Presentation on theme: "Leading up to WWI Part one: Chapters 26 & 27. Background After Napoleon, Europe was nervous about someone trying to take over everything and ruling the."— Presentation transcript:
Leading up to WWI Part one: Chapters 26 & 27
Background After Napoleon, Europe was nervous about someone trying to take over everything and ruling the world- so they went back to the old way (for a little while).. Conservatism BUT… Liberals & Radicals (those at the bottom that wanted change) wouldnt let go of this idea of freedom and Democracy… Lets see if that happens!
As we learned with Industrial Revolution- things were changing.. Society, the way things worked, everything… People started having new ideas in science & technology and one idea is SUPER SUPER SUPER important… It was created by…
Charles Darwin Who: English Naturalist What: he challenged the idea of special creation (that everything was created by God) with his Theory of Evolution & Natural Selection Where: England When: 1859 Why: This sparked a controversial debate that still continues today: Creation vs. Evolution
Theory of Evolution Who: Charles Darwin What: A theory that all life evolved from earlier living forms that had existed millions of years ago Where: England, then the rest of the Western world When: 1859 Why: This idea led to Natural Selection which emphasized the survival of the fittest where those who were the fittest, or best adapted to their environment, would survive and make offspring whereas those who were not the fittest would die out (this led to everything we are about to learn about…)
That theory will lead to EVERYTHING else we are about to learn about… So, its a BIG BIG cause… The first thing it caused was Social Darwinism and Racism….
Social Darwinism Who: Europeans What: an idea that the Theory of Evolution should be applied to society- those that were the fittest were wealthy & successful; the weakest were poor & not successful- aka Non- Europeans Where: Europe, the rest of the world When: 1860s Why: This led to racism which led to Imperialism which led to the World Wars
Racism Who: Europeans What: the belief that one race is superior to others Where: Europe When: 1800s- Now Why: The Europeans were racist against lesser peoples or the weak and felt they were superior; this idea led to Imperialism and many other issues like Slavery, Segregation, Apartheid, etc.
This application of the Theory of Evolution to society and humans led to Imperialism aka the superior Europeans taking over!! …
Imperialism Who: Europeans What: the seizure of a country or territory by a stronger country Where: Africa, Asia When: Why: Stronger European countries dominated the political, economic, and social life of weaker countries which led to Europeans trying to control the whole developing world through this.
Places the Europeans go: They go to developing nations, or nations that they think are less than them Example: – The whole African continent (we will talk about) – India (we will talk about) – Asia – South Pacific (Southeast Asia, Philippines, etc)
Forms of Imperialism FormWhat is it?Examples ColonyCountry or territory is governed internally by foreign power Somaliland- East Africa US Colonies- Great Britain ProtectorateCountry or territory w/ its own internal govt but under the control of an outside power Niger River Delta- GB India- GB Sphere of InfluenceArea in which outside power claims exclusive investment or trading privileges Liberia- USA Hong Kong- GB Economic ImperialismIndependent but less- developed country is controlled by a private business rather than other govts Dole Fruit Co. – Pineapple trade- Hawaii
Types of Management Indirect ControlDirect Control Government & InstitutionsLocal officials in charge Institutions: European- based, but may have local rules Foreign officials in charge Institutions: ONLY European, no local laws Self-ruleLimitedNONE GoalTo develop future leaders in that country Make natives assimilate or adopt the European culture; Paternalism- take care of them in a parental way but give them no rights! Examples:British- Nigeria, India, Burma US- Pacific Islands France- Somaliland, Vietnam Germany- East Africa Portugal- Angola
Causes of Imperialism in Africa: 1. Belief in European superiority/ Social Darwinism/ Survival of the fittest 2. Missionaries wanted to convert them to Christianity- the RIGHT religion- to rid the lesser peoples of their evil heathenistic ways 3. White Mans Burden- it was the White mans job or burden to Westernize aka Civilize them
Factors that made Imperializing in Africa easy: 1. Europeans technological superiority- the had better weapons than Africans outdated weapons (think Machine gun vs. Bow & Arrow?!?) 2. Easy travel to maintain control- Railroads, cables, steamships – Europeans could travel to center of Africa whereas before it was super hard.
