Presentation on theme: "A New Government is Formed"— Presentation transcript:
1A New Government is Formed The Constitutional Convention of 1787
2The Constitutional Convention 1787 The best and brightest Americans get togetherIndependence Hall, PhiladelphiaThey meet in secret sessionsAlexander Hamilton proposes a grand meeting in Philadelphia ORIGINAL PURPOSE: To adjust the Articles of Confederation55 of the most respected Americans were present at Independence Hall. GW, James Madison (pictured), Edmund Randolph of VA, John Dickinson of Delaware, Ben Franklin of PA, Alexander Hamilton of NY, William Patterson of NJ, Thomas Jefferson and John Adams are in Europe at the time and miss it. Most of the delegates are lawyers, some are farmers and merchants. Some own slaves.Secrecy –the delegates want to be able to speak freely. Did not want heated debates shared with the public.GW- chosen to lead the convention. Respected, great military leader, intelligent, well-educated.
3A Change of Plans The Articles need a total overhaul There are too many problems to solve
4Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation Congress had no power to raise taxesCongress had no power regulate foreign or state tradeLaws had to be approved by 9 out of 13Congress did not have the power to enforce laws
5Competing Plans Delegates agree to disagree Large states vs. Small statesVa. vs. NJTempers flairBen Franklin calms everyone downAs the summer got hotter, so did the tempers of the delegates holed up in Independence Hall. To keep out prying eyes and ears, the shutters were closed and the doors locked. Some delegates got so flustered that they threatened to quit and go home. Ben Franklin, now 81 years old, calms everyone down by telling jokes and sharing his unique humor. GW hold them there with his strong sense of reason and he encourages compromise.KEY ISSUE: the amount of power the central gov’t should have and how much power large and small states would continue to hold.
6The Virginia Plan Big states must rule! Representation should be based on populationThree branches of governmentWilliam Randolph proposes a plan for government. Congress to make the laws, executive branch to enforce laws, court system to guarantee justice under the law. Congress, the lawmaking branch, was divided into two parts-upper and lower. Lower elected by the people. Upper chosen by members of the lower house. Randolph considered this a very democratic plan. It was government by the people.
7The New Jersey Plan Small states rule! Much like the old government under the ArticlesEach state had an equal voteWilliam Patterson presents another idea that resembled the gov’t under the Articles of Confederation. Each state was to have an equal vote in the government. The states would have much more control of the government.
8The Great Compromise: A Separation of Powers Three Branches of GovernmentCongress regulates tradeThe central government will print moneyLegislative branch-House of Representatives (according to population pleases VA big state advocates) & Senate (two per state pleases NJ small state advocates) All bills dealing with money would be started in the House.A federal gov’t is one that is divided between central and state governments. The power does not rest in any one branch.Executive Branch- enforces the laws. President elected to 4 year term with advisors (cabinet)Judicial branch- Supreme Court and lower courts would interpret laws.
9What About Slavery? 3/5 Compromise Runaway slaves Southern states wanted slaves to be represented in the population count but not in taxation. Northern states protested. A compromise permitted 3 out of every 5 slaves to be included in the population and taxation count of the southern states.The southern states wanted all runaways returned but compromised on Congress waiting until 1808 before regulating the slave market.Congress would now regulate trade between the states and foreign nations. Duties were forbidden between states. Tariffs would be permitted on imports, which made southern farmers happy because exports would not be taxed. Also, states could no longer print their own money.
10The Northwest Ordinance The nation will now form new states in the new territoryWhen 60,000 people move into a territory it can apply for statehoodNo slavery allowedThe primary effect of the ordinance was the creation of the Northwest Territory as the first organized territory of the United States out of the region south of the Great Lakes, north and west of the Ohio River, and east of the Mississippi River. it established the precedent by which the federal government would be sovereign and expand westward across North America with the admission of new states, rather than with the expansion of existing states and their established sovereignty under the Articles of Confederation. The prohibition of slavery in the territory had the practical effect of establishing the Ohio River as the boundary between free and slave territory
11Accept or Reject? The new constitution had to be ratified Federalists vs. Anti-FederalistsThe Federalist PapersGeorge Washington agrees to become our first presidentRatified- when approved by 9 of the states it became the law of the land. Many people had reservations about the federal government becoming too strong and would take away some freedoms. Federalists supported the new Constitution. Anti-Federalist felt that the Constitution gave the central gov’t too much power. State gov’ts would be destroyed and taxes would be increased. They also feared that it did not provide for protection of personal freedoms.Hamilton and Madison and John Jay published a series of essays to explain what the Constitution really meant in order to help it get ratified. George Washington agrees to become our first president to help get the constitution ratified.
12It Passes! Delaware leads the way in 1787 Rhode Island approves in 1790Delaware, Pa, nj, Georgia, Ct, Mass, Maryland, SC, NH(in June of 1788 it became the 9th and deciding state. The constitution was officially ratified and became the law of the land. But with out the support of our two largest states, VA and NY, the government would be in serious trouble. James Madison and John Marshall led the Federalists in VA and ratified In June of Alexander Hamilton led the Federalists in NY and it was ratified in July of NC and RI followed in 1789 and then RI on May 29, 1790 brought up the rear.
13Our First President George Washington is elected unanimously John Adams becomes Vice PresidentAdams got the second most votes. That’s how they did it back then.
14The Bill of Rights First 10 amendments to the Constitution They clearly spell out our personal freedoms as AmericansPassed to calm fears of Anti-Federalists who feared that our personal freedoms were not clearly stated in the Constitution. Adopted by Congress in additional amendments have been added.