Presentation on theme: "What’s Up-The Neurobiology of Learning and Adolescent Substance Abuse"— Presentation transcript:
1 What’s Up-The Neurobiology of Learning and Adolescent Substance Abuse Merrill Norton Pharm.D.,D. Ph., NCAC II, CCSClinical Associate ProfessorUniversity of GeorgiaCollege of PharmacyAthens,Georgia 30602
2 Neurobiology and Behavior How are human behaviors and neurobiology related?Neurobiology and Behavior
3 Learning“...relatively permanent changes in behavior produced by experience”Learning involves changes in the nervous system produced by experiencesNervous system changes are physicalLearning allows us to adapt our behaviors to the environmentLearning involves interactions among the motor, sensory, and memory systems14.3
4 Forms of LearningPerceptual learning functions to identify objects and situationsStimulus-Response learning involves making a response when a particular stimulus is presentClassical conditioningOperant ConditioningMotor learning involves forming new circuits in motor systemRelational learning involves identifying connections between stimuli14.4
5 Overview of Learning 14.5 Dualism-mind is separate from the body Descartes believed that the pineal body directed fluid from the ventricles into the holow fibers we call nerves-this induced muscle action.The pineal gland is where the soul controls the physical bodyMonism: the belief that the mind is the working of the body (no need for a separate soul.Determinism-the notion that mental states are produced by physical mechanisms.Reductionists-we break complex phenomena into less complicated sytems.14.5
6 Relational LearningRelational learning involves connections between individual stimuliExamples of relational learning includeForming an association between the image of an object and the sounds of that objectKnowing the content of a space and the relationship between the objects in that space (spatial learning)Remembering sequences of events (episodic learning)Viewing and recalling the actions of another person (observational learning)Dualism-mind is separate from the bodyDescartes believed that the pineal body directed fluid from the ventricles into the holow fibers we call nerves-this induced muscle action.The pineal gland is where the soul controls the physical bodyMonism: the belief that the mind is the working of the body (no need for a separate soul.Determinism-the notion that mental states are produced by physical mechanisms.Reductionists-we break complex phenomena into less complicated sytems.14.6
7 The Hebb RuleDonald Hebb argued that synapses that are active at the same time that the postsynaptic neuron fires, are strengthened over timeImplies that repeated neural activity will produce physical changes in the nervous systemRats exposed to enriched environments exhibit neural changes:Thicker cortexMore glial cellsMore Acetylcholine(Long term Memory)14.7
8 Thoughts, Feelings, and Behavior Neurobiological Foundations of Mental Health and Illness (Modified from Andreasen and Black, 2001)Thoughts, Feelings, and BehaviorMind/Brain Systems (mental/cognitive systems such as emotion or language, chemical systems such as dopamine or serotonin).CircuitsCellsMembranesMoleculesGenes
12 anterior cingulate gyrus The “Oops” Center–anterior cingulate gyrusThe cingulate is responsible for helping focus attentionLinks cingulate and emotional hippocampus for integrating reason & emotion to guide decisionsMay involve ability to empathizeUndergoes high myelination (doubles) during adolescence“Oops center” anticipates risk, detects and keeps us from making errors
14 Developmental Model of Psychopathology 6MOSAutismSchizoidReactiveAttachmentSeparationAnxietyODDConductDisorderTourettesPDDMentalRetardationAnxietyEatingDisorderSchizophreniaDepressionAbuse/DependenceEatingDisorderIdentityAbuse/DependenceODDADHDSeparationAnxietyOveranxiousConductDisorderAbuse/Dependence
16 Mood Chart of the Human Brain HomeostasisManiaEuphoriaNormalSadnessDepression
17 How Drugs Work - Feel Good – Euphoria/reward Interact with neurochemistryResults:- Feel Good – Euphoria/reward- Feel Better – Reduce negative feelingsSlide Source: Steve Hanson, MSEd, Director, John L. Norris ATC, New York State Office of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Services
