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Professional Learning Communities A Comprehensive Guide to PLC Start-Up to Sustainability Adapted from the work of Dr. Richard Dufour Mark Cerutti – Director.

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Presentation on theme: "Professional Learning Communities A Comprehensive Guide to PLC Start-Up to Sustainability Adapted from the work of Dr. Richard Dufour Mark Cerutti – Director."— Presentation transcript:

1 Professional Learning Communities A Comprehensive Guide to PLC Start-Up to Sustainability Adapted from the work of Dr. Richard Dufour Mark Cerutti – Director of Secondary Education Elk Grove Unified School District

2 Assumption: Teachers Matter Regardless of the research basis, it is clear that effective teachers have a profound impact on student achievement and ineffective teachers do not. In fact, ineffective teachers might actually impede learning of their students Regardless of the research basis, it is clear that effective teachers have a profound impact on student achievement and ineffective teachers do not. In fact, ineffective teachers might actually impede learning of their students Marzano (2003), p. 75 Marzano (2003), p. 75

3 Assumption: Schools Matter An analysis of research conducted over a thirty-five year period demonstrates that schools that are highly effective produce results that almost entirely overcome the effects of student backgrounds. An analysis of research conducted over a thirty-five year period demonstrates that schools that are highly effective produce results that almost entirely overcome the effects of student backgrounds. Marzano (2003) Marzano (2003)

4 Assumption: Effective Schools Require More than Competent Individual Teachers Student achievement gains and other benefits are influenced by organizational characteristics beyond the skills of individual staff. We saw schools with competent teachers that lacked the organizational capacity to be effective with many students. The task for schools is to organize human resources into an effective collective effort Student achievement gains and other benefits are influenced by organizational characteristics beyond the skills of individual staff. We saw schools with competent teachers that lacked the organizational capacity to be effective with many students. The task for schools is to organize human resources into an effective collective effort Newmann and Wehlage (1995), p Newmann and Wehlage (1995), p

5 Assumption: We know how to create schools that help more kids learn at higher levels. In fact, there has never been greater consensus regarding the schools it will take to raise student achievement We know how to create schools that help more kids learn at higher levels. In fact, there has never been greater consensus regarding the schools it will take to raise student achievement DuFour (2010) DuFour (2010)

6 The Power of Professional Learning Communities The most promising strategy for sustained, substantive school improvement is building the capacity of school personnel to function as a professional learning community. The path to change in the classroom lies within and through professional learning communities. The most promising strategy for sustained, substantive school improvement is building the capacity of school personnel to function as a professional learning community. The path to change in the classroom lies within and through professional learning communities.

7 Professional Learning Community Defined Educators are committed to working collaboratively in ongoing processes of collective inquiry and action research in order to achieve better results for students they serve. Educators are committed to working collaboratively in ongoing processes of collective inquiry and action research in order to achieve better results for students they serve. PLCs operate under the assumption that the key to improved learning for students is continuous, job-embedded learning for educators. PLCs operate under the assumption that the key to improved learning for students is continuous, job-embedded learning for educators. DuFour, DuFour, Eaker, and Many (2006) DuFour, DuFour, Eaker, and Many (2006)

8 Professional Learning Community Defined A cohesive school organized into interdependent collaborative teams united by the PLC foundation A cohesive school organized into interdependent collaborative teams united by the PLC foundation Shared Purpose – Ensuring high levels of learning for all students Shared Purpose – Ensuring high levels of learning for all students Shared Vision – Creating the structure and culture that ensures all students learn Shared Vision – Creating the structure and culture that ensures all students learn Collective Commitments – Clarifying how each individual will contribute to achieving the vision Collective Commitments – Clarifying how each individual will contribute to achieving the vision Shared Goal – Identifying indicators to monitor our progress Shared Goal – Identifying indicators to monitor our progress

9 The Pervasive Impact of the PLC Process A Professional Learning Community is an ethos that infuses every single aspect of a schools operation. When a school becomes a Professional Learning Community, everything in the school looks different than it did before. A Professional Learning Community is an ethos that infuses every single aspect of a schools operation. When a school becomes a Professional Learning Community, everything in the school looks different than it did before. Hargreaves (2004) Hargreaves (2004)

10 Is the Professional Learning Community Concept Based on... Adherence to core practices or individual teacher autonomy? Adherence to core practices or individual teacher autonomy? Strong administrative leadership or teacher empowerment? Strong administrative leadership or teacher empowerment? Recognition and celebration of current efforts and achievements or discontent with the status quo? Recognition and celebration of current efforts and achievements or discontent with the status quo? Approaching school improvement with a sense of urgency or demonstrating the patience to sustain an improvement initiative long-term? Approaching school improvement with a sense of urgency or demonstrating the patience to sustain an improvement initiative long-term?

11 Its all of the above!

12 Simultaneous Looses and Tight School Cultures Simultaneous loose and tight cultures establish clear parameters and priorities that enable the individuals to work within established boundaries in a creative and autonomous way. They are characterized by directed empowerment or what Marzano and Waters refer to as defined autonomy – freedom to act and to lead within clearly articulated boundaries. Simultaneous loose and tight cultures establish clear parameters and priorities that enable the individuals to work within established boundaries in a creative and autonomous way. They are characterized by directed empowerment or what Marzano and Waters refer to as defined autonomy – freedom to act and to lead within clearly articulated boundaries.

13 The Big Ideas of a PLC We accept learning as the fundamental purpose of our school and therefore are willing to examine all practices in light of their impact on learning. We accept learning as the fundamental purpose of our school and therefore are willing to examine all practices in light of their impact on learning. We are committed to working together to achieve our collective purpose. We cultivate a collaborative culture through development of high-performing teams. We are committed to working together to achieve our collective purpose. We cultivate a collaborative culture through development of high-performing teams. We assess our effectiveness on the basis of results rather than intentions. Individuals, teams, and schools seek relevant data and information and use that information to promote continuous improvement. We assess our effectiveness on the basis of results rather than intentions. Individuals, teams, and schools seek relevant data and information and use that information to promote continuous improvement.

14 If the purpose of a school is to truly ensure high levels of learning for all students, schools will: Clarify what each student is expected to learn: Clarify what each student is expected to learn: Identifying skills, knowledge and dispositions Identifying skills, knowledge and dispositions Standards (content) Standards (content) Curriculum Maps (sequencing) Curriculum Maps (sequencing)

15 The 1 st Step in Decision Making in a PLC: Building Shared Knowledge Professional Learning Communities always attempt to answer critical questions by building shared knowledge by engaging in collective inquiry – Learning Together. Professional Learning Communities always attempt to answer critical questions by building shared knowledge by engaging in collective inquiry – Learning Together. If people make decision based upon the collective study of the same pool of information, they increase the likelihood that they will arrive at the same conclusion. If people make decision based upon the collective study of the same pool of information, they increase the likelihood that they will arrive at the same conclusion.

