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Transport and Bacterial Cells Uptake of Nutrients and Key molecules Microbiology 2008.

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Presentation on theme: "Transport and Bacterial Cells Uptake of Nutrients and Key molecules Microbiology 2008."— Presentation transcript:

1 Transport and Bacterial Cells Uptake of Nutrients and Key molecules Microbiology 2008

2 What molecules are needed by the cell Carbon source( CO2, CH4, organic molecules) Nitrogen source( nitrogen compounds) amino acids, ammonia or ammonium Energy source Carbon source( CO2, CH4, organic molecules) Nitrogen source( nitrogen compounds) amino acids, ammonia or ammonium Energy source

3 Passive Transport A few molecules that are small can pass through the phospholipid bilayer by the process of diffusion Passive transport does not require an energy input A few molecules that are small can pass through the phospholipid bilayer by the process of diffusion Passive transport does not require an energy input

4 Passive T ransport The process of diffusion occurs when molecules or ions move from an area of greater concentration to an area of lower concentration The movement is down the concentration gradient The process of diffusion occurs when molecules or ions move from an area of greater concentration to an area of lower concentration The movement is down the concentration gradient

5 Diffusion Slow process Based upon the free energy of the molecules themselves Very small molecules such as O2 and CO2 move in this manner Slow process Based upon the free energy of the molecules themselves Very small molecules such as O2 and CO2 move in this manner

6 Rate of diffusion The rate of diffusion is determined by the difference in concentration of the nutrients or molecules on the outside and the inside of the membrane

7 Osmosis The movement of water from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration

8 Concentration The amount of solute dissolved in an ml or Liter( known volume) of solvent Can be measured in moles per 1000 g solvent( water) which is referred to as molality(m) Can be measured in % solute/solution Can be measured in Molarity – moles per liter of solution( M) The amount of solute dissolved in an ml or Liter( known volume) of solvent Can be measured in moles per 1000 g solvent( water) which is referred to as molality(m) Can be measured in % solute/solution Can be measured in Molarity – moles per liter of solution( M)

9 Water Potential Higher potential energy of water Higher concentration of water molecules that have free energy of movement Higher potential energy of water Higher concentration of water molecules that have free energy of movement

10 Osmosis and cell- membranes- comparative terms Hypertonic – refers to an environment with higher salt concentration and lower water potential Hypotonic – higher water concentration ( water potential) and lower solute Isotonic – equal concentration of solute on both sides of a membrane Hypertonic – refers to an environment with higher salt concentration and lower water potential Hypotonic – higher water concentration ( water potential) and lower solute Isotonic – equal concentration of solute on both sides of a membrane

11 Plasmolysis and Recovery

12 Lysis of cell wall

13 Animations for classroom /animations/membrane_transport/ membrane_transport.htmhttp://www.wiley.com/legacy/college/boyer/ /animations/membrane_transport/ membrane_transport.htm /animations/membrane_transport/ membrane_transport.htmhttp://www.wiley.com/legacy/college/boyer/ /animations/membrane_transport/ membrane_transport.htm

14 Membrane Proteins and Transport

15 Channels- moves one molecule in one direction across the membrane without the expenditure of energy Ions and larger molecules can also diffuse Many of these move through proteins that have a hydrophilic interior or core They move from high concentration to an area of lower concentration No energy is utilized Channels are specific for just one ion or molecule Ions and larger molecules can also diffuse Many of these move through proteins that have a hydrophilic interior or core They move from high concentration to an area of lower concentration No energy is utilized Channels are specific for just one ion or molecule

16 Channels

17 Membrane

18 Facilitated diffusion Facilitated diffusion is a type of diffusion which uses a transport molecule. Permease are proteins which are embedded in the cell membrane They assist in the movement of other molecules across the membrane This is a speedier process than regular diffusion, but again is highly specific No energy is spent in the process Facilitated diffusion is a type of diffusion which uses a transport molecule. Permease are proteins which are embedded in the cell membrane They assist in the movement of other molecules across the membrane This is a speedier process than regular diffusion, but again is highly specific No energy is spent in the process

19 Facilitated Diffusion

20 Aquaporins A major permease in bacteria is an aquaporin that helps to move water in and out of the cell

21 MIPs - Major Intrinisic proteins Group of proteins- They facilitate transport by changining their shape or conformation when they pick up the molecule When they move the molecule to the opposite side of the membrane they again change their shape upon release of the molecule they have transported Group of proteins- They facilitate transport by changining their shape or conformation when they pick up the molecule When they move the molecule to the opposite side of the membrane they again change their shape upon release of the molecule they have transported

22 Active Transport Transport of molecules and ions against the concentration gradient from low concentration to high concentration Requires the input of energy in the form of ATP ATP ADP + P + energy Transport of molecules and ions against the concentration gradient from low concentration to high concentration Requires the input of energy in the form of ATP ATP ADP + P + energy

23 ATP Binding Cassette Transporters( ABC Transporters) Transporters are proteins that span the membrane They bind to the ATP and hydrolyze or break down ATP to produce energy Transporters are proteins that span the membrane They bind to the ATP and hydrolyze or break down ATP to produce energy

24 Symports Move two molecules or a molecule and an ion in the same direction Both can move in the same direction Usually one moves with the concentration gradient The other is pulled across the membrane against the concentration gradient by the free energy of the molecules that are moving Move two molecules or a molecule and an ion in the same direction Both can move in the same direction Usually one moves with the concentration gradient The other is pulled across the membrane against the concentration gradient by the free energy of the molecules that are moving

25 Antiports Two molecules are moving across the membrane One molecule is moving against the concentration gradient in one direction The other is moving with the concentration gradient Two molecules are moving across the membrane One molecule is moving against the concentration gradient in one direction The other is moving with the concentration gradient

26 Siderophores Iron is a very important nutritional ion for the bacterial cell Siderophores are small molecules that are able to form a complex with iron to bring it into the cell Iron is a very important nutritional ion for the bacterial cell Siderophores are small molecules that are able to form a complex with iron to bring it into the cell

27 Porins Porins are proteins located in the outer cell membranes ( the outer lipid membane) They are responsible for moving molecules through the outer membrane in Gram negative bacteria Molecules are moved into the periplasmic space and then into the cell Porins are proteins located in the outer cell membranes ( the outer lipid membane) They are responsible for moving molecules through the outer membrane in Gram negative bacteria Molecules are moved into the periplasmic space and then into the cell

28 Group Translocation In this process the molecules are modified as they are transported across the cell membrane or into the cell Group Translocation is a type of active transport Many vital molecules are brought into the cell in this manner In this process the molecules are modified as they are transported across the cell membrane or into the cell Group Translocation is a type of active transport Many vital molecules are brought into the cell in this manner

29 Group Translocation Group Translocation involves the transfer of a phosphate group This energizes the molecule so that it can be transported into the cell Group Translocation involves the transfer of a phosphate group This energizes the molecule so that it can be transported into the cell

30 Protein Transport Systems in the Cell Membrane


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