18 Dopamine Spells REWARD ReleaseRecycleSLIDE ANIMATION NOTE: Slide initially loads without wording on the image. At approximately one-second intervals, the words “release,” “activate,” and “recycle” appear onscreen. You may wish to coordinate a brief introductory overview explanation with the animation and then expand on the explanation after the slide is complete.FACULTY NOTE: (from NIDA teaching instructions – you may use this narrative text as a guide, but it does not need to be repeated word for word)Explain that drugs concentrate in areas of the brain that are rich in dopamine synapses. Review dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens. Point to dopamine in the synapse and to dopamine bound to dopamine receptors and to uptake pumps on the terminal.When drugs (cocaine is the drug in this example) are present in the synapse, they (represented in turquoise) bind to the uptake pumps and prevent them from removing dopamine from the synapse. This results in more dopamine in the synapse, and more dopamine receptors are activated. This causes many changes inside the cell that lead to abnormal firing patterns.As a result, there are increased impulses leaving the nucleus accumbens to activate the reward system. With continued use of drugs (cocaine), the body relies on the drug to maintain rewarding feelings. The person is no longer able to feel the positive reinforcement or pleasurable feelings of natural rewards.Source: National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Teaching Packet No. 1: “The Brain & the Actions of Cocaine, Opiates, and MarijuanaActivate
19 What memories do you associate with this image? visualcolourshapesmelllanguagetasteemotionsauditory
22 Brain Development/Aging Recent research(imaging studies) have given scientists an estimate of brain chemistry development:Age % complete (pre-puberty)Age % complete(post puberty)Age % completeAge %Age %
23 Addiction Risk Factors GeneticsYoung Age of OnsetChildhood Trauma (violent, sexual)Learning Disorders (ADD/ADHD)Mental IllnessDepressionBipolar DisorderPsychosisSlide Source: “Alcohol and Other Drugs and the Courts” curriculum, Judge Peggy Fulton Hora, Alameda County Superior Court, Hayward, CA and Peter Banys, M.D., Assoc. Clinical Prof. of Psychiatry, University of California at San Francisco, VA Medical Center, San Francisco.
27 Personality & Perception NORMAL BRAIN“Rational AnimalsThinking Brain1CortexPlanningInhibitionsSensoriumMidbrainPersonality & Perception2Diagam_Brain Normal C.Diagam_Brain Normal C.Diagam_Brain Normal C.3HICC Hypothalamic Instinctual Control Centers6 F’SFood Intake FeelingsFluid Intake FightFlirtations FlightNORMAL BRAIN FUNCTIONSDiagam_Brain Normal C.
28 “The Necessary Nine”Norepinephrine/Epinephrine-stimulant,anger,fear,anxiety,fight,flightSerotonin-depressant,sleep,calm,pleasureGABA-relaxant,stress reduction,seizure thresholdEndorphins-pain relief,pleasureAcetylcholine-involutary actions,memory,motivationAnandamide-memory,new learning,calmnessGlutamate-organization of brain signaling,memory,painDopamine-perception,movement,pleasurePIP- loving of one’s self,others,GOD
31 “It makes me feel goooood” “I want a beer”Thinking BrainJudgment BrainInstinctual Brain“It makes me feel goooood”Pleasure Brain“Miller Lite”
32 Neurotransmitters of Dependence RecoveryPIPDopamineGlutamateAcetylcholineAnandamideEndorphins / EnkelphinsGABASerotoninEpinephrine / NorepinephrineDepletion may take less than 12 monthsReplenishment may take 5 to 7 years
38 Alcohol as a Reinforcer: Neural Systems The SecretaryThe DriverAlcohol and a reinforcer: Neural SystemsThere has been considerable research into understanding the neural circuits involved in reinforcement. This is the dopamine (DA) system. The DA system originates in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and connects to the nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex as well as hippocampus. This is the mesocorticolimbic system.Activation of the VTA results in the release of DA in the nucleus accumbens and limbic system and the prefrontal cortex. This is associated with rewarding/reinforcing effects, not only for alcohol but for almost all abused drugs.Activation of mesocorticolimbic system
44 Slide 10: Serotonin Transporters Serotonin (in pink) is present in the synaptic space only for a limited amount of time. If it is not bound to the serotonin receptor, serotonin is removed from the synaptic space via special proteins called transporters (in green). The serotonin transporters are proteins located on the serotonin neuron terminals and they are in a unique position to transport serotonin from the synaptic space back into the neuron where it can be metabolized by enzymes. Explain to your students that the serotonin transporters are the primary targets for Ecstasy.
45 Slide 11: Ecstasy and Serotonin Transporters When Ecstasy binds to the serotonin transporters, more serotonin ends up in the synaptic space. This occurs for two reasons. First, Ecstasy can prevent the transporters from carrying serotonin back into the terminal. Second, Ecstasy can cause the transporters to work in reverse mode-- they actually bring serotonin from the terminal into the synaptic space. So, more serotonin is present in the synaptic space and more serotonin receptors become activated. This is the major short-term effect of Ecstasy that alters brain chemistry. While the serotonin system is the primary target for Ecstasy, Ecstasy has similar effects on the dopamine (another neurotranmsitter) system as well. Ecstasy can inhibit dopamine transporters and cause an increase in dopamine levels in the synaptic space (not shown here). To help students understand how the alteration in brain chemistry results in psychological changes, go to the next slide.