16 Resources to Help Teams Build Shared Knowledge and Clarify the What National Standards Framework National Standards Framework State Standards Framework State Standards Framework Internal Assessment Framework Internal Assessment Framework Data on past student performance Data on past student performance Examples of student work Examples of student work Textbook Curriculum Outlines Textbook Curriculum Outlines Curriculum Frameworks from high performing schools Curriculum Frameworks from high performing schools

17 Criteria for Identifying Essential Common Outcomes To separate the essential from the peripheral, apply these 3 criteria to each standard: To separate the essential from the peripheral, apply these 3 criteria to each standard: Endurance – are students expected to retain the skills/knowledge long after the test is completed Endurance – are students expected to retain the skills/knowledge long after the test is completed Leverage – Is this skill/knowledge applicable to many academic disciplines Leverage – Is this skill/knowledge applicable to many academic disciplines Readiness for the Next Level of Learning – is this skill/knowledge preparing students for success in the next grade/course Readiness for the Next Level of Learning – is this skill/knowledge preparing students for success in the next grade/course Reeves Reeves

18 Advantages of Team Discussion of Essential Learning Greater clarity regarding interpretation of standards Greater clarity regarding interpretation of standards Greater consistency regarding importance of different standards Greater consistency regarding importance of different standards Greater consistency in amount of time devoted to different standards (common pacing) Greater consistency in amount of time devoted to different standards (common pacing) Common outcomes and common pacing are essential for a team to create common assessments and team interventions Common outcomes and common pacing are essential for a team to create common assessments and team interventions Greater ownership of and commitment to standards Greater ownership of and commitment to standards

19 Levels of Curricula at Work Intended – What we want them to learn Intended – What we want them to learn Implemented – What actually gets taught Implemented – What actually gets taught Attained – What actually is learned Attained – What actually is learned To impact the attained curriculum in the most powerful way, make certain the implemented curriculum is guaranteed and viable. To impact the attained curriculum in the most powerful way, make certain the implemented curriculum is guaranteed and viable. Marzano Marzano

20 To Improve Student Achievement Create a guaranteed and viable curriculum (Marzano) Create a guaranteed and viable curriculum (Marzano) Establish a limited number of power standards (Reeves) Establish a limited number of power standards (Reeves) Pursue clear and focused essential academic goals (Lezotte) Pursue clear and focused essential academic goals (Lezotte) Identify learning intentions and success criteria (Hattie) Identify learning intentions and success criteria (Hattie) Develop a compact list of learning expectations and tangible exemplars of student proficiency (Saphier) Develop a compact list of learning expectations and tangible exemplars of student proficiency (Saphier)

21 If the purpose of school is truly to ensure high levels of learning for all students, schools will: Clarify what each student is expected to learn Clarify what each student is expected to learn Monitor each students learning on a timely basis Monitor each students learning on a timely basis

22 If the purpose of school is truly to ensure high levels of learning for all students, schools will: Clarify what each student is expected to learn Clarify what each student is expected to learn Monitor each students learning on a timely basis Monitor each students learning on a timely basis Develop multiple common assessments for each course/content area Develop multiple common assessments for each course/content area

23 What are Common Formative Assessments Formative assessments are the lynchpin of the collaborative team process in a PLC Formative assessments are the lynchpin of the collaborative team process in a PLC You must define common – How closely to all teachers adhere to the collaboratively designed assessment tool? You must define common – How closely to all teachers adhere to the collaboratively designed assessment tool? You must define formative – What is the necessary frequency to ensure adequate assessment of learning? You must define formative – What is the necessary frequency to ensure adequate assessment of learning?

24 Keys to Formative Assessments To determine if an assessment is formative ask: To determine if an assessment is formative ask: Is it used to identify students who are experiencing difficulty in their learning? Is it used to identify students who are experiencing difficulty in their learning? Are students who are having difficulty provided additional time and support for learning? Are students who are having difficulty provided additional time and support for learning? Are students given an additional opportunity to demonstrate their learning? Are students given an additional opportunity to demonstrate their learning?

25 Resources to Help Build Valid Common Assessments List of essential outcomes/pacing guides for each course/subject area List of essential outcomes/pacing guides for each course/subject area Released items from State/District assessments Released items from State/District assessments Data from past indicators of achievement Data from past indicators of achievement Examples of rubrics Examples of rubrics Assessments from high performing teams Assessments from high performing teams FAST FAST

26 Two Essentials of Performance Based Assessment Can we agree on the criteria by which we will judge the quality of student work? Can we agree on the criteria by which we will judge the quality of student work? Can we apply those criteria consistently (inter-rater reliability)? Can we apply those criteria consistently (inter-rater reliability)?

27 If the purpose of school is truly to ensure high levels of learning for all students, schools will: Clarify what each student is expected to learning Clarify what each student is expected to learning Monitor each students learning on a timely basis Monitor each students learning on a timely basis Establish specific targets/benchmarks rigorous enough it will lead to success on high stakes assessments Establish specific targets/benchmarks rigorous enough it will lead to success on high stakes assessments Analyze results Analyze results Identify and implement improvement strategies Identify and implement improvement strategies

28 Assessing the Current Reality Consider progress regarding: Consider progress regarding: Clarity on what students must know and be able to do Clarity on what students must know and be able to do Assessing student learning on the essential curriculum Assessing student learning on the essential curriculum What are areas of strength? What are areas of strength? What gaps exist What gaps exist

29 Assessing the Current Reality Share among members of your team the outcome of your self-assessment of strengths and gaps Share among members of your team the outcome of your self-assessment of strengths and gaps What are areas of agreement? What are areas of agreement? What are areas of disagreement? What are areas of disagreement? Where is the greatest progress? Where is the greatest progress? Where are the most significant gaps? Where are the most significant gaps?

30 Closing the Gap between the current reality and the desired level of performance What specific actions steps can be taken to make the progress that is necessary to move the school toward the desired level of performance? What specific actions steps can be taken to make the progress that is necessary to move the school toward the desired level of performance? Conduct a comprehensive task analysis to include essential action steps, timeline, person/s responsible and defined outcomes for each action step Conduct a comprehensive task analysis to include essential action steps, timeline, person/s responsible and defined outcomes for each action step A task analysis is a basic Project Management Tool and discipline designed to ensure planning moves to measured action. A task analysis is a basic Project Management Tool and discipline designed to ensure planning moves to measured action.

31 The Big Ideas of a PLC We accept learning as the fundamental purpose of our school and therefore are willing to examine all practices in light of their impact on learning. We accept learning as the fundamental purpose of our school and therefore are willing to examine all practices in light of their impact on learning. We are committed to working together to achieve our collective purpose. We cultivate a collaborative culture through development of high-performing teams. We are committed to working together to achieve our collective purpose. We cultivate a collaborative culture through development of high-performing teams.

32 Barriers to a Learning Community A professional norm of teacher isolation A professional norm of teacher isolation This has been the standard for 150 years This has been the standard for 150 years There are many current organizational structures that reinforce an isolationist professional environment There are many current organizational structures that reinforce an isolationist professional environment How isolated and isolating are we? How isolated and isolating are we?

