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US History Review Articles of Confederation and the Constitution Ms. Eraqi
Articles of Confederation (1781) – First government of the United States Congress was a unicameral legislature with delegates, or representatives, from each state. – The main power of Congress involved foreign affairs. – All 13 states had to agree on all amendments. – 9 of the 13 states had to agree on all federal laws.
Power The states had more power than the federal government. – Examples: taxation and law enforcement Weak federal government on purpose because they were afraid of their experiences with the British monarchy and Parliament.
Weakness of Articles I. Currency Issues – The United States did not have a common currency. – Americans carried money from the federal government, state government, and foreign nations.
Weakness of Articles Cont. Merchants stopped accepting money from outside of their own state, causing a lot of money to become worthless. This caused an increase in inflation.
Weakness of Articles II. Debt – Congress could not tax the people and depended on money from the states. Examples: - The U.S. owed money to France, Holland, and Spain for loans made during the Revolutionary War. - The U.S. had not paid many of their own soldiers!
Weakness of Articles III. International and Domestic Problems The U.S. lacked the military power to defend itself against Great Britain and Spain. States acted as individual countries and seldom agreed. Example: Connecticut and Virginia almost went to war over land claims!
Weakness of Articles The nation lacked a national court system The nation did not have a President, or Chief Executive. Congress had one house. (unicameral) Laws were difficult to pass, needing the approval of nine states. Congress was responsible to the states, not the people. Congress had no power to collect taxes, regulate trade, coin money, or establish a military.
Shays’ Rebellion Farmer’s income decreased while taxes increased. Farmers who could not pay their debts had their farms taken away by the courts. In 1786, Daniel Shays led a group of farmers in an attempt to capture a federal arsenal.
Result of Shay’s Rebellion The U.S., without an organized army, was powerless. Massachusetts sent a militia to stop the rebellion. Shays’ Rebellion convinced many people that the U.S. needed a new, stronger government.
Constitutional Convention Large States wanted representation based on population This meant that larger states would have more power over smaller states Smaller states wanted equal representation Smaller states wanted each state to have only one representative regardless of population
Constitutional Convention - It called for a unicameral legislature, in which every state received one vote. Virginia PlanNew Jersey Plan - Both plans called for a strong national government with 3 branches. - It called for a bicameral legislature, in which the number of representatives in each house would depend on the population of the state.
Constitutional Convention Great Compromise It provided for a bicameral Congress. House of Representatives – each state is represented according to its population (satisfied the VA Plan) Senate – each state has 2 Senators (satisfied the NJ Plan) Both houses of Congress must pass every law.
Issues with Constitution FederalistsAntifederalists supported the Constitution wanted a strong national government and weaker state governments opposed the Constitution believed that the Constitution made the national government too strong and states too weak thought that the President had too much power believed in the need for a strong executive branch
Issues with Constitution Federalists, such as Alexander Hamilton, were against the Bill of Rights, claiming it was unnecessary since all state constitutions already had a bill of rights. Alexander Hamilton: Against the Bill of Rights Thomas Jefferson: Favored the Bill of Rights
Bill of Rights Smaller states worried that their rights would be ignored by larger states To solve this issue, James Madison wrote the first ten amendments in 1791, which are known as the Bill of Rights.
New Government The new constitution had separation of powers between three branches of government These branches allowed for a system of checks and balance to prevent one branch from having more power than another.
War of 1812 In 1803, Britain and France went to war again. Both countries seized U.S. ships sailing towards the ports of their enemy. Britain continued its’ impressments of U.S. sailors. Between 1808 and 1811 over 6,000 Americans were impressed by the British.
Reason For War I. Nationalism -Many Americans felt that Great Britain still treated the United States like a British colony. II. Revenge -Wanted to revenge on Britain for seizing American ships. III. Expansion -An excuse to conquer Canada from Great Britain and Florida from Spain. IV. Native American Attacks -Felt that Great Britain was arming Native Americans on the frontier and encouraging them to attack Americans.
War of 1812 cont. In 1814, the British set Washington, D.C. on fire, including the White House. Treaty of Ghent (1814) – While it ended the war, the treaty did not resolve any of the problems between Britain and the U.S. – War officially ends two weeks later at Battle of New Orleans
Result of War of 1812 Monroe Doctrine – North and South America should no longer be thought of as areas for European colonization. – The U.S. would not interfere with European affairs, and European countries should not interfere with the affairs of any nation in the Western Hemisphere.
Texas Settlement Manifest Destiny – Americans believed it was America’s Destiny to expand from sea to shining sea. 1822 –American settlers moved to Texas, which was a part of Mexico Settlers had to agree to the following: – Must Become Roman Catholic – Must Become Mexican Citizen – Must Obey Mexican Laws
Texas Independence On March 2, 1836, Texas seceded from Mexico, becoming an independent country. Mexican General Antonio López de Santa Anna sent troops to stop Texas.
The Alamo Colonel William Travis commanded 187 settlers in the Alamo After 13 days, every man was killed by Mexican troops. “Remember the Alamo” became a battle cry throughout the Texas revolution.
