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CLICK ON THE YELLOW CIRCLE TO GO TO THE NEXT SLIDE How Earthquakes Shape and Alter the Earth’s Surface.

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Presentation on theme: "CLICK ON THE YELLOW CIRCLE TO GO TO THE NEXT SLIDE How Earthquakes Shape and Alter the Earth’s Surface."— Presentation transcript:

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2 CLICK ON THE YELLOW CIRCLE TO GO TO THE NEXT SLIDE How Earthquakes Shape and Alter the Earth’s Surface

3 Many things can change the appearance of Earth’s surface. Landforms can be created and altered by landslides, volcanoes, tsunamis, glaciers, erosion, wind, and earthquakes. Illustration of different types of landforms

4 Before we learn about earthquakes, let’s review what we already know about the layers of the earth. Earth’s Layers

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6 The center of the earth is called the core and is the hottest of Earth’s layers. The core is divided into two sections, the outer core and the inner core.

7 The inner core is made of solid nickel and iron. The outer core is a liquid layer of melted nickel and iron.

8 The thin outermost layer of the earth is called the _____________________. outer core crust inner core mantle

9 SORRY! Let’s go back to the information to find the answer.

10 The outer layer of the earth is called the crust. The crust is the thinnest layer and made mostly of hard rock. The second of Earth’s layers is the mantle. The mantle is very hot, made mostly of solid rock and about 1,800 miles thick. The center of the earth is called the core and is the hottest of Earth’s layers. The core is divided into two sections, the outer core and the inner core. Are you ready to try again? Click on the circle to go back to the last question.

11 FANTASTIC! Let’s keep going!

12 t The second of Earth’s layers is called the _____________________. outer core crust inner core mantle

13 SORRY ! Let’s go back to the information to find the answer.

14 The second of Earth’s layers is the mantle. The mantle is very hot, made mostly of solid rock and about 1,800 miles thick. Are you ready to try again? Click on the yellow circle.

15 THAT’S CORRECT!!! You’re doing a great job!

16 Which layer of the earth is the hottest? the crust the mantle the core

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18 The center of the earth is called the core and is the hottest of Earth’s layers. The core is divided into two sections, the outer core and the inner core. Are you ready to try again? Click on the yellow circle.

19 WAY TO GO!!! Keep up the good work!

20 Which of the following statements is true? The mantle of the earth is made of solid nickel and iron. The crust of the earth is made of solid nickel and iron. The inner core is made of solid nickel and iron.

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22 Are you ready to try again? Click on the circle to go back to the last question.

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24 Fact: Source: U.S. Geological Survey

25 Earthquakes are the sudden, rapid shaking of the Earth caused by the breaking and shifting of rock beneath the Earth’s surface. They are Earth’s natural means of releasing stress.

26 The outside of the Earth is called the crust. This crust is not solid like most people think. It is made up of about 20 different pieces called plates. The Earth’s plates float on a layer of hot, melted rock called magma. Illustration of the various plates and the direction in which they move,

27 The place where two plates come together is called a fault line. Most earthquakes occur along a fault line. This is a picture taken from high in the sky of a fault line where the two plates have smashed together, thrusting the surface of the earth upwards to form a mountain range.

28 The rocky edges of the plates are jagged and rough and don’t always slide smoothly past each other. When this happens the plates get stuck and stress builds up deep below Earth’s surface. Eventually Earth’s plates break apart with a huge jerk. This is what causes an earthquake!

29 What are earthquakes? An imaginary circle around the center of the earth. The sudden, rapid shaking of the earth. A cone shaped mountain that sprays out molten rock.

30 Good Guess But Not Quite Let’s go back to the information to find the answer.

31 What Are Earthquakes? Earthquakes are the sudden, rapid shaking of the Earth caused by the breaking and shifting of rock beneath the Earth’s surface. They are Earth’s natural means of releasing stress. Are you ready to try again? Click on the circle to go back to the last question.

32 GREAT JOB!!! Let’s keep going!

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35 What Causes an Earthquake? The outside of the Earth is called the crust. This crust is not solid like most people think. It is made up of about 20 different pieces called plates. The Earth’s plates float on a layer of hot, melted rock called magma. Are you ready to try again? Click on the circle to go back to the last question.