33 Why Collaboration? Gains in student achievement Gains in student achievement Higher quality solutions to problems Higher quality solutions to problems Increased confidence among staff Increased confidence among staff Teachers able to support one anothers strengths and accommodate weaknesses Teachers able to support one anothers strengths and accommodate weaknesses Ability to take risks and test new ideas Ability to take risks and test new ideas Increased support for new teachers Increased support for new teachers Collective intelligence is more robust in terms of ideas, methods, resources and solutions. Collective intelligence is more robust in terms of ideas, methods, resources and solutions.

34 Group IQ There is such a thing as group IQ. While a group can be no smarter than the sum total knowledge and skills of its members, it can be much dumber if its internal workings dont allow people to share their talents. There is such a thing as group IQ. While a group can be no smarter than the sum total knowledge and skills of its members, it can be much dumber if its internal workings dont allow people to share their talents. Robert Stemberg (1988) Robert Stemberg (1988)

35 What is Collaboration? A systematic process in which we work together, interdependently, to analyze and impact professional practice in order to improve our individual and collective results. A systematic process in which we work together, interdependently, to analyze and impact professional practice in order to improve our individual and collective results. Dufour, DuFOur and Eaker (2002) Dufour, DuFOur and Eaker (2002)

36 The Focus of Collaboration Collaborative cultures, which by definition have close relationships, are indeed powerful, but unless they are focusing on the right things they may end up being powerfully wrong. Collaborative cultures, which by definition have close relationships, are indeed powerful, but unless they are focusing on the right things they may end up being powerfully wrong. Michael Fullan Michael Fullan

37 A Key Question in PLCs A critical question in a PLC is not, do we collaborate, but rather, what do we collaborate about? A critical question in a PLC is not, do we collaborate, but rather, what do we collaborate about?

38 Critical Corollary Questions: If We Believe All Students Can Learn: What is it we expect them to learn? What is it we expect them to learn? How will we know when they have learned it? How will we know when they have learned it? How will we respond when they dont know it? How will we respond when they dont know it? How will we respond when they already know it? How will we respond when they already know it?

39 Seven Keys to Effective Teams 1. Embed collaboration in routine practices of the school with a focus on learning.

40 The Criterion for Creating Teams The fundamental question in organizing teams is: The fundamental question in organizing teams is: Do the people on this team have a shared responsibility for responding to the critical questions in ways that enhance the learning of their students? Do the people on this team have a shared responsibility for responding to the critical questions in ways that enhance the learning of their students?

41 Possible Team Structures: Provided the focus is on LEARNING All teachers teaching the same grade level or course All teachers teaching the same grade level or course Vertical teams Vertical teams Interdisciplinary teams Interdisciplinary teams Similar responsibility teams Similar responsibility teams Content, assessment, best-practice research Content, assessment, best-practice research

42 Seven Keys to Effective Teams 1. Embed collaboration in routine practices of the school with a focus on learning. 2. Schedule time for collaboration into the school day and school calendar

43 Parameters for Collaborative Time Can not increase costs Can not increase costs Can not significantly impact instructional time Can not significantly impact instructional time For additional ideas go to: For additional ideas go to: Evidence of Effectiveness Schools Evidence of Effectiveness Schools

44 Seven Keys to Effective Teams 1. Embed collaboration in routine practices of the school with a focus on learning. 2. Schedule time for collaboration into the school day and school calendar 3. Focus teams on critical questions 4. Make products of collaboration explicit

45 Example of Timeline for Team Products By the end of the: By the end of the: 2nd week – Team Norms 2nd week – Team Norms 4 th week – Team SMART Goals 4 th week – Team SMART Goals 6 th week – Common Essential Questions 6 th week – Common Essential Questions 8 th week – First Common Assessment 8 th week – First Common Assessment 10 th week – Analysis of student performance on first common formative assessment 10 th week – Analysis of student performance on first common formative assessment

46 Reciprocal Accountability Accountability must be a reciprocal process. For every expectation I have of you to perform, I have an equal responsibility to provide you with the capacity to meet that expectation. Accountability must be a reciprocal process. For every expectation I have of you to perform, I have an equal responsibility to provide you with the capacity to meet that expectation. Richard Elmore, (2006) Richard Elmore, (2006)

47 To Help Build the Capacity of Teams, Address... Why – Rationale Why – Rationale How – Process How – Process What – Common Language, Tools, Resources, Templates, Materials, Resources, Examples What – Common Language, Tools, Resources, Templates, Materials, Resources, Examples When – Timeline When – Timeline Guiding Questions Guiding Questions Criteria for clarifying the quality of each product Criteria for clarifying the quality of each product

48 To Help Build the Capacity of Teams, Address... The PLC Seven Step Planning Guide The PLC Seven Step Planning Guide development.wikispaces.com/Effective+Teams+- +Professional+Learning+Communities development.wikispaces.com/Effective+Teams+- +Professional+Learning+Communities development.wikispaces.com/Effective+Teams+- +Professional+Learning+Communities development.wikispaces.com/Effective+Teams+- +Professional+Learning+Communities Culture Shift Culture Shift Defining PLCs Defining PLCs PLC Leadership Characteristics PLC Leadership Characteristics PLC Purpose and Goal Setting PLC Purpose and Goal Setting PLC Implementation PLC Implementation PLC Monitoring/Assessment PLC Monitoring/Assessment PLC Sustainability PLC Sustainability

49 Seven Keys to Effective Teams 1. Embed collaboration in routine practices of the school with a focus on learning. 2. Schedule time for collaboration into the school day and school calendar 3. Focus teams on critical questions 4. Make products of collaboration explicit 5. Establish team norms to guide collaboration

50 The Significance of Team Norms When all is said and done, the norms of a groups help determine whether it functions as a high-performing team or becomes simply a loose collection of people working together. When all is said and done, the norms of a groups help determine whether it functions as a high-performing team or becomes simply a loose collection of people working together. Positive norms will stick only if the group puts them into practice over and over again. Being explicit about norms raises the level of effectiveness, maximizes emotional intelligence, produces a positive experience for group members and helps to socialize newcomers into the group quickly. Positive norms will stick only if the group puts them into practice over and over again. Being explicit about norms raises the level of effectiveness, maximizes emotional intelligence, produces a positive experience for group members and helps to socialize newcomers into the group quickly. Daniel Goleman Daniel Goleman

51 Importance of Team Norms Social psychologists learned long ago that if you make a commitment and then share it with others, you are far more likely to follow through than if you simply make the commitment to yourself. Social psychologists learned long ago that if you make a commitment and then share it with others, you are far more likely to follow through than if you simply make the commitment to yourself. Kerry Patterson et. Al. Influencers, p. 152 Kerry Patterson et. Al. Influencers, p. 152

