2Warm-Up QuestionWhat do you think of when I say “Greece”?
3Ancient GreeceThe Greek city-states, especially Athens, developed cultural innovations that are still used today which transformed Greece into a “classical civilization”
4Ancient GreeceAfter the river valley era, a number of classical civilizations developed in the Mediterranean and in AsiaThe first major classical civilization was ancient GreeceClassic cultures created high levels of achievement in art, science, & technology that impacted future ages
5Ancient GreeceEurope’s earliest major culture was the Minoan civilization of Cretelargest of the Greek islandsMinoan culture was strongly influenced by EgyptMinoan civilization is the source of the Greek myth about the hero Theseus who entered the labyrinth (a maze) and slayed the Minotaur
6Ancient GreeceIdentify 1 geographic feature & propose how it might impact the culture of Greece
7Ancient GreeceMountains covered about 75% of Greece which divided the people & made unifying the Greek people nearly impossible
8Ancient GreeceGreece is a mountainous and rocky peninsula with little good farmland, but its long irregular coastline and numerous islands provided fine harborsGreek people were able to:make a living by fishing and tradingestablish coloniesdominate trade in the eastern Mediterranean and Black SeasGreek communities isolated by mountains developed into independent self-governing city-states that often fought one anotherleading city-states were:Sparta- strong military governmentAthens- the present-day capital of Greece
9Ancient GreeceThe Greeks developed independent city-states, called polis, within each valley & its surrounding mountains
10Ancient GreeceDespite their lack of unity, the Greeks shared some common characteristics:Greeks shared the same languageGreek writing was influenced by the Phoenician alphabet & became the basis for Latin
11The Iliad and the Odyssey 2 epic (meaning long and heroic) poems by HomerThe Iliad takes place during the Trojan War when the Greeks used a large wooden horse with soldiers hidden inside to defeat the defenders of Troy in Asia MinorThe Odyssey recounts the adventures of the hero Odysseus who had to overcome many obstacles during his 10-year voyage home from the war in TroyThese poems are the first literary works of Western CivilizationIn both poems, reason and wisdom are more powerful than physical strengthThe heroes of Greek myths served as models of excellence for the ancient Greeks
12Greek GodsGreeks were polytheistic & believed that the gods were immortal but had human qualities; Religion became the basis for Greek mythologyZeus- King of the godsAthena- Goddess of wisdomAphrodite- Goddess of loveApollo- God of sun & musicAres- God of warHades- God of underworldHera- Goddess of familyPoseidon- God of the seas
13Greek Gods People emulated the Gods’ behavior Anthropomorphic Influenced peoples’ actionsGods lived on Mt. OlympusEach God controlled a specific part of the universe
14Greek Military Each city-state had citizen-soldiers A new method of fighting emerged called “phalanx”A massive formation of heavily armed foot soldiers that moved in unison
15Ancient GreeceMost Greek city-states had an agora that was the center for trade & governmentCity-states had an acropolis, a temple on a hill dedicated to a sacred god
16Athens The Greeks established the polis: an association of free male citizens who served as the soldiers who defended their city-state from attackmanaged the governmentchose leaders to govern the city-state for a limited period of time, often a yearMost of the Greek city-states did not have democratic governments, and even in Athens, citizens were a minority of the population because women, slaves, and foreign-born persons did not qualify as citizens.
17Ancient GreeceDespite similar language & religion, the Greek polis were very different from each other, especially how they were governedSome polis had a monarchy, a gov’t ruled by a kingSome polis had an aristocracy, a gov’t ruled by elite nobles
18Ancient GreeceSome polis like Sparta had an oligarchy, a gov’t ruled by a small group of citizensSome polis like Athens had a direct democracy, a gov’t ruled by citizens who vote on decisions
19Athens It is the place where democracy was born Only those with both parents born in Athens could have citizenshipAthens had a direct democracy: all male citizens had the right to attend the Assembly and a vote.met 40 times a yearNo elections, leaders chosen by drawing lotsMember of 500
20Athens“Our constitution is called a democracy because power is in the hands not of a minority but of the whole people. We alone regard a man who takes no interest in public affairs not as harmless, but as a useless character.”-Pericles’ 431 B.C.
