World War I: CREATING THE PEACE World War I: CREATING THE PEACE
Wilson’s Ideas for Peace Peace without Victory Open Diplomacy – No Secret Treaties Freedom of Seas & Trade Move toward an end to colonialism Self-determinism – Right of people to choose their own form of government General Disarmament League of Nations – org.of nations – work together to avoid war “Only a tranquil Europe can be a stable Europe… Victory would mean peace forced upon the loser… It would be accepted in humiliation… and leave a sting, a resentment, a bitter memory upon which terms of peace would rest, not permanently, but only upon quicksand.” ~ Woodrow Wilson (Jan. 1917) What is the main point that Wilson is trying to make?
At the Conference “Big Four” Dominate – Great Britain - P.M. Lloyd George – France - Premier Georges Clemenceau – Italy – Premier Vittorio Orlando – USA – Pres. Wilson – hailed as hero & symbol of better world ahead Which major ally from the war was left out? Secret Treaties – – Allies has already made secret “agreements” to divide up the territories and colonies of Central Powers – How might this affect Wilson’s plan for peace? Allies more concerned with – punishing enemies than creating a lasting peace
David Lloyd-George [Great Britain] Vittorio Orlando [Italy] Georges Clemenceau [France] Woodrow Wilson [USA] At the Conference – The Big Four
Decisions Made at the Conference Wilson’s Ideas For Peace Decisions Made at the Conference Peace without VictoryGB & Fr make Germany pay reparations Open DiplomacyProposal Fails Freedom of Seas & TradeProposal Fails Move toward an end to colonialismMiddle East is broken up into “mandates” Self-DeterminismIn Europe & Middle East, ethnic groups are clustered together randomly General DisarmamentProposal Fails League of NationsLeague of Nations is created How successful was Wilson in achieving his aims?
THE TERMS OF THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES 1919 WAR GUILT CLAUSE GERMANY GIVES UP NATIONAL TERRITORY GERMANY’S MILITARY FORCES REDUCED GERMAN LOSES OVERSEAS TERRITORIES NO UNION WITH AUSTRIA REPARATIONS Germany had to accept blame for starting WW1 - Army restricted to 100,000 - No modern weapons such as tanks, military air force. - Navy could not have battle ships over 10,000 tons and no U-Boats. - was given to Belgium, Denmark, Czechoslovakia, most went to Poland. Germany lost colonial claims RHINELAND TO BE DE-MILITARIZED Germany forced to pay massive fine for war damages – $33B ability to pay? The Treaty was designed to cripple Germany militarily, territorially and economically
Treaty of Versailles Other Provisions – Creation of Poland, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia Poland from Ger. & Russia Yugoslavia from Balkan nations – Austria-Hungary Divided Problems w/ the Peace – German people living in non-German nations Same for some Austrians – Ethnic Groups clustered together randomly Especially from Ottoman Empire Ex. Iraq – created from 3 different provinces w/ different groups of people
The Changed Map of Europe The Changed Map of Europe 1914------------------1919
Differing Viewpoints Answer Questions #6-9 on Quia using the reading below and the links on the website.
U.S. Approval of the Treaty? Opposition – German Ams – Treaty too harsh – Irish Ams – no guarantee of independent Ireland – Senate Republicans “Irreconcilables” –Believed US should not be involved in world politics or any League of Nations “Reservationists” –Opposed treaty as written –Wanted some changes made Wilson’s Reaction – Refused to compromise – Went on cross-country tour to build support Falls ill, suffers stroke
U.S. Approval of the Treaty? Failure – Treaty failed 2x Wilson ordered Dems to oppose “modified” version Senate Republicans vote down “original” treaty – Separate treaty signed with Germany in 1921 – What does this mean? U.S. not part of League of Nations Essential Question #1 – When is America exerting its power and influence justified? Essential Questions #2 – Does a dominant, successful nation also have an obligation to help or protect weaker nations and people? How has the American answer to each of these questions changed since the late 1890s?