11 The Mercantile Theory Navigation Laws “enumerated goods” “salutary neglect” Smuggling Revenue Act (Sugar Act) 1764 The Stamp Act 1765 The Declaratory Act 1766
12 Chief Pontiac1763 Ottawa Chief Pontiac leads a violent campaign against British settlers in the Ohio ValleyKills 2,000 colonists in backcountry of Penn, MD, & VAWhites retaliate by passing out blankets infected with smallpoxBritain now feels they must keep troops in the colonies to protect against Indian attacks
13 “Go West Young Man”Colonists begin to go West past the Appalachian Mts. (KY & Tenn.)View it as their birthright (manifest destiny)Proclamation of 1763 prohibits settlement in area beyond the Appalachian Mts.Colonists outraged and ignore proclamation
14 The Mercantile TheoryOf the 13 colonies only Georgia was planted by BritainOthers by trading companies, religious groups, land speculators, and othersMercantilism = wealth was powerCountries economic wealth & military power measured by amount of gold & silver in its treasuryThis means you have to export more the you import.Nations with colonies have a distinct advantageColonies = supply of raw materials & provide market for exportsColonies are meant to help the mother countryAmerica was to provide ships, sailors, trade, & marketplaceGrow tobacco and sugar so that England does not have to purchase from foreigners
15 Mercantilist & TradeNavigation Laws: 1650 stop Dutch ships from entering America carrying tradeRestrict commerce to and from the colonies to only English VesselsEuro products headed for colonies had to stop first in Britain for custom duties and profits by middlemen.“enumerated” products like tobacco must be shipped to England instead of other Euro countries where they might have made more $$$Colonies could not make certain products that might compete with English industry (woolen cloth, beaver hats)
16 Paper Currency Americans had no bank in the colonies Bartering becomes necessaryBuying more from England then they are sellingColonies issue paper money it depreciatesParliament restrains colonial Parliament from printing money. Angers AmericansThe Privy Council (King’s advisors) could declare colonial legislature laws “null & void” if they conflicted with British policy“Royal Veto” used 469 times out of 8,563 laws
17 Merits of Mercantilism Until 1763 Navigation laws imposed no intolerable burden because of lax enforcement policy of “salutary neglect”Many Americans made their money through smuggling (John Hancock “King of the Smugglers”)
18 Benefits London paid good $ for ship parts & stores VA tobacco planters were guaranteed monopoly over English tobacco market (outlawed in England/Ireland)Had the rights of Englishmen and opportunities for self governmentThey didn’t need to support a professional army for protection from France, Spain, or IndiansEnjoyed strength of British Army/Navy w/o a penny cost
19 Menace of Mercantilism Stifles economic initiative because they could buy, sell, ship or manufacture under conditions they found most profitableSouthern colonies viewed as ‘pets” who grow non-English products tobacco, sugar, riceVA does not like that it has to sell tobacco in England. Puts them at mercy of British merchants and many go into debt.Americans feel they are being used by British the way a cow is used for milk
20 July 1763 Britain needs to raise money People of Britain already paying heavy taxes, rioting, protesting the taxes they were already paying.Govt. realizes it can’t raise their taxes, so the belief was that Americans should pay for their own protection.In July of 1763 custom collectors in England are ordered to report to their posts in the colonies or resign. Many resigned
21 Revenue Act (Sugar Act) April 1764 Passes into law with little opposition in ParliamentShips now had to have manifestation listing cargo if they did not they could be brought to court 2 options:1 – colonial court = jury of colonists2 – Vice Admiralty Courts = No jury and crown appointed Judge makes decisionThis happens during time of depression after the war when less food and supply orders for army hurt American businesses
22 Quartering Act of 1765Measure requires certain colonies to provide food and quarters for British troopsSpecified items included bedding, cooking utensils, firewood, beer or cider and candles.
23 Stamp ActAmericans begin to hear rumors of a new tax the Stamp Act. Many of them were filled with distortions and were not true.In Feb 1765 colonists send group of 4 men to Britain lead by Ben Franklin to meet w/ Greenville their message “Americans prefer to tax themselves” and that a tax from Parliament would subvert representative governments in AmericaMembers of Parliament are upsets that colonists would question their power. This feeling helped to squash much opposition to the proposed tax during the debate leading up to the vote
26 Stamp Act arrives in the Colonies Fall of 1765House of Burgesses in Virginia is the first official body to take action “Parliament a body they had no representation in had no right to tax them”.The Virginia Resolves were an “alarm bell to the disaffected”By early 1766 conflict and violence had intensified especially in Massachusetts
27 Whereas the honorable House of Commons in England have late drawn into question how far the general assembly of this colony has power to enact laws for laying taxes and imposing duties payable to the pope of this his majesty's most ancient colony — For settling and ascertaining the same to all future times, the House of Burgesses of this present general assembly have come to the several following resolutions: 1. Resolved, That the first adventurers and settlers of this his majesty's colony and dominion of Virginia brought with them and transmitted to their posterity and all others, his majesty's subjects since inhabiting in this is majesty's colony, all the privileges and immunities that have at any time been held, enjoyed, and possessed by the people of Great Britain. 2. Resolved, That by the two royal charters granted by King James the First, the colonists aforesaid are declared entitled to all privileges of faithful, liege, and natural born subjects, to all intents and purposes, as if they had been abiding and born within the realm of England. 3. Resolved, That his majesty's liege people of this his most ancient colony have enjoyed the right being thus governed by their own assembly, in the article of taxes and internal police; and that the same have never been forfeited or any other way yielded up, but have been constantly recognized by the kind and people of Great Britain. 4. Resolved therefore, That the general assembly of the colony, together with his majesty or his substitute have in their representative capacity the only exclusive right and power to levy taxes and impositions on the inhabitants of this colony and that every attempt to vest such a power in any person or persons whatsoever other than the general assembly aforesaid is illegal, unconstitutional, and unjust, and ahs a manifest tendency to destroy British, as well as American freedom.
