Presentation on theme: "What Is Environmental Science?"— Presentation transcript:
1 What Is Environmental Science? Chapter 1: Our Island, EarthWhat Is Environmental Science?The study of our planet’s natural systems and how humans and the environment affect one anotherThe environment includes all living and nonliving things with which organisms interact.Understanding the interactions between humans and the environment is the first step to solving environmental problems.National Marine Fisheries Service scientists studying whether commercial boats are harming endangered killer whales
2 Chapter 1: Our Island, Earth Natural ResourcesNatural resources are materials and energy sources found in nature that humans need to survive.Renewable resources: Naturally replenished over short periodsNonrenewable resources: Naturally formed more slowly than we use them.Renewable resources can become nonrenewable if used faster than they are replenished.
3 Consumer and Corporate Responses Chapter 2: EconomicsConsumer and Corporate ResponsesChanging consumer values can drive corporations to pursue sustainability.Ecolabeling is an example of a corporate response to the call for sustainable goods and services.Did You Know? Organic farming is one of the fastest-growing segments of U.S. agriculture. Land devoted to growing organic has expanded by about 15% each year since 2002.
4 International Environmental Policy Chapter 2: International Environmental Policy and ApproachesInternational Environmental PolicyEnvironmental issues often involve more than one nation.International organizations promote cooperation between nations:The United NationsThe European UnionThe World Trade OrganizationThe World Bank
5 Tectonic Plates There are three major types of plate boundary: Chapter 3: Earth’s SpheresTectonic PlatesThere are three major types of plate boundary:DivergentTransformConvergent
6 Divergent and Transform Plate Boundaries Chapter 3: Earth’s SpheresDivergent and Transform Plate BoundariesDivergent boundaries: Rising magma pushes plates apart.Transform boundaries: Plates slip and grind alongside one another.Divergent plate boundaryTransform plate boundary
7 Convergent Plate Boundaries Chapter 3: Earth’s SpheresConvergent Plate BoundariesPlates collide, causing one of two things to happen:Subduction: One plate slides beneath another.Mountain-building: Both plates are uplifted.
8 The Hydrosphere Consists of Earth’s water Chapter 3: Earth’s SpheresThe HydrosphereConsists of Earth’s waterMost of Earth’s water (97.5%) is salt water.Only 0.5% of Earth’s water is unfrozen fresh water usable for drinking or irrigation.Earth’s available fresh water includes surface water and ground water.Greenlaw Brook, Limestone, MaineDid You Know? If it is depleted, groundwater can take hundreds or even thousands of years to recharge completely.
10 Chapter 3: Biogeochemical Cycles The Carbon Cycle
11 Chapter 3: Biogeochemical Cycles The Nitrogen Cycle
12 Biotic and Abiotic Factors Chapter 4: Studying EcologyBiotic and Abiotic FactorsBiotic factors: Parts of an ecosystem that are living or used to be livingAbiotic factors: Parts of an ecosystem that have never been livingDid You Know? Decaying organisms are biotic factors as long as their structure remains cellular.
13 Habitat The specific environment in which an organism lives Chapter 4: Studying EcologyHabitatThe specific environment in which an organism livesHabitats provide an organism with resources—anything an organism needs to survive and reproduce, including food, shelter, and mates.
14 Population Distribution Chapter 4: Describing PopulationsPopulation DistributionHow organisms are arranged within an area:Random distribution: Organisms arranged in no particular patternUniform distribution: Organisms evenly spacedClumped distribution: Organisms grouped near resources; most common distribution in nature
15 Chapter 5: Species Interactions Predation (+/–)The process by which a predator hunts, kills, and consumes preyCauses cycles in predatory and prey population sizesDefensive traits such as camouflage, mimicry, and warning coloration have evolved in response to predator-prey interactions.Some predator-prey relationships are examples of coevolution, the process by which two species evolve in response to changes in each other.Rough-Skinned NewtDid You Know? A single rough-skinned newt contains enough poison to kill 100 people. Unfortunately for the newt, its predator, the common garter snake, has coevolved resistance to the toxin.
16 Parasitism and Herbivory (+/–) Chapter 5: Species InteractionsParasitism and Herbivory (+/–)Parasitism: One organism (the parasite) relies on another (the host) for nourishment or for some other benefitHerbivory: An animal feeding on a plantHookworm (a parasite)Did You Know? One study of Pacific estuaries suggests that parasites play an important role in keeping these ecosystems healthy by controlling host populations.
17 Mutualism (+/+) and Commensalism (+/0) Chapter 5: Species InteractionsMutualism (+/+) and Commensalism (+/0)Mutualism: a relationship in which two or more species benefitCommensalism: a relationship in which one species benefits while the other is unaffectedLichen: a symbiotic relationship between a fungus and a photosynthetic partner, such as an algaDid You Know? Symbiosis describes a long-lasting and physically close relationship between species in which at least one species benefits.
18 Numbers and Biomass in Communities Chapter 5: Ecological CommunitiesNumbers and Biomass in CommunitiesA trophic level’s biomass is the mass of living tissue it contains.In general, there are more organisms and greater biomass at lower trophic levels than at higher ones.Trophic Pyramid
19 Food chain: Linear series of feeding relationships Chapter 5: Ecological CommunitiesFood Chains and WebsFood chain: Linear series of feeding relationshipsFood web: Shows the overlapping and interconnected food chains present in a community