52 The importance of Team Norms One thing is clear: having clear norms gives teams a huge advantage. A key to effective teams is involving all members in establishing norms, and then holding everyone accountable to what they have agreed upon. One thing is clear: having clear norms gives teams a huge advantage. A key to effective teams is involving all members in establishing norms, and then holding everyone accountable to what they have agreed upon. Patrick Lencioni, Overcoming the Five Dysfunctions of a Team Patrick Lencioni, Overcoming the Five Dysfunctions of a Team

53 The importance of Team Norms At the heart of team interaction lies a commitment-building process. The team establishes a social contract among its members that relates to their purpose, and guides and obligates how they must work together. At its core, team accountability is about the promises we make to ourselves and others, promises that underpin two critical aspects of teams: commitment and trust. At the heart of team interaction lies a commitment-building process. The team establishes a social contract among its members that relates to their purpose, and guides and obligates how they must work together. At its core, team accountability is about the promises we make to ourselves and others, promises that underpin two critical aspects of teams: commitment and trust. Katzenbach and Smith, The Wisdom of Teams Katzenbach and Smith, The Wisdom of Teams

54 Norms of High Performing Teams In addition to arriving on time, being prepared, actively participating, ensuring there is an agenda and meeting minutes are taken communicated and archived, effective team norms also should include such things as..... In addition to arriving on time, being prepared, actively participating, ensuring there is an agenda and meeting minutes are taken communicated and archived, effective team norms also should include such things as.....

55 Norms of High Performing Teams Willingness to consider matters from anothers perspective Willingness to consider matters from anothers perspective Accurate understanding of spoken and unspoken feelings and concerns of team members Accurate understanding of spoken and unspoken feelings and concerns of team members Willingness to address/confront a team member who violates team norms Willingness to address/confront a team member who violates team norms Communicating positive regard, caring and respect Communicating positive regard, caring and respect Willingness and ability to evaluate the teams own effectiveness Willingness and ability to evaluate the teams own effectiveness Seeking feedback about and evidence of team effectiveness from internal and external sources Seeking feedback about and evidence of team effectiveness from internal and external sources Maintaining a positive outlook and attitude Maintaining a positive outlook and attitude Pro-active problem solving Pro-active problem solving Awareness of how the group contributes to the purpose and goals of the larger organization Awareness of how the group contributes to the purpose and goals of the larger organization Daniel Goleman Daniel Goleman

56 Criteria for Team Norms The norms have clarified our expectations of one another The norms have clarified our expectations of one another All members of the team participated in creating the norms All members of the team participated in creating the norms All voices were heard in norm preparation All voices were heard in norm preparation The norms are stated as commitments to act in specific ways The norms are stated as commitments to act in specific ways All members have committed to honoring the norms All members have committed to honoring the norms

57 Tips for Team Norms Each team establishes its own norms Each team establishes its own norms Norms are stated as commitments to desired team behavior Norms are stated as commitments to desired team behavior Norms are reviewed at the beginning and end of each team meeting until internalized Norms are reviewed at the beginning and end of each team meeting until internalized One norm requires the team to regularly assess team effectiveness which includes review of and adherence to team norms (there may come a time a new norm must be established and another is no longer needed) One norm requires the team to regularly assess team effectiveness which includes review of and adherence to team norms (there may come a time a new norm must be established and another is no longer needed) Less is more – a few key norms is preferred vs. a lengthy list Less is more – a few key norms is preferred vs. a lengthy list Violations of norms MUST be addressed Violations of norms MUST be addressed

58 Culture and Change Professional Learning Communities typically require a significant change in organizational culture as well as changing attitudes and minds of individuals. Professional Learning Communities typically require a significant change in organizational culture as well as changing attitudes and minds of individuals. This is not easy and takes strategic and thoughtful planning and execution This is not easy and takes strategic and thoughtful planning and execution

59 Resisters Understand there will be some and at times many Understand there will be some and at times many Seek to understand why the resistance is present (The Elephant and the Rider) Seek to understand why the resistance is present (The Elephant and the Rider) Chip Heath and Dan Heath, Switch, 2010 Chip Heath and Dan Heath, Switch, 2010 Assume resisters have good intentions without being naive Assume resisters have good intentions without being naive Use strategies of persuasion Use strategies of persuasion Daniel Pink, Drive – The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us, 2010) Daniel Pink, Drive – The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us, 2010)

60 Seven Ways to Change Someones Mind 1. Reason – Appealing to rational thinking and decision making 2. Research – Building shared knowledge of the research base supporting a position 3. Resonance – Connecting to the persons intuition so that the proposal feels right 4. Representational Re-Descriptions – Changing the way the information is presented (for example, using stories or analogies vs. data)

61 Seven Ways to Change Someones Mind Continued 5. Resources and Rewards – Providing people with incentives to embrace the new idea (understanding how intrinsic and extrinsic motivation really works!) 6. Real-World Events – Presenting real-world examples where the idea has been applied successfully. 7. Confirmation – Just do it (sometimes you just have to move) Howard Gardner

62 The Sequence of Changing Attitudes (Including Your Own) Attitude Attitude Is shaped by.... Is shaped by.... Experience Experience Is a result of.... Is a result of.... Behavior Behavior Is guided by... Is guided by... To change attitudes, focus on behavior To change attitudes, focus on behavior

63 Keys to Responding to a Resister Assume good intentions Assume good intentions See to understand See to understand Use strategies of persuasion Use strategies of persuasion Identify specific behaviors essential to the success of the initiative Identify specific behaviors essential to the success of the initiative Focus on behavior not attitude. Focus on behavior not attitude.

64 We Can Behave our Way to New Attitudes There is considerable research and literature demonstrating that attitudes follow behavior. People accept new beliefs as a result of changing their behavior. There is considerable research and literature demonstrating that attitudes follow behavior. People accept new beliefs as a result of changing their behavior. Pfeffer and Sutton Pfeffer and Sutton It can often be thought that changing adult attitudes is a daunting task – and it is. Dont start with attitude – start with behavior which is easier (although no easy) to change. It can often be thought that changing adult attitudes is a daunting task – and it is. Dont start with attitude – start with behavior which is easier (although no easy) to change.

65 Assessing The Current Reality Consider progress regarding Consider progress regarding Building a collaborative culture Building a collaborative culture Reflect individually and then reflect collectively Reflect individually and then reflect collectively Where are areas of agreement? Where are areas of agreement? Where are the areas of disagreement? Where are the areas of disagreement? What areas of strength exist? What areas of strength exist? Where are the gaps Where are the gaps

66 Closing the Gap What steps can immediately be taken to close the gap inhibiting the establishment of a school culture that is necessary for the school wide implementation of Professional Learning Communities? What steps can immediately be taken to close the gap inhibiting the establishment of a school culture that is necessary for the school wide implementation of Professional Learning Communities?