28 The following resolves were not passed, though drawn up by the committee.They are inserted as a specimen of the first and early energies of the Old Dominion, as Virginia is often called. 1. Resolved, That his majesty's liege people, the inhabitants of this colony, are not bound to yield obedience to any law or ordinance whatsoever designed to impose any taxation whatsoever upon them, other than the laws and ordinances of the general assembly aforesaid. 2. Resolved, That any person who shall by speaking or writing maintain that any person or persons other than the general assembly of this colony have any right or power to impose or lay any taxation whatsoever on the people here shall be deemed an enemy to this his majesty's colony.
32 Virginia & Mass Virginia opposes Stamp Act w/ the Virginia Resolves Mass. Opposes the Stamp Act w/ violence and mob riots between Aug 14 – 26Distributors and collectors begin to resign because of the rising storm of violence
33 In BritainTrade had been stifled in Britain as colonists cut back on British goods in a protest to get the Sugar Act repealedMembers of Parliament believed that repeal of Stamp Act because of Mob Violence would set a precedent that would make it impossible to govern.Merchants and Manufacturers start nation wide movement to convince Parl. That these acts will “annihilate” trade w/ N. America and would help the manufacturers of enemies France & SpainFeb 3, 1776 Parliament passes the Declaratory Act stating Parl. Had right to make laws binding the colonies “in all cases whatsoever”
34 Ben Franklin speaks to Parliament on behalf of the Colonists
35 MarchParliament passes a Stamp Act Repeal Bill and it is signed into lawthe same day the King signs the Declaratory Act: declares Parliament has the right to tax the coloniesThe Stamp Act was repealed 5 Months after it is passed
36 Stamp Act Repeal & Declaratory Act Colonists make distinction between “legislation” and “taxation”Parliament and King believe in “Virtual Representation (Greenville’s theory)Non Importation Agreements against British goods (homespun) = 1st time colonists join together in common action against British.Peer Pressure get more colonists involved in protest.Sons of Liberty +radicals who turn violent. Violators of non importation are tarred and feathered.Boycott hurts British merchants, manufacturers, and shippers who appeal to Parliament.
37 Townshend Revenue Act Greenville out Townshend in Townshend Acts 1767: import duty on glass, white lead, paper, paint,….TEATownshend believes it will be viewed differently because it is an indirect customs duty payable at American ports.He is wrong.1 Million people drank Tea twice a dayTownshend revenues would be used to pay salaries of Royal governors and judges in the colonies.This takes away the power of the purse that colonists had used check power of royal governors
38 Charles Townshend’s American Proposal to Parliament NY Assembly should be suspended until it agrees to comply w/ Quartering ActImport duties should be collected in the colonies on lead, glass, paper, painter’s colors, and TEAEstablishment of American Board of Customs Commissioners w/ HQ in the coloniesTownshend does not live to see the ramifications of his Revenue Act. He dies on Sept. 4, 1767
39 John D. Dickerson’s Letters from a Pennsylvania Farmer Essays that were a response to the Townsend DutiesAppealed to people tired of extravagant rhetoric and violent measures.Forces Americans to confront the Constitutional implications of Townsend but does so w/o the popular upheaval that followed the Stamp ActMost colonists read Dickerson and agreedThe exception was BOSTON
40 Boston Takes the Lead 1768Lead by Sam Adams the Boston legislature pass the Circular LetterJust like the Virginia Resolutions (Stamp Act) before them the Circular Letter was passed at the end of a legislative session when many conservative members had already gone home.It said colonies could never be represented in Parliament and that Parliament received its power from the fundamental law that says no taxation w/o representationGovt. Bernard and commissioners lose all control of town, Bernard under orders from Britain dissolves the legislatureSons of Liberty use the dissolving of the legislature as more proof of an evil plot to take their libertiesTroops (Redcoats) are sent to Boston (Oct. 1768)
41 American Board of Customs Commissioners The American Board of Customs Commissioners was set up by Parliament to oversee the Townsend ActsThey never seemed able to conceive of any solution to their difficulties that did not involve use of troops on AmericansTheir conduct further alienated Americans who had formally been uncommitted to American cause or loyal to the crownThey ran “customs racketeering” scams to line their pockets
42 The Redcoats in NYCNYC Sons of Liberty angered that the legislature complied w/ Quartering ActNicest thing soldiers were called was “rascals”One soldier cuts down “Liberty Tree” on the common, leads to brawl between thousands of citizens and soldiers. No one killed but many wounded.S of L would plant “Liberty Trees” and soldiers would hack them downJan 1770 soldiers saw down tree cut into sections and leave in front of tavern that was S of L HQLeads to full scale battle at Golden Hill: 2 days, many wounded, one deadAs bad as things were in NY they were worse in Boston
