2 BackgroundAfter Napoleon, Europe was nervous about someone trying to take over everything and ruling the world- so they went back to the old way (for a little while).. “Conservatism”BUT… Liberals & Radicals (those at the bottom that wanted change) wouldn’t let go of this idea of “freedom” and “Democracy”…Let’s see if that happens!
3 As we learned with Industrial Revolution- things were changing As we learned with Industrial Revolution- things were changing.. Society, the way things worked, everything…People started having new ideas in science & technology and one idea is SUPER SUPER SUPER important…It was created by…
4 Charles Darwin Who: English Naturalist What: he challenged the idea of special creation (that everything was created by God) with his Theory of Evolution & Natural SelectionWhere: EnglandWhen: 1859Why: This sparked a controversial debate that still continues today: Creation vs. Evolution
5 Theory of Evolution Who: Charles Darwin What: A theory that all life evolved from earlier living forms that had existed millions of years agoWhere: England, then the rest of the Western worldWhen: 1859Why: This idea led to “Natural Selection” which emphasized the ‘survival of the fittest’ where those who were the fittest, or best adapted to their environment, would survive and make offspring whereas those who were not the fittest would die out (this led to everything we are about to learn about…)
6 That theory will lead to EVERYTHING else we are about to learn about… So, it’s a BIG BIG cause…The first thing it caused was “Social Darwinism” and “Racism”….
7 Social Darwinism Who: Europeans What: an idea that the Theory of Evolution should be applied to society- those that were the “fittest” were wealthy & successful; the “weakest” were poor & not successful- aka Non-EuropeansWhere: Europe, the rest of the worldWhen: 1860sWhy: This led to “racism” which led to “Imperialism” which led to the World Wars
8 RacismWho: EuropeansWhat: the belief that one race is superior to othersWhere: EuropeWhen: 1800s- NowWhy: The Europeans were racist against “lesser peoples” or the “weak” and felt they were superior; this idea led to Imperialism and many other issues like Slavery, Segregation, Apartheid, etc.
9 This application of the Theory of Evolution to society and humans led to “Imperialism” aka the superior Europeans taking over!! …
10 Imperialism Who: Europeans What: the seizure of a country or territory by a stronger countryWhere: Africa, AsiaWhen:Why: Stronger European countries dominated the political, economic, and social life of weaker countries which led to Europeans trying to control the whole developing world through this.
11 Places the Europeans go: They go to developing nations, or nations that they think are “less than them”Example:The whole African continent (we will talk about)India (we will talk about)AsiaSouth Pacific (Southeast Asia, Philippines, etc)
12 Forms of Imperialism Form What is it? Examples Colony Country or territory is governed internally by foreign powerSomaliland- East AfricaUS Colonies- Great BritainProtectorateCountry or territory w/ it’s own internal gov’t but under the control of an outside powerNiger River Delta- GBIndia- GBSphere of InfluenceArea in which outside power claims exclusive investment or trading privilegesLiberia- USAHong Kong- GBEconomic ImperialismIndependent but less-developed country is controlled by a private business rather than other gov’tsDole Fruit Co. – Pineapple trade- Hawaii
13 Types of Management Indirect Control Direct Control Government & InstitutionsLocal officials in chargeInstitutions: European-based, but may have local rulesForeign officials in chargeInstitutions: ONLY European, no local lawsSelf-ruleLimitedNONEGoalTo develop future leaders in that countryMake natives ‘assimilate’ or adopt the European culture; Paternalism- take care of them in a parental way but give them no rights!Examples:British- Nigeria, India, BurmaUS- Pacific IslandsFrance- Somaliland, VietnamGermany- East AfricaPortugal- Angola
14 Causes of Imperialism in Africa: 1. Belief in European superiority/ Social Darwinism/ Survival of the fittest2. Missionaries wanted to convert them to Christianity- the RIGHT religion- to rid the lesser peoples of their evil heathenistic ways3. “White Man’s Burden”- it was the White man’s job or burden to “Westernize” aka “Civilize” them
15 Factors that made Imperializing in Africa easy: 1. Europeans’ technological superiority- the had better weapons than Africans’ outdated weapons (think Machine gun vs. Bow & Arrow?!?)2. Easy travel to maintain control- Railroads, cables, steamships – Europeans could travel to center of Africa whereas before it was super hard.