67 Closing the Gap between the current reality and the desired level of performance What specific actions steps can be taken to make the progress that is necessary to move the school toward the desired level of performance? What specific actions steps can be taken to make the progress that is necessary to move the school toward the desired level of performance? Conduct a comprehensive task analysis to include essential action steps, timeline, person/s responsible and defined outcomes for each action step Conduct a comprehensive task analysis to include essential action steps, timeline, person/s responsible and defined outcomes for each action step A task analysis is a basic Project Management Tool and discipline designed to ensure planning moves to measured action. A task analysis is a basic Project Management Tool and discipline designed to ensure planning moves to measured action.

68 The Big Ideas of a PLC We accept learning as the fundamental purpose of our school and therefore are willing to examine all practices in light of their impact on learning. We accept learning as the fundamental purpose of our school and therefore are willing to examine all practices in light of their impact on learning. We are committed to working together to achieve our collective purpose. We cultivate a collaborative culture through development of high-performing teams. We are committed to working together to achieve our collective purpose. We cultivate a collaborative culture through development of high-performing teams. We assess our effectiveness on the basis of results rather than intentions. Individuals, teams, and schools seek relevant data and information and use that information to promote continuous improvement. We assess our effectiveness on the basis of results rather than intentions. Individuals, teams, and schools seek relevant data and information and use that information to promote continuous improvement.

69 Professional Learning Communities Focus on Results in Two Ways 1. To identify students who need more time and support for learning 2. To indentify strategies to improve upon both our individual and collective ability to teach each essential skill and concept

70 Seven Keys to Effective Teams 1. Embed collaboration in routine practices of the school with a focus on learning. 2. Schedule time for collaboration into the school day and school calendar 3. Focus teams on critical questions 4. Make products of collaboration explicit 5. Establish team norms to guide collaboration 6. Pursue specific and measurable team performance goals

71 Results-Oriented Goals: Keys to Effective Teams Leaders foster effective teams when they help establish specific, measurable results-oriented performance goals. Promoting teams for the sake of teams or focusing on team-building exercises does little to improve the effectiveness of the organization. There is nothing more important than each members commitment to common purpose and a related performance goal to which the group holds itself jointly accountable. Leaders foster effective teams when they help establish specific, measurable results-oriented performance goals. Promoting teams for the sake of teams or focusing on team-building exercises does little to improve the effectiveness of the organization. There is nothing more important than each members commitment to common purpose and a related performance goal to which the group holds itself jointly accountable. Katzenbach and Smith (1993) Katzenbach and Smith (1993)

72 SMART Goals Establish Team SMART Goals that are aligned to District and School-Wide Goals Establish Team SMART Goals that are aligned to District and School-Wide Goals Strategic and specific Strategic and specific Measurable Measurable Attainable Attainable Results-Oriented Results-Oriented Time-Bound Time-Bound Conzemius and ONeill (2000) Conzemius and ONeill (2000)

73 The Importance of Short-Term SMART Goals People can become caught up in big dreams that dont manage the current reality. Short term gains are needed to establish credibility for a change initiative over the long haul. Major change takes time. Most of us want to see some convincing evidence that all the effort is paying off. We want clear data indicating changes are working. People can become caught up in big dreams that dont manage the current reality. Short term gains are needed to establish credibility for a change initiative over the long haul. Major change takes time. Most of us want to see some convincing evidence that all the effort is paying off. We want clear data indicating changes are working. John P. Kotter, (1996), pp John P. Kotter, (1996), pp

74 Seven Keys to Effective Teams 1. Embed collaboration in routine practices of the school with a focus on learning. 2. Schedule time for collaboration into the school day and school calendar 3. Focus teams on critical questions 4. Make products of collaboration explicit 5. Establish team norms to guide collaboration 6. Pursue specific and measurable team performance goals 7. Provide teams with frequent access to relevant information

75 Interpreting Data What data should be used? What data should be used? What data is relevant to the critical questions facing student achievement? What data is relevant to the critical questions facing student achievement? What specific data points are essential to determine a course of action to improve student achievement in specific courses, subject areas, etc? What specific data points are essential to determine a course of action to improve student achievement in specific courses, subject areas, etc?

76 Schools Suffer from the DRIP Syndrome Schools are often: Schools are often: Data Data Rich but Rich but Information Information Poor Poor Data are not information; translating fact to understanding means relating data to something you know and can visualize. This typically requires comparison. Data are not information; translating fact to understanding means relating data to something you know and can visualize. This typically requires comparison. Robert Waterman Robert Waterman

77 To Inform and Impact Professional Practice, Ensure all Teachers Receive Timely and frequent information on the achievement of their students... Timely and frequent information on the achievement of their students... In meeting an agreed upon standard In meeting an agreed upon standard On a valid assessment On a valid assessment In comparison to others In comparison to others

78 Sharing of Data Beginning of a Community Collecting data is only the first step toward wisdom, but sharing data is the first step toward community. Collecting data is only the first step toward wisdom, but sharing data is the first step toward community. Henry Louis Gates, Jr. Henry Louis Gates, Jr.

79 The Case for Formative Assessments Developed through teacher learning communities promises the largest potential gains in student achievement Developed through teacher learning communities promises the largest potential gains in student achievement Few initiatives in education have had such a strong body of evidence to support a claim to raise standards Few initiatives in education have had such a strong body of evidence to support a claim to raise standards One of the most powerful, high leverage strategies for improving student learning that we know of. One of the most powerful, high leverage strategies for improving student learning that we know of. One of the most powerful weapons in a teachers arsenal One of the most powerful weapons in a teachers arsenal

80 The Case for Formative Assessments Consistently used by schools with the greatest achievement Consistently used by schools with the greatest achievement Represent a powerful, proven structure for improved results Represent a powerful, proven structure for improved results Enable educators to diagnose student learning needs in time to make instructional modifications Enable educators to diagnose student learning needs in time to make instructional modifications Form the basis of professional dialogue in schools that double student achievement Form the basis of professional dialogue in schools that double student achievement

81 Linking Formative and Common Assessments Two strategies seem especially promising for schools. One is to expand the quality and variety of formative assessments; a second is to promote and organize collective inquiry into a discussion of student progress and achievement based on a range of assessments. Two strategies seem especially promising for schools. One is to expand the quality and variety of formative assessments; a second is to promote and organize collective inquiry into a discussion of student progress and achievement based on a range of assessments. Judith Warren Little, (2006) p. 9 Judith Warren Little, (2006) p. 9

82 The Most Powerful Strategy for Improving Student Learning Teachers work in collaborative teams to: Teachers work in collaborative teams to: Clarify what students must learn Clarify what students must learn Gather evidence of student learning Gather evidence of student learning Analyze evidence Analyze evidence Identify the most powerful teaching strategies Identify the most powerful teaching strategies Reflective teaching must be based on evidence of student learning and reflection is most powerful when it is collaborative. Reflective teaching must be based on evidence of student learning and reflection is most powerful when it is collaborative. John Hattie, 2009 John Hattie, 2009

83 Transparency Rules There is no way continuous improvement can occur without constant transparency fueled by good information. Effective organizations create systems to ensure clear and continuous display of results and clear and continuous access to practice that is, what is being done to get the results. There is no way continuous improvement can occur without constant transparency fueled by good information. Effective organizations create systems to ensure clear and continuous display of results and clear and continuous access to practice that is, what is being done to get the results. Michael Fullen (2008) Michael Fullen (2008)