36 CORRECT!!! Let’s try another question

37 Earth’s plates are always in motion because they float on a layer of hot, melted rock called __________________. lava magma mantle

38 Let’s go back to the information to find the answer.

39 The outside of the Earth is called the crust. This crust is not solid like most people think. It is made up of about 20 different pieces called plates. The Earth’s plates float on a layer of hot, melted rock called magma. Are you ready to try again? Click on the circle to go back to the last question.

40 WAY TO GO!!! Keep up the good work

41 Where do most earthquakes happen? On a mountain Under the ocean Where two plates meet

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43 The place where two plates come together is called a fault line. Most earthquakes occur along a fault line. Are you ready to try again? Click on the circle to go back to the last question.

44 YOU ROCK!!! You’re doing a great job

45 The place where two plates come together is called _________________________. the equator a fault line tectonic plates

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47 Are you ready to try again? Click on the circle to go back to the last question.

48 VERY GOOD!!! You’re doing a great job

49 LET’S STOP AND WATCH A VIDEO This is a very good video about earthquakes from YouTube. Click on the big to be taken to the video. When the video ends, minimize the YouTube screen to come back to this page.

50 Wasn’t that a great video? Let’s continue with our last two sections.

51 Where Do Most Earthquakes Occur?

52 The Pacific Ring of Fire is a major earthquake belt around the Pacific Ocean. 90% of all earthquakes occur in this region. The western coast line of North America lies along this belt. Runs along the coast of California, Washington, and Alaska

53 The Alpide Belt is the region with the second most frequently occurring earthquakes. This is the zone which extends through the Himalayan Mountains in Asia.

54 The Mid-Atlantic Ridge runs down the center of the Atlantic Ocean and is an extensive underwater mountain range.

55 Earthquakes can occur __________________________. only along an earthquake belt only in the ocean only on land anywhere

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57 Where Do Most Earthquakes Occur? Although earthquakes occur all over the world, most take place along an earthquake belt. There are three large areas or zones on our planet where the majority of destructive earthquakes occur. Are you ready to try again? Click on the circle to go back to the last question.

58 WAY TO GO!!!

59 Which of the following statements is true? The Alpide Belt is the name of the earthquake zone that runs along the coast line of the U.S. The Pacific Ring of Fire is the name of the earthquake zone that runs along the coast line of the U.S. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is the name of the earthquake zone that runs along the coast line of the U.S.

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61 Runs along the coast of California, Washington, and Alaska The Pacific Ring of Fire is a major earthquake belt around the Pacific Ocean. 90% of all earthquakes occur in this region. The western coast line of North America lies along this belt. Are you ready to try again? Click on the circle to go back to the last question.

62 AWESOME!!!

63 Scientists still can not predict exactly when an earthquake might occur. As the stress builds up between the plates in the Earth, the rock must eventually give.

64 The two plates under stress could shift or slide in several different ways. This creates many different types of earthquakes. To help study earthquakes, scientists have classified the various types of earthquakes into three categories depending on the direction in which the two plates move. Example of transformational motion: the San Andreas Fault in California Example of convergent motion: the Himalayan Mountains

65 This is when the two plates separate and move away from each other, opening a large gash in the earth. This type of plate movement happens often on the ocean floor. When the plates separate, a new seafloor is created. This type of earthquake can occur on land as well. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is the best example of divergent plate movement in the ocean. Click on the picture to see an example of divergent motion. When finished, “X” out of the page to return.

66 This happens when the two plates move toward each other. When Earth’s rock gives way under the built up stress below, one plate will slide over top of the other plate. This top plate is often thrust upwards and mountains and volcanoes will often result. The Himalayan Mountain Range is a spectacular example of convergent motion. Click on the picture to see an example of convergent motion. When finished, “X” out of the page to return.

67 Transformational plate motion occurs when two plates slide laterally past one another. The resulting earthquakes are usually shallow and volcanic activity is not normally present. The San Andreas Fault which runs through California is an example of transformational plate movement. Click on the picture to see an example of transformational motion. When finished, “X” out of the page to return.

68 LET’S REVIEW CLICK ON THE BOX OF THE CORRECT ANSWER

69 Sorry! Try Again

70 AWESOME!!! Nice job!!!

71 What type of plate movement is this? Transformational Convergent Divergent

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73 WAY TO GO!!! Another correct answer

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76 That’s the way You did it!

77 Congratulations You have successfully completed this lesson. Please get an EARTHQUAKE REVIEW sheet and complete it at your seat. CLICK ON THE SMILEY FACE TO EXIT

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