of Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand in Sarajevo –August 1914 Sparked, along with alliance system, to major European War

20 WWI in Europe Allied Powers: Russia, France, England, Italy VS Central Powers: Germany, Austria- Hungary, Ottoman Empire

21 WWI in Europe These Powers were not Involved

22 WWI Pressures Wilson intent on remaining “neutral in fact and name” US Progressives: “Concentrate on domestic reforms and set example for Europe” Both sides appealed to their own US ethnicities for support

23 WWI Pressures Both sides sent their own propaganda to the US

24 WWI Wilson upheld US “neutral rights” to trade and use seas –Basis of “international law” Rules were uncertain because of German U-Boats

25 WWI England blockaded neutral and German ports to trade –Diverted US ships to their ports to search –Seized US mail –Forbade its merchants to do business with “blacklisted” US companies Wilson protests – violation of international law England – keep blockade without hurting US Germany protests

26 WWI Allies began buying agricultural and industrial products from US Private American bankers began lending money to Allies so that they can continue funding war US became creditor nation Had stake in Allied victory (indirectly) Balance: Keep neutral rights BUT be semi- pro Allies??

27 U-Boat Issue U-boats are new technology – function off of surprise Wilson still using “older” international rules to apply to U-Boats –Old method: Ships warn sailors and passengers to leave merchant ships before sinking –Problem: U-Boat surfaces to warn – Very vulnerable!

28 U-Boat Issue Germany creates war zone around England, using U-boats –States that enemy ships will be sunk on sight –Germany’s equivalent to England’s blockade –Gives warning to neutral nations about potential for mistakes –Wilson protests – “Any US lives lost violation of neutral rights”

29 U-Boat Issue May 7, 1915 – British liner Lusitania sunk in war zone 128 Americans killed on board US outraged!


31 U-Boat Issue Wilson sends protest letter –Demands apology and payment for damages –Bryan believes letter too harsh to Germany and resigns (Replaced by Robert Lansing) –February 1916 – Germany apologizes and pays, but doesn’t admit that sinking was illegal Claims it was okay because passenger liner secretly carrying ammunition for the Allies

32 U-Boat Issue Wilson sends House to mediate war –Jan/Feb 1916 – Wilson & Lansing advise Allies to disarm merchant vessels Subs could warn ships before attacking Allies refuse –Feb 1916 – Germany declares unrestricted submarine warfare against armed vessels (because of Lansing’s suggestion) US reiterated original submarine policy, but would not stop US citizens from traveling

33 Sussex March 1916 – Sussex Sunk –Wilson warns Germans to stop Germany agrees to Sussex Pledge –Subs abide by visit and search rules –Would stop if England violates international law

34 “Americanism” Surge of Pro-American and Anti- everyoneelse –Continual fear of war Used as an excuse for suppression –Catholics, Jews, Labor Unions –1915- Denied women vote & passed literacy test for immigrants

35 “Americanism” Wilson used term differently –Preserving National Honor

36 “Preparedness” Is the U.S. prepared for war, just in case? Wilson – avoid large standing army TR & influential minority: PREPARE!!

37 “Preparedness” Nov. 1915 –Wilson calls for 400,000 troops to volunteer to serve a few months a year –Went on National Speaking Tour May 1916 – 2X of army & National Guard –Built stronger navy –Raised taxes on income and created inheritance tax to pay for it

38 Election of 1916 Wilson vs. Charles Evans Hughes “He Kept us Out of War” CA deciding factor 277-254

39 Road to War Nov. 1916 – G.B. passes tougher trade regulations –Germans sink more ships Wilson tries to broker peace –January 22, 1917 – “Peace without victors” League of Nations + Follow his 14 Points

40 Road to War Jan. 31, 1917 –Germans resume unrestricted sub. Warfare –Can now sink any enemy or neutral ship without warning –Wilson: Neutral right violation! –Breaks ties with Germany

41 Zimmerman Telegram Feb. 25, 1917 –Germany invites Mexico to join central powers –Will receive “lost territory” of American Southwest

42 Road to War Wilson decides to arm US merchant ships without Congressional approval

43 Road to War March 18, 1917 – Germans sink 3 US ships Russia drops out of war –No more dictatorship on Allied side

44 War Declaration April 2, 1917 – Wilson asks Congress to declare war Does so by April 6th

45 War Declaration

46 Image Citations zsS0/s400/1917+GERMAN+ANTI+FRANCE+BRITAIN+WWI+PROPAGANDA+POSTER+- +eBay+(item+350164122465+end+time+Feb-15-09+17-43-14+PST)_1234327361566.png zsS0/s400/1917+GERMAN+ANTI+FRANCE+BRITAIN+WWI+PROPAGANDA+POSTER+- +eBay+(item+350164122465+end+time+Feb-15-09+17-43-14+PST)_1234327361566.png

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