Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Climate of the Future What is the “consensus” on how climate will change? Or How characterize the predictions that are currently predominant in the popular.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Climate of the Future What is the “consensus” on how climate will change? Or How characterize the predictions that are currently predominant in the popular."— Presentation transcript:

1 Climate of the Future What is the “consensus” on how climate will change? Or How characterize the predictions that are currently predominant in the popular media? What are the big, scariest impacts you’ve heard about? What are the fundamental assumptions that underlie or bolster these predictions?

2 Geography What is it? What sets it apart from other disciplines?

3 Geography

4 Earth System Science Recognition that earth is made up of a bunch of interconnected, interdependent systems. What is a system? “A collection of interacting objects.” A system consists of three basic elements: – a functioning set of components, – a flow of energy which powers them, and – a process for the internal regulation of their functioning called feedback

5 Earth System Science Recognition that earth is made up of a bunch of interconnected, interdependent systems. What is a system? What are the primary components of the Earth System?

6 Earth System Science

7 Open vs. Closed Systems What is the difference between an open and closed system? Is the Earth an open or closed system? Example of an open system? What about a fish tank? Example of a closed system?

8 Cycling Continuous cycling of energy and mass between the different spheres. Nutrient Cycling – Carbon, Nitrogen Hydrologic Cycling

9 Cycling Continuous cycling of energy and mass between the different spheres. Biogeochemical Cycling – Carbon, Nitrogen Hydrologic Cycling

10 Cycling Continuous cycling of energy and mass between the different spheres. Biogeochemical Cycling – Carbon, Nitrogen Hydrologic Cycling Example of energy being transferred from one sphere to another?

11 Cycling Continuous cycling of energy and mass between the different spheres. Biogeochemical Cycling – Carbon, Nitrogen Hydrologic Cycling Example of energy being transferred from one sphere to another?

12 System Regulation Most systems tend toward a state of equilibrium where system inputs are balanced by system outputs. The state of natural systems oscillates around a mean condition – a state known as dynamic equilibrium. Examples?

13 Dynamic Equilibrium

14 System Regulation System regulated, dynamic equilibrium achieved – via feedbacks. Positive Feedbacks vs. Negative Feedbacks Examples?

15 Negative Feedback

16 Gaia Hypothesis The idea that the Earth reacts like an organism. For example, the theory that the relatively stable conditions on Earth (atmospheric gas composition, temperature, etc) is due to the regulatory influence of the biosphere over the atmosphere. If some perturbation causes environmental conditions to shift, activities of the biosphere bring them back into balance.

17 Gaia Hypothesis The output of the sun has increased since the time our galaxy was formed. As a result, more solar radiation has been reaching the earth through time. However, over long periods of geologic time the air temperature has not changed all that much. Scientists argue that this has been accomplished through various biospheric regulatory mechanisms that alter the gaseous composition of the atmosphere and the nature of the earth surface. According to James Lovelock, the Earth is now slipping into a fever. Biospheric regulatory mechanisms can no longer cope.

18 Positive Feedback

19 What Kind of Feedback?

20

21

22 Tipping Points Some stress continues long enough (chronic) or is strong enough over a short period (acute) to take system to a new equilibrium state. James Hansen (NASA) - A tipping level (point) is a level at which "no additional forcing is required for large climate change and impacts."

23 Coming to a New Equilibrium % Coral

24 New Equilibriums From Raskin et al, 2004

25 New Equilibriums From Raskin et al, 2004

26 In Preparation for Mapping Lab and an Example of an Earth System The Magnetic Field An interaction between the lithosphere and atmosphere (and outer space) The magnetosphere shields the surface of the Earth from the charged particles of the solar wind and is generated by electric currents located within the Earth’s crust.

27 The Magnetic Field The origin of the Earth's magnetic field is not completely understood, but is thought to be associated with electrical currents produced by the coupling of convective effects and rotation in the spinning liquid metallic outer core of iron and nickel. This mechanism is termed the dynamo effect. The rotation of the Earth plays a part in generating the currents which are presumed to be the source of the magnetic field. Venus does not have such a magnetic field although its core iron content must be similar to that of the Earth. Venus's rotation period of 243 Earth days is just too slow to produce the dynamo effect.

28 Magnetic Field Earth's Core, Magnetic Field Changing Fast, Study Says Kimberly Johnson for National Geographic NewsNational Geographic News June 30, 2008 Hold on Tight! Earth's Magnetic Field May Be Preparing to Flip! The magnetic field has been getting weaker, decreasing by about 5% each century. This might be a sign that a magnetic field reversal is beginning. That's when the North and South magnetic poles flip! Magnetic reversals happen on average every 250,000 years, but it has been 750,000 years since the last reversal.

29 Magnetic Field

30 Declination of Magnetic Field

31 Interaction of a Compass with the Earth’s Magnetic Field sical_science/magnetism/earth_magnet_dipol e_interactive.html&edu=high sical_science/magnetism/earth_magnet_dipol e_interactive.html&edu=high

32 Declination

33

34 Declination Over Time


Download ppt "Climate of the Future What is the “consensus” on how climate will change? Or How characterize the predictions that are currently predominant in the popular."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google