2COURSE INSTRUCTOR: Mark A. Van Hecke 2013 Dynamic Planet National Event SupervisorCTT+ Certified TrainerEast China, MichiganWelcome to the 2013 Dynamic Planet Event Preparation Course. I’m Mark Van Hecke, National Event Supervisor for Dynamic Planet and National Science Olympiad Earth-Space Science Event Chair.
3SCIENCE OLYMPIAD EVENT TRAINING CoachStudentsEvent Rules
4APPLICATION OF HORTON’S ONLINE LEARNING PARADIGM TO SCIENCE OLYMPIAD EVENT TRAINING ABSORBDOCONNECT
5CONTENT KNOWLEDGEA big part of success in Science Olympiad Earth-Space Science Events is the acquisition of a rich and diverse body of knowledge related to each of the events.This is the ‘absorb’ of the Lesson.
6EXCURSIONSExcursions are ‘side trips’ that we take when we are on vacation….the same goes for new experiences that we can learn about in our education.
7EXCURSIONSWhenever you see this icon in the bottom right of your screen, just Click it to go to the ExcursionExcursions are the ‘Do’ component of the Lesson.
8HOT LINKS‘Hot Links’ refer to interesting websites that relate to what you are learning.If you see the icon shown below in the bottom right of each slide, click it to access an interesting website that will help you to see or better understand what you are learning.
9TEXTBOOKYou will also need to download the following textbook. Click the URL below to download it (PDF) at no cost.When you see it on the bottom right side of a slide, Click this Icon to see which pages you will need to read and what you should learn from the assignment.
10OTHER THINGS YOU WILL NEED Certain Excursions and activities in a Lesson may require additional supplies.
11SUMMARIESFrom time to time, we’ll pause the lesson to reflect on what we should have learned up to that point.
12SAMPLE EVENT QUESTIONS At the end of the lesson, there will be several sample tournament questions to answer and/or problems to solve. This is the ‘connect’ of the lesson.
14What You’ll Learn in This Lesson: 1. How glaciers are formed2. How to describe the structure of a glacier and identify a glacier’s zone of accumulation and zone of ablation.3. How to determine the zones of accumulation and ablation of a glacier.4. Explain the ‘movement’ of glaciers and determine the direction of glacial flow.
15WHAT ARE GLACIERS? And why is it important to study them.
16A glacier is a perennial mass of ice that originates on land, and has movement.
17Glaciers store 75% of the Earth’s fresh water and cover about 15 million square kilometers-about 10% of our planet’s surface.
18If all of this ice melted, sea levels would rise about 70 meters worldwide.
19You could say that today’s glaciers are remnants from the last ‘Ice Age’, when ice covered 32% of the land and 30% of the oceans.
20From time to time, the climate of the Earth changes allowing cooler temperatures to endure for longer periods throughout the year.
21This allows glacial ice to expand into mid-latitude regions such as the Midwestern United States, New England and Northern Europe.
22These periods of expanding glacial ice are known as Ice Ages.
23Scientists know that over the past 750,000 years, there have been eight glacial ice age cycles.
24These Ice ages were separated by warmer periods known as interglacial periods.
25We are currently living in what is believed to be the end of an interglacial period.
26Glaciers also influence the direction of atmospheric and oceanic currents that regulate global temperature.
27Could the melting of glacial ice alter ocean and atmospheric currents creating a colder Earth?
28Or will ever-increasing levels of CO2 turn Earth into another Venus where daily temperatures exceed 800°F on most days?
29Glaciers also sculpt and shape the land leaving erosional and depositional landforms.
30Here in Michigan, the Great lakes were created by glaciers during the last Ice Age some 10,000 years ago.
31Glaciers also created thousands of kettle lakes throughout Michigan and other Midwestern states
32Glaciers are large masses of ice originating on land that form over an extended period of time. Gradual changes in Earth’s orbit over many thousands of years result in long periods of glacial ice covering the Northern Hemisphere followed by periods of warmth and glacial retreat (interglacial).Glaciers form many erosional and depositional landforms on the surface of the Earth.Glaciers also influence Earth’s atmospheric and oceanic currents.SUMMARY
44Formation of GlaciersThere are three criterion for a mass of ice to be a glacier:They are made of iceThey form on landThey have movement
45Glaciers are made of air, ice crystals, water and rock debris.
46Each of these components will be addressed in our study of glaciers Each of these components will be addressed in our study of glaciers. For now, let’s look at ice crystals- the building blocks of glaciers.
47Ice CrystalsIce crystals are weak and can be made to slip on planes parallel to the basal plane as shown.
48As you will see this feature of ice crystals helps to explain their flow or ‘movement.’
49Density Of WaterOne of water’s most unusual characteristics is its density.
50Unlike many substances, water in its solid state (ice) is less dense than it is in its liquid state.
51This means that liquid water may exist beneath some glaciers and that glaciers may even float
52GLACIERS FORM ON LANDAll glaciers form on land. Glaciers may extend into bodies of water such as lakes and oceans, but they do not originate in the water.
53Movement Glaciers must have flow or movement. In this next section, we’ll look at the mechanics of glacial ice movementGlaciers must have flow or movement.
54Glaciers form when the amount of snowfall exceeds the rate of melting The zone of accumulation is where glacial snow accumulates. The area where glacial melting exceeds the rate of accumulation is known as the zone of ablation.In the process of glaciation, snow is changed into a compacted form known as firn. Firn is then further compacted into a dense glacial ice.Water in a solid state is less dense than water in a liquid state. This allows ice to float on top of water.SUMMARY
56Glaciers move by the processes of internal deformation and basal sliding. Let’s take a look at how each of these processes work.
57Each snowflake is a hexagonal molecule with each oxygen atom bonded to a hydrogen atom in a ring as shown
58Glacial movement occurs when an accumulating mass of ice becomes too heavy to maintain its shape.
59Rotation of grainsMelting and freezingInternal slippingThe mass of glacial ice begins to move in a downslope direction over the top of this liquid, plasticized ice
60Glacial calving occurs as glaciers move off to the sea and large chunks of ice break off from the main body of the glacier.
61Icebergs are chunks of calved ice that have broken off of the main body of the glacier and float in the ocean.
62The increased mass of a glacier at its zone of accumulation causes individual ice crystals near the bottom layer of the glacier to partially melt and become plastic allowing individual crystals to slide over one another across their basal planesGlaciers that reach a shoreline may ‘calve’ or break away from the main body of the glacier. If they drift into the sea they are known as Icebergs.SUMMARY
64EXCURSION 1Identify each of the layers shown in the process of glacial formation.Diagram a Glacier Identify Zones of Accumulation and Ablation
65EXCURSION 1Move your mouse over the image shown of Malaspina Glacier until you locate the zone of accumulation.Then do the same to locate the zone of ablation.
66EXCURSION 2 The Density of Water Check out this excellent activity provided by New York University. In it you will attempt to explain why ice floats on top of water and do experiments to determine why. The Density of Water
67EXCURSION 3USGS topographic maps will often be used to identify different glacial features.Look at the map on the next slide and answer the question shown below it.Determining the Direction of Glacial Ice Flow
68What direction did the glaciers flow? How can you tell? Back to Previous
69TEXTBOOK 1 Read pages 6-22 of Glaciers, Climate and Landscape Back to Previous
70TEXTBOOK 2According to Smith, how does glacial ice meet the criteria of being a mineral?Back to Previous
71TEXTBOOK 3 Describe the ‘movement’ of glacial ice (pages 20-22). Back to Previous