More factors… 3. The drug Quinine had been developed and could now help protect against Malaria 4. Africans disunity- constant local wars- the Europeans played tribes against each other…
The Europeans started competing over land in Africa- The more land = the more pwr back in Europe they had… The competition got super fierce… so, to solve this, they came up with…..
The Berlin Conference Who: European leaders What: a meeting of leaders to lay down the rules for the division of Africa among Europeans to keep them from going to war Where: Berlin, Germany When: Why: – they agreed any European country could claim land in Africa by notifying other nations & showing it could control the area – European nations divided up the continent w/o consideration to how African groups were distributed! – No African representative was there!! – Almost all of Africa was controlled by Europeans
Unfair, right? Poor, inferior, weak Africans… This agreement still didnt totally 100% work because conflicts still arose, such as….
The Boer War Who: Boers (Dutch Settlers) vs. British What: the first modern total war between the British and the Boers- fighting over control of South Africa to get diamonds & gold Where: South Africa When: 1899 Why: The Boers (Dutch) settled in S. Africa in 1600s – They discovered gold & diamonds- the British wanted it- so they fought! The British won and they still own it today!!
Effects of Imperialism in Africa Negative Effects 1. Africans lost land & independence 2. Thousands died from disease (smallpox) 3. Famines = starving 4. Failed resistance movements 5. Breakdown of traditional African culture-> – authority figures replaced – Men moved away to work – Destruction of stable societies – = Identity probs. For Africans 6. Most harmful: Division of African continent – Artificial European boundaires created probs. Still there today Positive Effects 1. Reduced local warfare 2. Humanitarian efforts improved sanitation & provided hospitals & schools 3. = longer lifespans & increased literacy rates 4. African goods became popular in international market 5. Railroads, dams, & telephone/telegraph lines were built
The British in India CauseEffect 1.Decline of the Mughal Empire (the Islamic dynasty in charge of India) – lotsa small states break away from Mughal control = they are weakened In 1757, The British invade & conquer India- they become the leading power until Colonial policies-1. Indian economy couldnt operate on its own- Indian goods could not compete with British goods= no local producers, no self-sufficiency 2. British missionaries & racist attitude = Indian life threatened 3. Railroads = Indians developed a modern economy 4. Sanitation & public health improved 5. Schools & colleges = literacy improved 6. End to local warfare
Theres one super imp. Event that changed GBs control of India… It has to do with people called Sepoys….
Sepoys Who: Indian soldiers What: Indian soldiers in the British-led army; resentful of British control, racism, & attempts at conversion so they revolted Where: India When: 1800s Why: The Sepoys revolted in the Sepoy Mutiny which led to stricter direct control of the British on India.
Sepoy Mutiny Who: Sepoys vs. British What: The Hindu & Muslim Sepoys had dietary restrictions but were forced to deal with it – irritated them – rebelled against the British Where: India When: 1857 Why: (on the Effect on the next slide)
CauseEffect Sepoy Mutiny- Sepoys rebelled against British 1.Turning point: The British took DIRECT control of India 2.Fueled the racist attitudes of the British even more 3.Increased distrust between the Indians & British 4.Nationalist groups form to try and regain control of India
Overall Imperialism: CausesEffects Nationalism- to gain power, European nations compete for colonies & trade Colonization- Europeans control land & peoples in Asia, Africa, & Latin America Economic Competition- Demand for raw materials & new markets spurs a search for colonies Colonial Economies- Europeans control trade in the colonies and set up dependent cash-crop economies. Missionary Spirit- Europeans believe they must spread their Christian teachings to the world. Christianization- Christianity spreads to Africa, Asia, & India.