Country of Texas Battle of San Jacinto - April 21, 1836 Gen. Sam Houston defeated Santa Anna, taking him prisoner. Texas became known as the Lone Star Republic. 1st President : Sam Houston Became a state in 1845
What Caused the Mexican War? Americans move westward from sea to shining sea Mexico and USA dispute over border The U.S. Army provokes the Mexican army to attack them along the Rio Grande River
America Divided? Not all Americans wanted to expand into Mexico. Northerners feel would take money away from the nation. War requires increased taxes. Some Americans are against more taxes. Acquiring Mexico will “taint” the U.S., won’t be American.
Mr. Polk’s Little War Polk orders General Zachary Taylor to send troops to provoke the Mexicans American troopers are attacked and with this Polk goes to Congress to get approval for war
The Mexican Army Mexican officers do not go to military school Old weapons, cannons and disorganization It is an army of men forced to serve as soldiers
The Cost of War 1,700 killed 11,000 die of diseases Millions will be spent on the war effort The Mexican War will serve as a training ground for Civil War generals
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo United States pays Mexico $15 million dollars Texas, California, Nevada, New Mexico, Arizona and Colorado are ceded to the U.S. Mexicans in the region are to become Americans
Second Class Citizens The Spanish language and Mexican culture will not be accepted Leads to Mexican Americans not being accepted Mexican Americans will be subjected to low wages and minimal work In response to such actions Mexican Americans choose to deal with these issues in many ways
Missouri Compromise: – Northerners were against adding Missouri to the union as a slave state because it would disrupt the balance of power in Congress between slave and free states. – Missouri was admitted to the union as a slave state, and Maine was admitted as a free state. Illinois (1818)Alabama (1819) Indiana (1816)Mississippi (1817) Ohio (1803)Louisiana (1812) Vermont (1791)Tennessee (1796) Rhode IslandKentucky (1792) New YorkVirginia New HampshireNorth Carolina MassachusettsSouth Carolina ConnecticutMaryland New JerseyGeorgia PennsylvaniaDelaware Maine (1820)Missouri (1821)
Civil War Slavery was allowed in the part of the Louisiana Purchase south of the 36, 30'N. Slavery was banned north of 36, 30'N, except for Missouri.
Issues Between North And South North -Very industrialized -Lots of immigrants -Lots of factories The North had government power, money and a strong population. Very opposed to Slavery
Issues Between North and South South -Felt threatened by North - Small population, mostly slaves -Agriculture based The South Believed that: – Slavery was their constitutional right – States had individual right to chose – Economic Base – Way of Southern Life If the states lost slavery then they would lose their power in government, individual voice, and income.
Election of 1860 Abraham Lincoln elected President Shortly after, South Carolina seceded from the Union. Six other states soon followed.
Advantages North Population: 22 million 4 million men of combat age South Population: 9 million 1.2 million men of fighting age 3.5 million slaves North has the advantage in population
Advantages North Economy: 100,000 Factories 70,000 miles of Railroad $190,000 in bank deposits South Economy: 20,000 factories 9,000 miles of Railroad $50,000 in bank deposits North has the advantage in industrial power
Advantages North Armed Forces: mostly drafted soldiers with overly cautious officers More soldiers African Americans - 10% of Union forces Strong navy South Armed Forces: better trained soldiers & better leadership No real navy North has the advantage in # of soldiers, but South in the quality of soldiers & generals
Advantages North Government - Strong well- established government South Government - Weak government, most power given to states North has a stronger government, better able to direct resources (people & products) towards the war
Results Four years of fighting Union Victory Over 618,000 military deaths during Civil War. Reconstruction begins
Because the majority of battles took place in the South, many Southern houses, farms, bridges, and railroads were destroyed. The confederacy was dead – all confederate money was worthless and banks closed. People lost all their savings. Lincoln wanted to help the South recover to help unite the two sides.
Reconstruction Lincoln’s Ten Percent Plan: I. Once 10% of the state’s voters swore loyalty to the U.S…. II. …Southern states could rejoin the national government after they abolished slavery.
Civil War Amendments 13 th Slavery abolished (1865) 14 th Granted Freed Slaves citizenship (1868) 15 th Granted Freed Slaves the right to vote (1870)
Freedman’s Bureau The Freedmen’s Bureau provided food, clothing, jobs, medical care, and education for millions of former slaves and poor whites. Many salves remained on the farms working as sharecroppers because it was a job they were skilled in. During Reconstruction African-Americans were able to vote and hold political office.
Ku Klux Klan Greek term Kyklos – gathering Fraternity of old confederate soldiers White supremacy Terrorist group designed to scare, intimidate and torture freed slaves to prevent them from gaining status in society
Compromise of 1877 Southerners resented Northern presence in south. Felt like occupation, not help. During the Election of 1876 neither candidate, Republican Rutherford B. Hayes or Democrat Samuel Tilden, had enough electoral votes to win the election. Compromise of 1877 – South would allow Republican Hayes to be declared President if troops left south and end reconstruction. – Without northern troops, African- Americans were left unprotected.
Jim Crow Laws State and local laws meant to segregate blacks from whites. Examples: segregation of public schools, public places and public transportation, and the segregation of restrooms, restaurants and drinking fountains for whites and blacks
Jim Crow Laws Grandfather’s Clause In order to help poor, illiterate whites to vote, a grandfather clause was passed. It stated that if a voter’s father or grandfather was eligible to vote on January 1, 1867, they did not have to take a literacy test. This allowed whites to vote, but not freedmen.
Jim Crow Poll Tax Poll taxes and literacy tests were used to prevent freedmen from voting.