Presentation on theme: "+ A closer look at: Retrieval. + Yesterday and today you learned about… Stage 1: Encoding. Stage 2: Storage. Once information is encoded and stored successfully,"— Presentation transcript:
+ A closer look at: Retrieval
+ Yesterday and today you learned about… Stage 1: Encoding. Stage 2: Storage. Once information is encoded and stored successfully, you must be able to get it back out, or retrieve it!
+ The two retrieval tasks Recall: Recognition: Harry Bahrick study (1975):
+ Relearning Time as a Measure of Retention In the late 1800s, Hermann Ebbinghaus studied another measure of memory functioning: how much time does it take to relearn and regain mastery of material? He studied the memorization of nonsense syllables (THB YOX KVU EHM) so that depth of processing or prelearning would not be a factor.
+ “Every memory we have is held in a web of associations.”
+ Retrieval cues Imagine a spider suspended in the middle of her web, held up by the many strands extending outward from her in all directions to different points. If you were to trace a pathway to the spider, you would first need to create a path from one of these anchor points and then follow the strand down into the web. Retrieval cues:
+ Priming The activation of particular associations in memory, which usually aids retrieval; “memoryless memory”
+ Context-Dependent Memory Part of the web of associations of a memory is the context. What else was going on at the time we formed the memory? Words learned underwater are better retrieved underwater.
+ Déjà vu = “already seen” Sometimes being in a context similar to one we’ve been in before may trigger déjà vu.
+ State-Dependent Memory Our memories are not just linked to the external context in which we learned them.