84 Why Common Assessments Efficiency – by sharing the load, teachers save time Efficiency – by sharing the load, teachers save time Fairness – promotes common goals, similar pacing, and consistent standards for assessing student proficiency Fairness – promotes common goals, similar pacing, and consistent standards for assessing student proficiency Effective Monitoring – Provides timely evidence of whether the guaranteed and viable curriculum is being taught and learned Effective Monitoring – Provides timely evidence of whether the guaranteed and viable curriculum is being taught and learned Informs Individual Teacher Practice – Provides teachers with a basis of comparison regarding the achievement of their students so they can see strengths and weaknesses of their teaching Informs Individual Teacher Practice – Provides teachers with a basis of comparison regarding the achievement of their students so they can see strengths and weaknesses of their teaching Team Capacity – collaborative teacher teams are able to identify and address problem areas in their program Team Capacity – collaborative teacher teams are able to identify and address problem areas in their program Collective Response – helps teams and the school create timely, systematic interventions for students Collective Response – helps teams and the school create timely, systematic interventions for students

85 Example Essential Writing Skills for Students Students will write descriptive paragraphs by: Students will write descriptive paragraphs by: Developing a plan for writing Developing a plan for writing Focusing on a central idea Focusing on a central idea Grouping related ideas Grouping related ideas Including descriptive details that elaborate on the central idea Including descriptive details that elaborate on the central idea Revising writing for clarity Revising writing for clarity Editing final copies for grammar, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling Editing final copies for grammar, capitalization, punctuation, and spelling

86 Another Example Implementing Common Assessments Develop four common writing prompts Develop four common writing prompts Agree on the criteria by which they would judge the quality of student writing Agree on the criteria by which they would judge the quality of student writing Practice applying these criteria consistently to establish inter-rater reliability Practice applying these criteria consistently to establish inter-rater reliability Identify anchor papers for each rubric stage Identify anchor papers for each rubric stage Establish the proficiency target Establish the proficiency target Share standards, rubric and anchors with students, and teach them how to apply the rubric to their writing Share standards, rubric and anchors with students, and teach them how to apply the rubric to their writing

87 Assessing the Current Reality Consider progress regarding: Consider progress regarding: A focus on results through providing teams with relevant information A focus on results through providing teams with relevant information

88 Assessing the Current Reality Share among members of your team the outcome of your self-assessment of strengths and gaps Share among members of your team the outcome of your self-assessment of strengths and gaps What are areas of agreement? What are areas of agreement? What are areas of disagreement? What are areas of disagreement? Where is the greatest progress? Where is the greatest progress? Where are the most significant gaps? Where are the most significant gaps?

89 Closing the Gap between the current reality and the desired level of performance What specific actions steps can be taken to make the progress that is necessary to move the school toward the desired level of performance? What specific actions steps can be taken to make the progress that is necessary to move the school toward the desired level of performance? Conduct a comprehensive task analysis to include essential action steps, timeline, person/s responsible and defined outcomes for each action step Conduct a comprehensive task analysis to include essential action steps, timeline, person/s responsible and defined outcomes for each action step A task analysis is a basic Project Management Tool and discipline designed to ensure planning moves to measured action. A task analysis is a basic Project Management Tool and discipline designed to ensure planning moves to measured action.

90 If the purpose of school is truly to ensure high levels of learning for all students, schools will: Clarify what each student is expected to learn – the essential knowledge, skills and dispositions of each course, subject, unit-by-unit Clarify what each student is expected to learn – the essential knowledge, skills and dispositions of each course, subject, unit-by-unit Monitor each students learning on a timely basis through the use of frequent, formative, common assessments Monitor each students learning on a timely basis through the use of frequent, formative, common assessments Create systems to ensure students receive additional time and support if they are not learning Create systems to ensure students receive additional time and support if they are not learning Create systems to ensure students receive additional time and support if they are learning Create systems to ensure students receive additional time and support if they are learning

91 All Students Can Learn... based on ability based on ability if they take advantage of the opportunity if they take advantage of the opportunity something, and we will create a warm, pleasant environment for them something, and we will create a warm, pleasant environment for them and we will do whatever it takes to ensure they achieve the agreed-upon standards and we will do whatever it takes to ensure they achieve the agreed-upon standards DuFour, Learning by Doing (2008) DuFour, Learning by Doing (2008)

92 The Schools Response Increased levels of time and support when students are not being successful Increased levels of time and support when students are not being successful Response is increasingly directive, not optional or invitational Response is increasingly directive, not optional or invitational Response is timely Response is timely Response is SYSTEMATIC Response is SYSTEMATIC

93 A Support System for Students Example Pre-enrollment initiatives Pre-enrollment initiatives Counselor Watch – Student partners/mentors Counselor Watch – Student partners/mentors For all entering student For all entering student Frequent meetings with a faculty advisor Frequent meetings with a faculty advisor Frequent meetings with a senior advisor Frequent meetings with a senior advisor Frequent meetings with a counselor Frequent meetings with a counselor Participation in co-curricular activities Participation in co-curricular activities Weekly/daily progress reporting system Weekly/daily progress reporting system

94 A Systematic Response to Students Who Are Not Learning - Example Week 3 – Conferences/offer of tutoring services Week 3 – Conferences/offer of tutoring services Week 6 – Mandatory tutoring/weekly progress reports Week 6 – Mandatory tutoring/weekly progress reports Week 12 – Guided study program and weekly parent conferences Week 12 – Guided study program and weekly parent conferences Week 18 – Mentor program Week 18 – Mentor program

95 A Syllogism of What Should Be Rhetorical Questions Do we believe it is the purpose of our school to ensure all students learn at high levels? Do we believe it is the purpose of our school to ensure all students learn at high levels? Do we acknowledge that students learn at different rates and with different levels of support? Do we acknowledge that students learn at different rates and with different levels of support? Have we created a schedule that guarantees students they will receive additional opportunities for learning through extra time and support, in a systematic way, regardless of who the teacher might be? Have we created a schedule that guarantees students they will receive additional opportunities for learning through extra time and support, in a systematic way, regardless of who the teacher might be?

96 A Crucial Caution No system of intervention can compensate for weak or ineffective teaching. At the same time that a school is working to develop time and support for student learning, it must take steps to create the powerful collaborative teams and common assessments that contribute to adult learning. No system of intervention can compensate for weak or ineffective teaching. At the same time that a school is working to develop time and support for student learning, it must take steps to create the powerful collaborative teams and common assessments that contribute to adult learning.