46 Slide 18: Long-term Effects in Monkeys The loss of serotonin transporters, along with a decrease in serotonin, suggest that the serotonin neurons are damaged. While it is not possible to detect this directly in the brains of living humans, animal studies have revealed that this is the case. A very important experiment was performed in monkeys to determine if Ecstasy can actually damage neurons. Monkeys were given Ecstasy twice a day for 4 days (control monkeys were given saline). One group of monkeys’ brains were removed 2 weeks later for analysis and another group of monkeys lived for an additional 7 years before their brains were removed. Scientists examined the brains for the presence of serotonin. This slide shows the presence of serotonin in neurons of the neocortex from 3 typical monkeys. On the left, the monkey who did not receive any Ecstasy had a lot of serotonin (in pink) in the neocortex. Two weeks after a monkey received Ecstasy, most of the serotonin was gone (point to the middle panel), suggesting that the serotonin neuron terminals were destroyed (there was no destruction of the serotonin cell bodies arising back in the brainstem). Point to the right hand panel and show students that this damage appeared to be long-term because 7 years later there was some recovery, but it was not complete (in fact, the pattern of regrowth of serotonin terminals was abnormal - point out one of the areas where the pink lines are running sideways). Scientists found similar changes in limbic areas of the brain such as the hippocampus and amygdala. The monkey experiments are an important reminder that humans may suffer the same fate, although this still remains to be demonstrated. Tell the students how difficult it is to do this same kind of experiment in humans because it requires removing pieces of the brain to look for the loss of the serotonin neurons.Image courtesy of Dr. GA Ricaurte, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
47 Slide 19: Ecstasy Causes Destruction of Serotonin Nerve Terminals This slide illustrates the degeneration of serotonin nerve terminals after long-term or repeated use of Ecstasy (you can refer back to slide 9 to compare this degenerating terminal to a healthy terminal). Remind students that we have several pieces of evidence that support this effect of Ecstasy. Ecstasy users have lost serotonin, serotonin metabolites and serotonin transporters on serotonin neuron terminals. In contrast, the serotonin cell bodies are still intact but the genetic instructions from the nucleus for any regrowth of terminals may be abnormalScientists have made a great deal of progress in understanding how Ecstasy might actually damage the serotonin terminals. The damage involves the production of oxygen radicals (unstable forms of oxygen), which are very destructive to proteins, lipids and DNA. The rich supply of mitochondria (which are a major source of oxygen radical formation) found in the terminals may cause the terminals to be especially sensitive to drugs like Ecstasy
55 The Brain’s Marijuana Receptor Sites The “Secretary”“Fight or Flight”Coordination
56 Brain Cannabinoid Receptors Basal GangliaUnconscious muscle movementsLimbic SystemHippocampusShort term memory processed into long term memoryAmygdalaControls rage, lust, fear and other strong emotionsCerebellumBalance and planning of movement
57 Anandamide Sanskrit ananda means “bliss” Chemical messenger involved in mood, memory, pain perception and appetiteNatural molecular keyTHC fits same receptorAnandamide is fragile and breaks down quicklyNo intense high like THCChocolate
58 MJ use Lowers Glucose Metabolism in Frontal and Temporal Lobes Temporal GyriP. hipp.Medial OFCSuperiorMiddleInferior
59 Marijuana Makes People Stupid… and they stay stupid..
60 Multiple Neurotransmitter Receptor Sites For Marijuana AnandamideDopamineGABAGlutamate
61 The Blood-Brain Barrier THC Binds To Glial Cells of BBB
62 The learned helplessness that results from exposure to the absence of control generalizes to other situations.Marijuana creates the state of learned helplessness.
63 PSYCHOACTIVE CHEMICAL DEPENDENCE IS A COMPLEX ILLNESS Drug Addiction: A Complex IllnessDrug addiction is a complex illness. The path to drug addiction begins with the act of taking drugs. Over time, a person’s ability to choose not to take drugs is compromised. This in large part is a result of the effects of prolonged drug use on brain functioning, and thus on behavior. Addiction, therefore, is characterized by compulsive, drug craving, seeking, and use that persists even in the face of negative consequences.
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