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Infant Massage Early Intervention Program By Natalie Liggett.

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1 Infant Massage Early Intervention Program By Natalie Liggett

2 Problem The problem I have identified is that Early Intervention Specialists seek evidence-based and naturalistic intervention methods to encourage family involvement in their child’s acquisition of developmental skills.

3 Solution The solution I propose is to use an infant massage program as an intervention strategy for families of young children from birth to the age of three with special needs in their own homes as a way to teach parent responsivity to their child’s cues, facilitate positive developmental and health outcomes, and encourage positive attachment patterns.

4 Expected Outcomes of Infant Massage Program Teach parent responsivity to infant’s cues Contribute to positive health outcomes Contribute to infant developmental skill acquisition Encourage positive parent-infant attachment patterns

5 Philosophy Pragmatic: within the context of the family

6 Psychology Ethological: Emphasizes the child’s experiences and interactions within his environment

7 Attachment Theory

8 A secure base for exploring The Strange Situation (Ainsworth)

9 Hudson (Huck) enjoys Infant massage

10 Research

11 Infant massage has an impact on attachment if continued

12 Infant massage has been used as therapeutic method by hospital staff, occupational and physical therapists

13 The Joys and Benefits of Infant Massage Numerous studies have found that massage plays a significant role in promoting the proper growth and healthy development of infants. Physically, massage stimulates the nerves, increases blood flow and strengthens the immune system. It can relieve a host of childhood complaints from colic to constipation. A daily rubdown on a baby’s belly, for example, helps work out gas and regulates digestion. Massaging the chest may ease congestion. Gently stroking an infant’s face can improve her ability to suck. Most of all, massage is good for parent- child bonding.

14 Touch Research Institute Researchers at the Touch Research Institute, located at the University of Miami School of Medicine, have conducted more than 100 trials on the benefits of massage therapy. The following is a sampling of the results pertaining to work with infants, children and their parents. (For more results, visit www6.miami.edu/touch- research.) Touch Research Institute University of Miami School of Medicine P.O. Box , Miami Fl, (Located at Mailman Center for Child Development 1601 NW 12th Ave, Miami FL, 33136, 7th Floor, Suite7037) Phone: Fax:

15 Touch Research Institute The Touch Research Institute The Touch Research Institute is dedicated to studying the effects of touch therapy. The TRI has researched the effects of massage therapy at all stages of life, from newborns to senior citizens. In these studies the TRIs have shown that touch therapy has many positive effects. For example, massage therapy: 1. Facilitates weight gain in preterm infants 2. Enhances attentiveness 3. Alleviates depressive symptoms 4. Reduces pain 5. Reduces stress hormones 6. Improves immune function

16 10 Trials That Highlight How Massage Benefits Children

17 Infants of Depressed Mothers Infants who received massage therapy compared to those who were rocked experienced greater daily weight gain; more organized sleep/wake behaviors; less fussiness; improved sociability and soothability; improved interaction behaviors; and lower cortisol and norepinephrine and increased serotonin levels. (Field T, Grizzle N, Scafidi F, et al. “Massage therapy for infants of depressed mothers.” Infant Behavior and Development. 1996: 19, )

18 Cocaine Exposed Infants Cocaine-exposed newborns had fewer postnatal complications, increased weight gain, better performance on the Brazelton Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale (particularly on the motor scale), and less stress behaviors following 10 days of massage. (Scafidi F, Field T, Wheeden A, et al. Cocaine exposed preterm neonates show behavioral and hormonal differences. Pediatrics. 1996: 97, )

19 Cocaine Exposed Infants 2 Cocaine-exposed preterm neonates who were massaged averaged 28 percent greater weight gain per day, showed significantly fewer postnatal complications and stress behaviors, and demonstrated more mature motor behaviors on the Brazelton examination (Wheeden A, Scafidi FA, Field T, et al. Massage effects on cocaine-exposed preterm neonates. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics. 1993:14, )

20 Infant Attentiveness Depressed mothers increased their infant’s positive affect and attentiveness by providing touch stimulation. (Pelaez-Nogueras M, Field T, Hossain Z, Pickens J. Depressed mothers’ touching increases infants’ positive affect and attention in still- face interactions. Child Development. 1996:67, )

21 Depressed Teen Mothers Teenage mothers who received massage therapy compared to those who received relaxation therapy were less depressed and less anxious both by their own report and based on behavior observations. In addition, their urinary cortisol levels were lower and their serotonin levels were higher, indicating they were less stressed and less depressed. (Field T, Grizzle N, Scafidi F, Schanberg S. Massage and relaxation therapies’ effects on depressed adolescent mothers. Adolescence. 1996: 31, )