21Athenian Wealth & Culture Athens had a direct democracy in which both rich & poor citizens could vote & hold public office
22Athenian Wealth & Culture Pericles had Architects built the Parthenon to honor the goddess Athenagoddess of wisdom and war and the patron goddess of AthensThe Parthenon is the main building on the AcropolisIt is one of the most influential buildings in the history of Western architectureServed as a model for important buildings in much of the world including the Lincoln Memorial in the United States
23Athenian Wealth & Culture Artists created realistic sculpturesTheater had both comedies & tragedies
24Athenian Wealth & Culture Philosophers Socrates, Plato, & Aristotle questioned assumptions & the use of logic to find answers to questions
25HumanismHumanism=reason was the true source of knowledge and that a wise person was the best person; reason, not emotion, should rule our livesAncient Greeks considered human beings to be the center of existencePhilosophy and arts of classical Greece were more concerned with the value of human beings on earthcan be seen in Greek art that portrayed the human body realisticallyGreek humanism emphasized order in daily life, nothing in excess, a balance between extremes known as “The Golden Mean”In school, for example, both the body and the mind were trained.Greek humanism would help shape the Renaissance and the Enlightenment in Europe 2,000 years later
27The Three Great Greek Thinkers: SOCRATES “…the unexamined life is not worth living.”“Socratic Method”question & answer approach; helped people recognize they didn’t have all the answers!“Know thy self”…Self-examination leads to correct behavior and ethical living.
28The Three Great Greek Thinkers: SOCRATES Socrates on Trial-Seen by many to not believe in the godsFeared that he was corrupting the minds of the youth!He is found guilty and put to death! A scapegoat…
29The Three Great Greek Thinkers: SOCRATES Encouraged his students to question accepted wisdom including government policies.Socrates did not leave behind written workshis philosophy was carried forward by his student, Plato
30The Three Great Greek Thinkers: SOCRATES How does it depict this famous man?Noble, dignified & forceful.He is ready to meet his death but not before he speaks his mind!“The Death of Socrates”Painted in France in 1787
31The Three Great Greek Thinkers: PLATO Author of The RepublicNo family or personal property; common good governmentYet the government should regulate every aspect of its citizens livesPhilosopher king should rulePlato warned that clever leaders could easily manipulate citizens who knew little about the important issues of the dayStarted a school called The Academy
32The Three Great Greek Thinkers: ARISTOTLE Student of PlatoWrote PoliticsSupports family & personal propertyA government that features three social classesFavored a single, strong rulerTaught Alexander the Great
33Sparta Military Society Government: Forbade: led by two kings and 20 counselorslargest and most sophisticated army in the known worldForbade:trade, travel and free speech!Needed army to control slave (helot) populationOutnumbered 20 to 1Control lasted over 250 years
34Sparta Army governed life What did it mean for a man? Trained in militaryStarted at age 7Marry at 20 but live in barracksRetire at 6053 years of service!Males can vote at 30
35Spartan DifferencesSpartan society focused on military strength, not freedom & learningSpartan men served in the military until 60 years oldBoys began military training at age 7Women ran family estates while men trained or fought
36Athens vs. SpartaAthens & Sparta competed for influence in Greece & developed a strong rivalry that eventually led to the Peloponnesian WarSparta defeated Athens, but the war weakened the Greeks
37Closure ActivityWhere would you rather live: Athens or Sparta? Why?
38Warm-Up QuestionWhat are the top 3 Greek innovations? Explain how our world is better because of these 3 achievements.
39The PhoeniciansWhat does this map reveal about the Phoenicians?
40The PhoeniciansWhat were they famous for?Invented the alphabet
41The PhoeniciansPersian Empire under Darius, B.C.E.
42Persian Rule Divided into twenty provinces Persian control: ruled by a Persian satrap or governorPersian control:building and patrolling the royal roadsuse of secret agentsWhy were the Persians successful rulers?willing to adapt to local circumstances, to learn from those with experience, and to utilize the skills of non-Persians
43Persian WarsGreek wealth & innovation made it a target to outside invasionCentered in present day Iran, the Persian Empire stretched from the Middle East to IndiaFrom 493 B.C. to 479 B.C., Persian kings Darius & Xerxes tried (but failed) to conquer the Greeks in the Persian Wars
44Persian WarsThe threat of the powerful Persian empire united the Greek city-states.Around 500 B.C. Greeks were attacked by the PersiansGreeks joined together to fight Persians3 Persian Wars ( BCE)Battle of Marathon- Greeks repelled a larger invading force of Persianslegend says a Greek soldier ran nearly 26 miles from the battlefield to Athens where he died after delivering news of the victoryThis legend is the basis for the modern marathon foot race
45Persian Wars Impact of the Persian Wars: Athens emerged as the most powerful city-state.Athens used the Delian League (alliance of 150 city states) to create an Athenian empire.With Pericles as its leader, Athens enters into its Golden Age!