16 More factors…3. The drug “Quinine” had been developed and could now help protect against Malaria4. Africans’ disunity- constant local wars- the Europeans played tribes against each other…
17 The Europeans started competing over land in Africa- The more land = the more pwr back in Europe they had…The competition got super fierce…so, to solve this, they came up with…..
18 The Berlin Conference Who: European leaders What: a meeting of leaders to lay down the rules for the division of Africa among Europeans to keep them from going to warWhere: Berlin, GermanyWhen:Why:they agreed any European country could claim land in Africa by notifying other nations & showing it could control the areaEuropean nations divided up the continent w/o consideration to how African groups were distributed!No African representative was there!!Almost all of Africa was controlled by Europeans
19 Unfair, right?Poor, inferior, weak Africans… This agreement still didn’t totally 100% work because conflicts still arose, such as….
20 The Boer War Who: Boers (Dutch Settlers) vs. British What: the first modern “total” war between the British and the Boers- fighting over control of South Africa to get diamonds & goldWhere: South AfricaWhen: 1899Why: The Boers (Dutch) settled in S. Africa in 1600s – They discovered gold & diamonds- the British wanted it- so they fought! The British won and they still own it today!!
21 Effects of Imperialism in Africa Negative EffectsPositive Effects1. Africans lost land & independence2. Thousands died from disease (smallpox)3. Famines = starving4. Failed resistance movements5. Breakdown of traditional African culture->authority figures replacedMen moved away to workDestruction of stable societies= Identity probs. For Africans6. Most harmful: Division of African continentArtificial European boundaires created probs. Still there today1. Reduced local warfare2. Humanitarian efforts improved sanitation & provided hospitals & schools3. = longer lifespans & increased literacy rates4. African goods became popular in international market5. Railroads, dams, & telephone/telegraph lines were built
22 The British in India Cause Effect Decline of the Mughal Empire (the Islamic dynasty in charge of India) – lotsa small states break away from Mughal control = they are weakenedIn 1757, The British invade & conquer India- they become the leading power until 1858.2. Colonial policies-1. Indian economy couldn’t operate on it’s own- Indian goods could not compete with British goods= no local producers, no self-sufficiency2. British missionaries & racist attitude = Indian life threatened3. Railroads = Indians developed a modern economy4. Sanitation & public health improved5. Schools & colleges = literacy improved6. End to local warfare
23 There’s one super imp. Event that changed GB’s control of India… It has to do with people called “Sepoys”….
24 Sepoys Who: Indian soldiers What: Indian soldiers in the British-led army; resentful of British control, racism, & attempts at conversion so they revoltedWhere: IndiaWhen: 1800sWhy: The Sepoys revolted in the “Sepoy Mutiny” which led to stricter direct control of the British on India.
25 Sepoy Mutiny Who: Sepoys vs. British What: The Hindu & Muslim Sepoys had dietary restrictions but were forced to deal with it – irritated them – rebelled against the BritishWhere: IndiaWhen: 1857Why: (on the “Effect” on the next slide)
26 CauseEffectSepoy Mutiny- Sepoys rebelled against BritishTurning point: The British took DIRECT control of IndiaFueled the racist attitudes of the British even moreIncreased distrust between the Indians & BritishNationalist groups form to try and regain control of India
27 Overall Imperialism: Causes Effects Nationalism- to gain power, European nations compete for colonies & tradeColonization- Europeans control land & peoples in Asia, Africa, & Latin AmericaEconomic Competition-Demand for raw materials & new markets spurs a search for coloniesColonial Economies- Europeans control trade in the colonies and set up dependent cash-crop economies.Missionary Spirit- Europeans believe they must spread their Christian teachings to the world.Christianization- Christianity spreads to Africa, Asia, & India.