7Procedure (ii) sample application and electrophores
8Separated protein bands can be quantified using Densitometer
9Densitometer is one of the application of spectrophotometer Absorbance measurement is made through a solid material,using support medium is the cuvetAccuracy and precision are limited by variations in path length and scatter from the solid medium
13Clinical Significance of Albumin Reference range g/dLHyperalbuminemia dehydrationHypoalbuminemiaLow intake, synthesisIncrease loss:kidney; nephrotic syndrome, wound, burnGI tract; protein-losing enteropathyIncrease catabolism
14Clinical Significance of a1-globulin Increased alpha 1 globulin due to increased alpha 1 antitrypsin: inflammatory/acute phaseDecreased/absent alpha1 globulin due to alpha1antitrypsin deficiency: infant with neonatal cirrhosis or child with emphysema
15Clinical Significance of a2-globulin Increased alpha 2 globulin due to alpha 2 macroglobulin: nephrotic sx with peripheral edema, membranous glomerulonephritis, hyperlipidemiaDecreased alpha 2 globulin due to haptoglobin: hemolytic anemia with spherocytes in PB
16Clinical Significance of b-globulin Increased beta globulin due to increased transferrin in iron deficiency anemia: microcytic hypochromic RBCs; third trimester of pregnancyIncreased beta-gamma with bridging: cirrhosis
18MONOCLONAL GAMMOPATHY Monoclonal peak: narrow needle-shaped “spike”With plasma cell myeloma (IgG,IgA) or IgM type in LPL lymphoplasmacytic lymphomaIn gamma region usually IgGIn gamma, beta or even alpha 2 globulin region, usually IgAIf at application point between beta & gamma regions, IgM type
20Normal The nephrotic pattern illustrates the long term loss of lower molecular weight proteins (Examples: albumin, IgG) and retention of higher molecular weight proteins (example alpha-2-macroglobulin)This patient was a 39 year old female with SLE. Her daily total urinary protein loss exceeded 3700 mg. (Normal loss is less that 150 mg/day.)
21Polyclonal gammopathy NormalPolyclonal gammopathyusually occurs secondary to many chronic diseases. This patient was a 39 year old male with sarcordosis. The sequential increase of the globulin fractions illustrated "sarcoid stepping." IFE excluded the possibility of a monoclonal protein.
22NormalLiver disease:Patient was a 46 year old male with end stage liver disease secondary to chronic alcohol abuse. He died 5 months after this sample was obtained.In the cirrhotic pattern, the distinction between beta and gamma globulin is blurred and is sometimes referred to as the "beta-gamma bridge" pattern.
23Acute inflammatory pattern NormalAcute inflammatory patternThis patient was a 42 year old female who presented with a temperature of 40 degrees oC and was diagnosed with both pneumonia and pyelonephritis.In the acute inflammatory pattern albumin and gamma globulin are decreased and alpha-2-globulin becomes very prominent. In both the strip and scan note that the intensity of the alpha-2 fraction is greater that the gamma globulin fraction.
24Alpha-1-anti-trypsin deficiency NormalAlpha-1-anti-trypsin deficiencycan be congenital or acquired, typically secondary to liver or pulmonary diseases.Congenital alpha-1-anti-trypsin deficiency is most commonly associated with early onset emphysema, pancreatic insufficiency, or cirrhosis.
25Immunofixation Electrophoresis (IFE) Immunofixation (IFIX) is a powerful enhancement of immunoelectrophoresis in which a series of post-electrophoretic gel slabs are layered with cellulose-acetate gels saturated with specific antibodies.The resulting antigen-antibody complexes fixed on the second gel may then be stained, allowing sensitive and specific qualitative visual identification of paraproteins by electrophoretic position.
26Immunofixation Electrophoresis (IFE) Diluted patient serum is applied to each track of the gel using an application mask.The gel is electrophoresed, separating proteins according to their charge.Protein fixative and monospecific antisera to IgG, IgA, IgM, Kappa and Lambda are applied to the gel.During incubation, insoluble immune complexes are formed.The gel is now washed, pressed, dried, and stained.Samples are examined for paraprotein bands in the TSP and Ig tracks
29Samples required for IFE 100 mL aliquot of 24 hour urineNo preservative required. Random urine will be accepted, but not a recommended specimen due to low protein content.0.5 mL serum
30Monoclonalprotein present The patient was a 72 year old male who presented with lower back pain.Quantitative immunoglobulin measurements showed a large increase in serum IgG, but decreased IgA and IgM. Bone marrow exam revealed a large increase in plasma cells that were frequently aggregated.IFE on this patient's serum showed the M protein was IgG kappa. A diagnosis of multiple myeloma was made.
31Biclonal gammopathyThis sample is from a 62 year old male who presented with weight loss and fatigue. He was found to have multiple myeloma.In this disease, biclonal gammopathies are rare, occurring in about 1.7 % of patients. IFE showed the 2 M proteins to be IgG-k and IgA-lambda
32Electrophoresis of Urine a minimum of 10 ml of urine for electrophoresis.Most urine samples require concentration to obtain this minimum amount and for optimal concentration,Electrophoresis on urine is the preferred technique for identification of Bence Jones proteins in patients with suspected multiple myeloma.It should always be done in conjunction with serum, so the results can be compared directly.
33Electrophoresis of Urine Normal RangeUrine Total Protein ( < 140 mg/24hr )Urine Albumin ( < 30 mg/24hr )