43 Shipping off to Boston Soldiers refer to Boston as “garrison town” Broke quiet of Sabbath w/ sounds of drums, fifes, and mocking song “Yankee Doodle”Soldiers drank to excessRaped, assaulted, and were “suggestive” to women of BostonBut their mere presence was what most upset BostoniansSentries were now located everywhere, Bostonians had long considered it a right to come and go as they please and now were challengedCitizens refused to respond to sentries
44 Lead up to a “Massacre”Boston Leaders start a newspaper “Journal of the Times” reprinted in most colonies. Filled with exaggerated stories about encounters with soldiersIn spring of 1769 Boston inhabitants start picking fights w/ soldiers more frequentlyMany of the fights were started by laborers. The British soldiers could work for extra $ when they were not on duty. They often worked for 20% of what normal pay was.Boston laborers = young men, animal energy, often drunk & rowdy
47 Lord North takes over in Britain and removes all the Townsend duties except the one on tea The Declaratory Act would also remain on the booksTea Act of 1773 gives East India Company a monopoly on tea in the colonies and retains the three pence duty on tea.Even thought they had been importing tea and paying the same tax for the past two years they are still upset by this.They believed that if they began to cooperate now they would be giving in to the British plot to enslave them
48 Mass meeting in Philadelphia Oct Mass meeting in Philadelphia Oct agree that anyone found importing tea is “an enemy of the country”Public outing of anyone who imported teaThe Committee for Tarring and Feathering threatened to ply its trade to any Delaware River pilot who dared bring tea to the city.The Captain Ayers of the Polly is threatened. How would you like “ten gallons of liquid tar decanted on your pate – with the feathers of a dozen wild geese laid over that to enliven your appearance?”Their advice to Ayers was “to fly to the place whence you came – fly without the formality of a protest – and above all Captain Ayers let us advise you to fly without the wild geese feathers”
50 Boston Tea Party News Hits England The belief of the King and his ministers was that the father must discipline the rebellious child or abandon him forever.The King recommends the use of force to bring colonies under control“We are not entering a dispute between internal and external taxes, not between taxes laid for the purpose of revenues and taxes laid for the regulation of trade, not between representation and taxation, or legislation and taxation, but we are now to dispute whether we have, or have not any authority in that country”– Lord North
51 The Intolerable ActsI. Boston Port Bill: closes Boston Port to all ocean borne trade except for certain vessel permitted under tight supervision to enter w/ food & fuel. Starting JuneKing would only reopen port when East India Co. had been fully compensated for destruction of tea (10,000 pence or $4 million today)This is the first of the five acts that colonists called “The Intolerable Acts”. The others were passed in the following three months
52 Intolerable Acts ctd. The next two were signed by the King on May 20 II. The Massachusetts Regulatory Act (Mass Govt. Act): converts Mass govt. into a royal affair. The House would continue to be an elective body but the council from August on would be nominated by the crown. Governors would appoint & remove civil officials, towns could not meet w/o royal permission, & sheriffs would select juries
53 Intolerable Acts ctd.III. The Impartial Administration of Justice: any royal official accused of a capital crime in the colony of (Mass) might be sent to England or another colony for trial.IV. The Quartering Act: now troops were permitted to be quartered w/ private familiesV. The Quebec Act: French guaranteed Catholic religion, retain French Traditions in conquered area. French tradition = no representative assembly or trial by jury. Colonists saw this as a dangerous precedent for the continent.
55 When news of the Intolerable Acts hits Boston Sam Adams and other leaders propose the town suspend all trade w/ G.B. and their colonies and that the rest of America do the same.VA House of Burgesses set aside June 1 (day Boston was shut) as a “Day of Fasting, Humiliation, and Prayer”Lord Dunmore the Gov. of VA dissolves the House.Colonists agree to convene a continental congressGeorgia only colony that did not send representatives b/c it was fearful of Indian revolts and fearful that Britain would not send helpThe 1st Continental Congress meets Sep. 5, 1774 at that point most Americans believed Parliament had no power to tax the colonies.
57 The Suffolk Resolves 1774boycott British imports, curtail exports, and refuse to use British products;pay "no obedience" to the Massachusetts Government Act or the Boston Port Bill;demand resignations from those appointed to positions under the Massachusetts Government Act;refuse payment of taxes until the Massachusetts Government Act was repealed;support a colonial government in Massachusetts free of royal authority until the Intolerable Acts were repealed;urge the colonies to raise militia of their own people