22 Children with Down Syndrome Infants with Down Syndrome improved in muscle tone and in performance on motor tasks following massage therapy. (Hernandez-Reif M, Ironson G, Field T, et al. “Children with Down Syndrome improved in motor function and muscle tone following massage therapy.” Journal of Early Intervention. 2006: 176, )

23 Fathers and Infants Fathers who gave their infants daily massage 15 minutes prior to bedtime for one month showed more optimal interaction behavior with their infant. (Cullen C, Field T, Escalona A, Hartshorn K. Father-infants interactions are enhanced by massage therapy. Early Child Development and Care. 2000: 164, )

24 Infants Exposed to HIV HIV-exposed newborns who were given massage showed increased weight gain and improved performance on the Brazelton Newborn Scale (motor and state scales). (Scafidi F, Field T. Massage therapy improves behavior in neonates born to HIV positive mothers. Journal of Pediatric Psychology. 1997: 21, )

25 Children with Rheumatoid Arthritis Children with mild to moderate juvenile rheumatoid arthritis who were massaged by their parents 15 minutes a day for 30 days saw their anxiety and cortisol levels immediately decrease. Over the 30-day period their pain also decreased, based on self-reports, parent reports and physician’s reports. (Field T, Hernandez-Reif M, Seligman S, et al. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: Benefits from massage therapy. Journal of Pediatric Psychology. 1997: 22, )

26 Children with Cerebral Palsy Massage reduced spasticity, and increased muscle flexibility, motor function and positive social interactions in children with cerebral palsy. (Hernandez-Reif M, Field T, Largie S, et al. Cerebral Palsy Symptoms in children decreased following massage therapy. Early Child Development and Care. 2005: 175, )

27 Infant Massage with preterm infants in the NICU

28 53% more weight gain in grower nursery in NICU

29 Containment

30 Infant Massage Program

31 Benefits for parents and primary caregivers include: Provides all of the essential indicators of intimate parent-infant bonding and attachment: eye-to-eye, touch, voice, smell, movement, and thermal regulation. Encourages pre-verbal communication between caregiver and infant Helps parents feel more confident and competent in caring for their children Helps parents to ease their stress if they are a working parent and must be separated from their children for extended periods during the day Provides parents with one-on-one quiet time or interactive play with their children Creates a regular time of intimacy between parent and child. Increases parents' self-esteem by reinforcing and enhancing their skills as parents, and validates their role Gives parents the tools for understanding their child's unique rhythms and patterns Teaches parents how to read their infants' cues and recognize their states of awareness Gives parents a special way to interact with their children who may be hospitalized. Helps parents feel a greater part of the healing process Daily massage helps parents to unwind and relax Provides a positive way for fathers to interact with their infants/children

32 Benefits for infants, babies and children include the following: Provides a special time of communication that fosters love, compassion, and respect Improves general well-being Provides an intimate time for children to confide in parents Improves overall functioning of the gastrointestinal tract Promotes relaxation and helps babies self-regulate calm, which reduces crying Helps to normalize muscle tone Improves circulation Enhances immune system function Improves midline orientation Helps to improve sensory and body awareness Enhances neurological development Helps baby/child to sleep deeper and more soundly Helps to increase oxygen and nutrient flow to cells. Improves respiration Helps to improve pain management; can relieve discomfort from teething, Helps with congestion, gas, and colic Enhances release of hormones in the body. The growth hormone can be stimulated which helps weight gain. Reduces levels of cortisol, the stress hormone Provides all of the essential indicators of intimate parent-infant bonding and attachment: eye-to-eye, touch, voice, smell, movement, and thermal regulation. Stimulates all of the physiological systems. Massage sparks the neurons in their brains to grow and branch out to encompass other neurons.

33 Infant massage classes

34 Family-Centered

35 Infant massage embedded in daily routine (after a bath)

36 Reading Infant’s Cues

37 Engagement

38 Engagement: Eye contact

39 Disengagement

40 Early communication skills: asking permission

41 Infant Massage

42 Regulate sleep patterns

43 Reducing crying

44 Colic routine

45 “I Love You” Stroke

46 Infant Massage Legs & Feet Tummy & Chest Arms & Hands Back Head & Face

47 Firm pressure

48 Legs

49 Feet

50 Tummy & Chest

51 Arms

52 Hands & Fingers

53 Back

54 Face

55 Stretching

56 Stretching Exercises

57 Infant massage Resources

58 Evidence-Based Outcomes of Infant Massage Program Teach parent responsivity to infant’s cues Contribute to positive health outcomes Contribute to infant developmental skill acquisition Encourage positive parent-infant attachment patterns


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