97 For Information Regarding Systematic Intervention Support Systems Evidence of Effectiveness Evidence of Effectiveness Whatever it Takes - Dufour Whatever it Takes - Dufour

98 What Happens When Kids Dont Learn? High expectations for success will be judged not only by the staffs beliefs and behaviors, but also by the organizations response when some students dont learn. High expectations for success will be judged not only by the staffs beliefs and behaviors, but also by the organizations response when some students dont learn. Lezotte (1991) Lezotte (1991)

99 Critical Corollary Questions If We Believe All Students Can Learn How is it we expect them to learn? How is it we expect them to learn? How will we know when they have learned it? How will we know when they have learned it? How will we respond when they dont learn? How will we respond when they dont learn? How will we respond when they already know it? How will we respond when they already know it?

100 Master Schedule is Key Protect time for teaching and learning Protect time for teaching and learning Daily electives for all students Daily electives for all students Daily individual planning for all instructional staff (overloads should be avoided – the lack of planning time dramatically affects instructional quality) Daily individual planning for all instructional staff (overloads should be avoided – the lack of planning time dramatically affects instructional quality) Weekly/Daily collaborative planning time Weekly/Daily collaborative planning time Intervention or enrichment block for all grade levels during the school day (not simply zero period/after school) Intervention or enrichment block for all grade levels during the school day (not simply zero period/after school)

101 Is There a Better Way? How can we better allocate existing resources... How can we better allocate existing resources... Time Time People People Materials Materials Money Money... to provide additional support for all students to learn at higher levels than ever before?... to provide additional support for all students to learn at higher levels than ever before?

102 A Pre-Requisite for Systematic Intervention Before effective systems of intervention can be created, teams must first be able to agree upon: Before effective systems of intervention can be created, teams must first be able to agree upon: Essential knowledge, skills and dispositions Essential knowledge, skills and dispositions Common pacing guides/curriculum maps Common pacing guides/curriculum maps Common formative assessments Common formative assessments Common standard of proficiency Common standard of proficiency Students who need additional time and support based upon analysis of common assessment data Students who need additional time and support based upon analysis of common assessment data A designated grade-level block of time for intervention/enrichment in addition to direct instruction in all subject areas A designated grade-level block of time for intervention/enrichment in addition to direct instruction in all subject areas

103 Essential Questions Facing Each Team/PLC How will we provide additional support for students who experience initial difficulty in a way that is timely, directive, and systematic? How will we provide additional support for students who experience initial difficulty in a way that is timely, directive, and systematic? How will we enrich and extend the learning for the students who already know it? How will we enrich and extend the learning for the students who already know it? Who is available to assist our team in responding to our students Who is available to assist our team in responding to our students

104 Extra Time and Support Example Flex scheduling for students performing below proficient levels Flex scheduling for students performing below proficient levels Adjusting teacher/student case-loads periodically allowing for on-ramping accelerated learning for students in smaller class sections Adjusting teacher/student case-loads periodically allowing for on-ramping accelerated learning for students in smaller class sections Flexible grouping Flexible grouping Specific instruction specific to knowledge/skill test taking Specific instruction specific to knowledge/skill test taking

105 Extra Time and Support Example Parent and business volunteers Parent and business volunteers Senior Citizen Groups Senior Citizen Groups College Partnerships College Partnerships Peer tutoring Peer tutoring Refine Student Study Teams to plan for improved and increased frequency of interventions Refine Student Study Teams to plan for improved and increased frequency of interventions

106 Extra Time and Support Example Aggressively involve parents in the learning process Aggressively involve parents in the learning process Conduct parent workshops (multi-lingual) Conduct parent workshops (multi-lingual) Web-based progress monitoring systems (School Loop) Web-based progress monitoring systems (School Loop) Parent/Student Study Sessions Parent/Student Study Sessions Expand the focus of Site Counsel Expand the focus of Site Counsel

107 Actively Promote A Climate of Achievement Daily – Announcements recognizing achievement and improvement Daily – Announcements recognizing achievement and improvement Maximize the public relations capacity of Newsletters, School Website, Auto-Dialer messages, School Loop announcements Maximize the public relations capacity of Newsletters, School Website, Auto-Dialer messages, School Loop announcements Include student achievement recognition at every Department and Staff meeting Include student achievement recognition at every Department and Staff meeting Vertical student achievement recognitions (high school regional approach) Vertical student achievement recognitions (high school regional approach)

108 Expected Outcomes of Systematic Interventions Increased student achievement on internal and external assessments Increased student achievement on internal and external assessments Decreased disciplinary referrals/incidents Decreased disciplinary referrals/incidents Increased attendance Increased attendance Improved school perceptions from all stakeholders Improved school perceptions from all stakeholders Improved job satisfaction among all employees Improved job satisfaction among all employees

109 How Do We Stack Up? Are our students assured extra time and support for learning? Are our students assured extra time and support for learning? Is our response timely? How quickly are we able to identify students who need extra time and support? Does our focus prompt intervention or enrichment rather than sluggish remediation? Is our response timely? How quickly are we able to identify students who need extra time and support? Does our focus prompt intervention or enrichment rather than sluggish remediation? Is our response directive rather than optional/invitational? Are students invited to put in extra time or does our system ensure students put in extra time? Is our response directive rather than optional/invitational? Are students invited to put in extra time or does our system ensure students put in extra time? Is our response systematic? Do students receive this intervention or enrichment according to a school wide plan rather than at the direction of individual teachers? Is our response systematic? Do students receive this intervention or enrichment according to a school wide plan rather than at the direction of individual teachers?

110 Assessing the Current Reality Consider progress regarding: Consider progress regarding: A systematic response to students who have not learned or students who have already learned specific knowledge/skill standards A systematic response to students who have not learned or students who have already learned specific knowledge/skill standards

111 Assessing the Current Reality Share among members of your team the outcome of your self-assessment of strengths and gaps Share among members of your team the outcome of your self-assessment of strengths and gaps What are areas of agreement? What are areas of agreement? What are areas of disagreement? What are areas of disagreement? Where is the greatest progress? Where is the greatest progress? Where are the most significant gaps? Where are the most significant gaps?

112 Closing the Gap between the current reality and the desired level of performance What specific actions steps can be taken to make the progress that is necessary to move the school toward the desired level of performance? What specific actions steps can be taken to make the progress that is necessary to move the school toward the desired level of performance? Conduct a comprehensive task analysis to include essential action steps, timeline, person/s responsible and defined outcomes for each action step Conduct a comprehensive task analysis to include essential action steps, timeline, person/s responsible and defined outcomes for each action step A task analysis is a basic Project Management Tool and discipline designed to ensure planning moves to measured action. A task analysis is a basic Project Management Tool and discipline designed to ensure planning moves to measured action.

