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What Is Environmental Science? The study of our planet’s natural systems and how humans and the environment affect one another The environment includes.

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Presentation on theme: "What Is Environmental Science? The study of our planet’s natural systems and how humans and the environment affect one another The environment includes."— Presentation transcript:

1 What Is Environmental Science? The study of our planet’s natural systems and how humans and the environment affect one another The environment includes all living and nonliving things with which organisms interact. Understanding the interactions between humans and the environment is the first step to solving environmental problems. Chapter 1: Our Island, Earth National Marine Fisheries Service scientists studying whether commercial boats are harming endangered killer whales

2 Natural Resources Natural resources are materials and energy sources found in nature that humans need to survive. – Renewable resources: Naturally replenished over short periods – Nonrenewable resources: Naturally formed more slowly than we use them. – Renewable resources can become nonrenewable if used faster than they are replenished. Chapter 1: Our Island, Earth

3 Consumer and Corporate Responses Chapter 2: Economics Changing consumer values can drive corporations to pursue sustainability. Ecolabeling is an example of a corporate response to the call for sustainable goods and services. Did You Know? Organic farming is one of the fastest-growing segments of U.S. agriculture. Land devoted to growing organic has expanded by about 15% each year since 2002.

4 International Environmental Policy Chapter 2: International Environmental Policy and Approaches Environmental issues often involve more than one nation. International organizations promote cooperation between nations: The United Nations The European Union The World Trade Organization The World Bank

5 Tectonic Plates There are three major types of plate boundary: – Divergent – Transform – Convergent Chapter 3: Earth’s Spheres

6 Divergent and Transform Plate Boundaries Divergent boundaries: Rising magma pushes plates apart. Transform boundaries: Plates slip and grind alongside one another. Chapter 3: Earth’s Spheres Divergent plate boundary Transform plate boundary

7 Convergent Plate Boundaries Plates collide, causing one of two things to happen: – Subduction: One plate slides beneath another. – Mountain-building: Both plates are uplifted. Chapter 3: Earth’s Spheres

8 The Hydrosphere Consists of Earth’s water Most of Earth’s water (97.5%) is salt water. Only 0.5% of Earth’s water is unfrozen fresh water usable for drinking or irrigation. Earth’s available fresh water includes surface water and ground water. Chapter 3: Earth’s Spheres Did You Know? If it is depleted, groundwater can take hundreds or even thousands of years to recharge completely. Greenlaw Brook, Limestone, Maine

9 The Water Cycle Chapter 3: Earth’s Spheres

10 The Carbon Cycle Chapter 3: Biogeochemical Cycles

11 The Nitrogen Cycle Chapter 3: Biogeochemical Cycles

12 Biotic and Abiotic Factors Biotic factors: Parts of an ecosystem that are living or used to be livingBiotic factors: Parts of an ecosystem that are living or used to be living Abiotic factors: Parts of an ecosystem that have never been livingAbiotic factors: Parts of an ecosystem that have never been living Chapter 4: Studying Ecology Did You Know? Decaying organisms are biotic factors as long as their structure remains cellular.

13 Habitat The specific environment in which an organism lives Habitats provide an organism with resources— anything an organism needs to survive and reproduce, including food, shelter, and mates. Chapter 4: Studying Ecology

14 Population Distribution Chapter 4: Describing Populations How organisms are arranged within an area: Random distribution: Organisms arranged in no particular pattern Uniform distribution: Organisms evenly spaced Clumped distribution: Organisms grouped near resources; most common distribution in nature

15 Predation (+/–) The process by which a predator hunts, kills, and consumes prey Causes cycles in predatory and prey population sizes Defensive traits such as camouflage, mimicry, and warning coloration have evolved in response to predator-prey interactions. Some predator-prey relationships are examples of coevolution, the process by which two species evolve in response to changes in each other. Chapter 5: Species Interactions Did You Know? A single rough- skinned newt contains enough poison to kill 100 people. Unfortunately for the newt, its predator, the common garter snake, has coevolved resistance to the toxin. Rough-Skinned Newt

16 Parasitism and Herbivory (+/–) Chapter 5: Species Interactions Did You Know? One study of Pacific estuaries suggests that parasites play an important role in keeping these ecosystems healthy by controlling host populations. Hookworm (a parasite) Parasitism: One organism (the parasite) relies on another (the host) for nourishment or for some other benefit Herbivory: An animal feeding on a plant

17 Mutualism (+/+) and Commensalism (+/0) Chapter 5: Species Interactions Did You Know? Symbiosis describes a long-lasting and physically close relationship between species in which at least one species benefits. Mutualism: a relationship in which two or more species benefit Commensalism: a relationship in which one species benefits while the other is unaffected Lichen: a symbiotic relationship between a fungus and a photosynthetic partner, such as an alga

18 Numbers and Biomass in Communities A trophic level’s biomass is the mass of living tissue it contains. In general, there are more organisms and greater biomass at lower trophic levels than at higher ones. Chapter 5: Ecological Communities Trophic Pyramid

19 Food Chains and Webs Food chain: Linear series of feeding relationships Food web: Shows the overlapping and interconnected food chains present in a community Chapter 5: Ecological Communities


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