4 Where is Modern Greece located Where is Modern Greece located? Southern edge of Europe Large peninsula Size of Alabama or England In 1990, had 10,000,000 people
5 80% mountainous mainland 20% islands (437 islands) tallest mountain = Mount Olympus (9,500') = home of gods no major rivers or lakes many good harbors (every point of land is within 85 miles of the coast) little farm land (soil = sand and pebbles) little fresh water during growing season (couldn't irrigate much) few natural resources
6 What impact did the terrain have on Greece's development What impact did the terrain have on Greece's development? Little contact between villages Overland travel difficult Overland trade impossible Sea trade routes lead to colonies Sea trade was source of natural resources (food, metals, fiber) and ideas (alphabet, Egyptian art, Eastern technologies)
7 What is the legend of Greece's creation What is the legend of Greece's creation? God used sieve to strain soil to surrounding countries, the stones that were left in the sieve were dumped into the sea. Those extra rocks were what became Greece. What is the land like of Ancient Greece prior to expanding to entire Mediterranean?
9 Origins Minoan civilization/ Knossos Bronze Age civilization Named after the Crete king MinosPalace at Knossos= elaborate art1450BC were they defeated by the Mycenaeans or a tidal wave from a volcanic eruption from the island of Thera???Mycenae: the first Greek stateDiscovered by German archaeologist Heinrich SchliemannThrived between 1600 and 1100 BCMade up of an alliance of powerful monarchiesWarrior culturePoetry of HomerBegan to fight each other…1100BC collapsed
15 Acropolis= fortified place and religious center Agora= open area used as a market and meeting placeCleisthenes= brought democracy to AthensPhalanx= when hoplites (infantry soldiers) went into battle, they would march shoulder to shoulder
16 Age of Pericles= the period of history which saw the height of Athenian power and brilliance
17 Athens v. Sparta Sparta needed more land It gained through conquest The captured peoples of the Spartans became serfs called helots.To maintain control of the helots, Sparta became a military stateRigid lifestyleSparta closed itself off from the outside world. Travelers and travel were discouraged.
21 Sparta: boys - 8 years old into army, learned war skills, beaten to learn "Spartan existence" = harsh housing, meager meals, slept outside, comforts made men soft women - ran everyday activities, had economic power dominated by war and fear of rebellion because there were 10 slaves for every 1 citizen
22 King ruled early Athens Cleisthenes= reforms laid the foundation for Athenian democracyThe government of Athens after Cleisthenes became the foundation for Athenian democracy
23 Athens: boys 7-18 went to school (reading, math, history, music) s - no school men = must never lose face in public, always defend and never disgrace family, very strong family loyalty men spent time at agora (center of social life, politics, market, shrine, debate, sports) women = "a woman should be everything inside the home and nothing outside" marriage = grooms about 30 years old, brides about 16 years old spouses had little in common (age difference, education level, worldly experiences) 1/3 of population were slaves (could earn their freedom)
24 Greek ReligionMount Olympus= home of the Greek Gods
25 The Influence of Homer Arête= the excellence of courage and honor Homer used the Trojan War to create two epic poems: The Iliad and the OdysseyThe Iliad was about the Trojan War itself, but mainly concerned the Greek hero Achilles, and how the anger of Achilles led to disaster.
27 The Odyssey recounts the journeys of another Greek hero, Odysseus, as he returned home after the fall of Troy.Homer’s epic poems did not so much record Greek history as they did create it. The Greeks looked on the Iliad and the Odyssey as true history.These masterpieces gave the Greeks an ideal past with a cast of heroes. The epics came to be used as basic texts for the education of generations of Greek males.Homer taught the values of courage and honor, giving to later generations a model of heroism.
28 Greek Contributions Philosophy Socrates: “the unexamined life is not worth living”Plato’s ideas about reality and government= there is a higher world of eternal, unchanging Forms that has always existed. These forms make up reality and only a trained mind could understand them. What we see is but a reflection of that reality, a shadow of the true form (Plato’s Cave). Government works best when divided into three groups= at the top: philosopher kings who must rule with wisdom and inspiration, warrior kings, and everyone else…Also***men and women should have access to these positions
29 According to Plato…individuals could not achieve a good life unless they lived in a just and rational stateAristotle=scientific
30 Other Contributions Include: Alphabet Words Way of teaching (Socratic Method, teacher asks questions, students work out the answers) Public buildings have columns Government/politics/voting Art - shape of our paintings, proportions Understanding of nature sun = burning rock, not a god medicine = Hippocratic oath
32 Greek PoliticsHow did Greek politics change over time? 1100 BCE conquered by Dorians with iron tools (Greeks had bronze) Dark ages, little writing, unorganized politics BCE small villages and nearby farms grew into city/states Walled forts (acropolis = high city) for defense, became religious centers Market surrounded acropolis Banded together for defense from Persians Originally ruled by king or tyrant (took by force, ruled alone) 500 BCE = Athenian Golden Age = Classical Period 400 BCE birth of democracy Democracy = rule by the people Every free male over 20 had one vote and full rights and participated in assembly Decision by majority vote, (no representatives like USA version of democracy) Athens still capital of Modern Greece 146 BCE conquered by Rome Parthenon - temple from 500 BCE Christian Church from 400 AD Muslim Mosque from 600 AD Blew up when Turks used it to store ammunition (1895 full sized copy built in Nashville Tennessee)
33 Alexander the GreatTaught by Aristotle Wanted to fulfill his dad (Philip II of Macedonia) to ruler entire world 135,000 soldiers attacked Persia Freed Greek colonies from Persian control set up democracies Alexander was ruler Set up learning and Greek culture
35 Spread Greek language and religion Center of learning became Alexandria Egypt, 500,000-scroll library Adopted local customs Control broke up after his No one strong leader available as replacement so generals fought for control Didn't groom anyone like Alexander had been groomed