113 Bottom Line... How do we get where we need to go? Common mistakes when trying to build consensus: Common mistakes when trying to build consensus: Trying to go it alone, rather than building a guiding coalition that includes key opinion leaders among the staff Trying to go it alone, rather than building a guiding coalition that includes key opinion leaders among the staff Change takes time – it is a fine line between patience and stalling Change takes time – it is a fine line between patience and stalling

114 Including Opinion Leaders on a Guiding Coalition Who supports an idea is more important to its adoption than the merits of the idea Who supports an idea is more important to its adoption than the merits of the idea About 15% of the members of any organization are opinion leaders – socially connected, knowledgeable, and trusted by others in the organization. About 15% of the members of any organization are opinion leaders – socially connected, knowledgeable, and trusted by others in the organization. Get them on board and others will follow Get them on board and others will follow Patterson, et. Al., 2008 Patterson, et. Al., 2008

115 Common Mistakes in Building Consensus Trying to go it alone, rather than building a guiding coalition that includes key opinion leaders among the staff Trying to go it alone, rather than building a guiding coalition that includes key opinion leaders among the staff Using a forum that is ill-suited to the dialogue that is typically necessary for consensus Using a forum that is ill-suited to the dialogue that is typically necessary for consensus Using a process that allows cynics and skeptics to dominate Using a process that allows cynics and skeptics to dominate Pooling options rather than building shared knowledge Pooling options rather than building shared knowledge

116 Cardinal Rule of PLCs Virtually every aspect of the PLC concept is shared knowledge. Put another way, a learning community always begins the decision making process by learning together. Virtually every aspect of the PLC concept is shared knowledge. Put another way, a learning community always begins the decision making process by learning together. Building shared knowledge is the prerequisite homework of a PLC when it is time to make a collective decision Building shared knowledge is the prerequisite homework of a PLC when it is time to make a collective decision

117 Common Mistakes in Building Consensus Trying to go it alone, rather than building a guiding coalition that includes key opinion leaders among the staff Trying to go it alone, rather than building a guiding coalition that includes key opinion leaders among the staff Using a forum that is ill-suited to the dialogue that is typically necessary for consensus Using a forum that is ill-suited to the dialogue that is typically necessary for consensus Using a process that allows cynics and skeptics to dominate Using a process that allows cynics and skeptics to dominate Pooling options rather than building shared knowledge Pooling options rather than building shared knowledge Feeling we need consensus on each, specific detail of implementation Feeling we need consensus on each, specific detail of implementation Setting an unrealistic standard for consensus and investing too much energy in resisters Setting an unrealistic standard for consensus and investing too much energy in resisters

118 Administrative Commitments Provide time for teachers to meet in teams, on a regular basis during the school day Provide time for teachers to meet in teams, on a regular basis during the school day Provide resources and training for teams as identified by the team Provide resources and training for teams as identified by the team Protect the school from external, competing initiatives (keeping the focus) Protect the school from external, competing initiatives (keeping the focus) Will not use results of common assessments as teacher performance evaluative evidence Will not use results of common assessments as teacher performance evaluative evidence

119 Consensus We have arrived at consensus when all points of view have been heard, and the will of he group is evident even to those who oppose it. We have arrived at consensus when all points of view have been heard, and the will of he group is evident even to those who oppose it.

120 Focus on Behavior The central challenge and core problem of all substantive change initiatives is changing peoples behavior. Change efforts must focus on what people do, and the need for significant changes in what people do. The central challenge and core problem of all substantive change initiatives is changing peoples behavior. Change efforts must focus on what people do, and the need for significant changes in what people do. John Kotter and Dan Cohen, The Heart of Change John Kotter and Dan Cohen, The Heart of Change

121 What is Most Likely to Persuade an Educator to Change? Supervision and evaluation process Supervision and evaluation process No No Workshops and courses Workshops and courses No No A research article book A research article book No No Evidence of his/her skewed grade distribution Evidence of his/her skewed grade distribution No No

122 Three Powerful Levers to Change Behavior Kerry Pattersons research on the most effective strategies for changing someones behavior cites three powerful levers Kerry Pattersons research on the most effective strategies for changing someones behavior cites three powerful levers Effective PLCs are designed to use all three Effective PLCs are designed to use all three

123 Lever One: Concrete Evidence of Irrefutably Better Results Nothing changes the mind like the hard cold world hitting it with actual real-life data. Nothing changes the mind like the hard cold world hitting it with actual real-life data. Patterson, et. Al Patterson, et. Al Teachers have to feel there is some compelling reason for them to change practice, with the best direct evidence being that students learn better. The key to enduring change in teacher practice is demonstrable results in terms of student achievement Teachers have to feel there is some compelling reason for them to change practice, with the best direct evidence being that students learn better. The key to enduring change in teacher practice is demonstrable results in terms of student achievement Richard Elmore, 2003 Richard Elmore, 2003 Transparency of results creates an aura of positive pressure. Pressure that is actionable in that it points to solutions and pressure that at the end of the day is inescapable. Transparency of results creates an aura of positive pressure. Pressure that is actionable in that it points to solutions and pressure that at the end of the day is inescapable. Michael Fullen, 2008 Michael Fullen, 2008

124 Lever Two: Positive Peer Pressure When seeking tools to influence, no resource is more powerful and accessible than the people who make up our social networks. The approval or disapproval of our fellow human beings can do more to assist or destroy our change efforts than almost any other source When seeking tools to influence, no resource is more powerful and accessible than the people who make up our social networks. The approval or disapproval of our fellow human beings can do more to assist or destroy our change efforts than almost any other source Patterson, et. al. (2008) Patterson, et. al. (2008)

125 Lever Three: Personal Experience The great persuader is personal experience. It is the mother of all cognitive map changes! The great persuader is personal experience. It is the mother of all cognitive map changes! Kerry Patterson, 2008, pg. 51 Kerry Patterson, 2008, pg. 51

126 Bringing the Big Ideas to Life Turn Aspirations to Actions We must turn aspirations into actions. It will not be enough to run visioning workshops; the vision will have to be reflected in daily behaviors. It will not be enough to declare an intent; leaders will have to deliver results. To accomplish results leaders engage employees hearts (emotions), minds (cognitions), and feet (actions). We must turn aspirations into actions. It will not be enough to run visioning workshops; the vision will have to be reflected in daily behaviors. It will not be enough to declare an intent; leaders will have to deliver results. To accomplish results leaders engage employees hearts (emotions), minds (cognitions), and feet (actions). Dave Ulrich, (1996), pg. 211 Dave Ulrich, (1996), pg. 211

127 Learning by Doing Capacity building is not just workshops and professional development for all. It is the daily habit of working together, and you cant learn this from a workshop or course. You need to learn it by doing it and having mechanisms for getting better at it on purpose. Capacity building is not just workshops and professional development for all. It is the daily habit of working together, and you cant learn this from a workshop or course. You need to learn it by doing it and having mechanisms for getting better at it on purpose. Michael Fullen (2005) Michael Fullen (2005)

128 Its Now Time - Strategic planning based upon a Leadership Framework for Sustained Growth Strategic planning based upon a Leadership Framework for Sustained Growth Mission, Vision and Core Values Mission, Vision and Core Values Teaching and Learning Teaching and Learning Clearly Defined Decision Making Model Clearly Defined Decision Making Model Professional Learning Communities – thoughtful people doing the right work Professional Learning Communities – thoughtful people doing the right work Project Management – moving talk to measured action Project Management – moving talk to measured action


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