Presentation on theme: "Chapter IV: Ancient Greece. Geography Mountainous peninsula and numerous islands The mountain ranges caused independent city-states to emerge instead."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter IV: Ancient Greece
Geography Mountainous peninsula and numerous islands The mountain ranges caused independent city-states to emerge instead of one centralized civilization Greeks became seafarers
Where is Modern Greece located? Southern edge of Europe Large peninsula Size of Alabama or England In 1990, had 10,000,000 people
80% mountainous mainland 20% islands (437 islands) tallest mountain = Mount Olympus (9,500') = home of gods no major rivers or lakes many good harbors (every point of land is within 85 miles of the coast) little farm land (soil = sand and pebbles) little fresh water during growing season (couldn't irrigate much) few natural resources500major
What impact did the terrain have on Greece's development? Little contact between villages Overland travel difficult Overland trade impossible Sea trade routes lead to colonies Sea trade was source of natural resources (food, metals, fiber) and ideas (alphabet, Egyptian art, Eastern technologies)
What is the legend of Greece's creation? God used sieve to strain soil to surrounding countries, the stones that were left in the sieve were dumped into the sea. Those extra rocks were what became Greece. What is the land like of Ancient Greece prior to expanding to entire Mediterranean?
Origins Minoan civilization/ Knossos Bronze Age civilization Named after the Crete king Minos Palace at Knossos= elaborate art 1450BC were they defeated by the Mycenaeans or a tidal wave from a volcanic eruption from the island of Thera??? Mycenae: the first Greek state Discovered by German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann Thrived between 1600 and 1100 BC Made up of an alliance of powerful monarchies Warrior culture Poetry of Homer Began to fight each other…1100BC collapsed
The Polis By 750 BC the city-state became the central focus of Greek life Greek Colonization: Cause and Effect Lack of farmland Colonization Spread of culture Increased trade/ wealth
Three classes Citizens with political rights (adult males) Citizens without political rights (women and children) Noncitizens (slaves and resident aliens)
Acropolis= fortified place and religious center Agora= open area used as a market and meeting place Cleisthenes= brought democracy to Athens Phalanx= when hoplites (infantry soldiers) went into battle, they would march shoulder to shoulder
Age of Pericles= the period of history which saw the height of Athenian power and brilliance
Athens v. Sparta Sparta needed more land It gained through conquest The captured peoples of the Spartans became serfs called helots. To maintain control of the helots, Sparta became a military state Rigid lifestyle Sparta closed itself off from the outside world. Travelers and travel were discouraged.
In Sparta, the five elected officials who were responsible for the education of youth and the conduct of all of the citizens were ephors The government of Sparta was an oligarchy( ruled by a few)
Sparta: boys - 8 years old into army, learned war skills, beaten to learn "Spartan existence" = harsh housing, meager meals, slept outside, comforts made men soft women - ran everyday activities, had economic power dominated by war and fear of rebellion because there were 10 slaves for every 1 citizen
King ruled early Athens Cleisthenes= reforms laid the foundation for Athenian democracy The government of Athens after Cleisthenes became the foundation for Athenian democracy
Athens: boys 7-18 went to school (reading, math, history, music) s - no school men = must never lose face in public, always defend and never disgrace family, very strong family loyalty men spent time at agora (center of social life, politics, market, shrine, debate, sports) women = "a woman should be everything inside the home and nothing outside" marriage = grooms about 30 years old, brides about 16 years old spouses had little in common (age difference, education level, worldly experiences) 1/3 of population were slaves (could earn their freedom)school
Greek Religion Mount Olympus= home of the Greek Gods
The Influence of Homer Arête= the excellence of courage and honor Homer used the Trojan War to create two epic poems: The Iliad and the Odyssey The Iliad was about the Trojan War itself, but mainly concerned the Greek hero Achilles, and how the anger of Achilles led to disaster.
The Odyssey recounts the journeys of another Greek hero, Odysseus, as he returned home after the fall of Troy. Homer’s epic poems did not so much record Greek history as they did create it. The Greeks looked on the Iliad and the Odyssey as true history. These masterpieces gave the Greeks an ideal past with a cast of heroes. The epics came to be used as basic texts for the education of generations of Greek males. Homer taught the values of courage and honor, giving to later generations a model of heroism.
Greek Contributions Philosophy Socrates: “the unexamined life is not worth living” Plato’s ideas about reality and government= there is a higher world of eternal, unchanging Forms that has always existed. These forms make up reality and only a trained mind could understand them. What we see is but a reflection of that reality, a shadow of the true form (Plato’s Cave). Government works best when divided into three groups= at the top: philosopher kings who must rule with wisdom and inspiration, warrior kings, and everyone else…Also***men and women should have access to these positions
According to Plato…individuals could not achieve a good life unless they lived in a just and rational state Aristotle=scientific
Other Contributions Include: Alphabet Words Way of teaching (Socratic Method, teacher asks questions, students work out the answers) Public buildings have columns Government/politics/voting Art - shape of our paintings, proportions Understanding of nature sun = burning rock, not a god medicine = Hippocratic oath
Greek Politics How did Greek politics change over time? 1100 BCE conquered by Dorians with iron tools (Greeks had bronze) Dark ages, little writing, unorganized politics 800-500 BCE small villages and nearby farms grew into city/states Walled forts (acropolis = high city) for defense, became religious centers Market surrounded acropolis Banded together for defense from Persians Originally ruled by king or tyrant (took by force, ruled alone) 500 BCE = Athenian Golden Age = Classical Period 400 BCE birth of democracy Democracy = rule by the people Every free male over 20 had one vote and full rights and participated in assembly Decision by majority vote, (no representatives like USA version of democracy) Athens still capital of Modern Greece 146 BCE conquered by Rome Parthenon - temple from 500 BCE Christian Church from 400 AD Muslim Mosque from 600 AD Blew up when Turks used it to store ammunition (1895 full sized copy built in Nashville Tennessee)
Alexander the Great Taught by Aristotle Wanted to fulfill his dad (Philip II of Macedonia) to ruler entire world 135,000 soldiers attacked Persia Freed Greek colonies from Persian control set up democracies Alexander was ruler Set up learning and Greek culture
Spread Greek language and religion Center of learning became Alexandria Egypt, 500,000-scroll library Adopted local customs Control broke up after his No one strong leader available as replacement so generals fought for control Didn't groom anyone like Alexander had been groomedstrong