46Peloponnesian WarsAfter the Persian Wars, the Greek city-states, led by rivals Athens & Sparta, fought each other in the Peloponnesian WarsThe Peloponnesian Wars left the Greeks weak & open to invasion
48Peloponnesian Wars Causes: 27 year war ensues Sparta formed the Peloponnesian LeagueSparta and Athens rivaling for supremacy…27 year war ensuesPericles brings all the people into the cityHe depends on the navy, high walls and food supplies to string out the war
49Peloponnesian Wars Effects: Persia gained control of many city-states Defeated democracy in GreeceSparta would eventually fall to PersiaAthen’s cultural influence continues
50MacedoniaIn 338 B.C., King Philip II of Macedonia attacked & conquered the Greeks, but he died soon afterMacedonians viewed themselves as Greeks & shared much of their culture; King Philip II hired Aristotle to tutor his son Alexander
51The Empire of Alexander the Great Alexander the Great ( ) B.C.E.Accomplishments:Conquers Egypt, Mediterranean Sea region, Persia, and far as PakistanDeclared pharaoh in EgyptAlexander had encouraged blending by marrying a Persian woman and adopting Persian customs.Builds capital of Alexandria and many other “Alexandria's”
52The Empire of Alexander the Great Alexander was only 20 years old when he became king of Macedonia:But he proved to be ambitious & a brilliant military strategistOnce in power, Alexander began to expand his empire
53The Empire of Alexander the Great Alexander began his conquest by crushing a Greek revolt in Thebes; He ordered the death of 6,000 people & sold everyone else into slavery; His brutality convinced other Greeks to not rebelAlexander set his sights on the Persian Empire & began his attack by conquering Egypt; Egyptians viewed Alexander as a liberator
54The Empire of Alexander the Great In 331 B.C., Alexander attacked & defeated the mighty Persian army led by King Darius IIIAlexander destroyed the capital of PersepolisAlexander led his army to conquer India; After taking the Indus River Valley, Alexander’s troops begged him to return home after 11 years away from their homes while conquering the empire
56The Empire of Alexander the Great By 323 B.C., Alexander had conquered a massive empire & began plans to govern & unify his kingdom, but he fell ill & died at the age of 32
57The Empire of Alexander the Great Alexander left behind an important legacy:He spread Hellenic (Greek) innovations & culture throughout his empireIn each territory he conquered, Alexander left behind a Greek-styled city named Alexandria
58The Empire of Alexander the Great Alexandria in Egypt was the most significant of these cities & best represented Hellenism (the spread & blending of Greek culture )Alexandria became the center for Hellenistic culture & trade for the Mediterranean worldAlexandria had a museum & library that preserved Greek, Egyptian, Persian, Indian cultures & attracted scholars for centuries
60The Empire of Alexander the Great Alexander's empire was the largest of the classical era, but it was short-lived (13 years) & was never unified or governedWhen Alexander died without an heir, his empire was divided among his top 3 generals
61The Empire of Alexander the Great Summary of Alexander the Great:He was a military genius & well educatedHis interest in Greek history & culture as well as Persian, Egyptian, & Indian ideas led to a vibrant new culture, Hellenism, that shaped future civilizationsBut, his empire did not last long enough to compete with future empires, such as those ruled by Rome and the Mongols
62Closure Activity Was Alexander the Great a Hero or Villain?? Read the following descriptions of Alexander the Great and decide whether he was a hero or villain. You must explain WHY
63Description #1“In town after town, when natives resisted or tried to flee, the Macedonian forces adopted a single tactic: slaughter all males, and enslave all women and children. In one 9 month period, Alexander’s forces traveled down the Indus River and killed as many as 80,000 people.”
64Description #2“Alexander treated some of the rebels with compassion. His troops brought before him one Theban woman who had killed a Macedonian general. The woman was not apologetic, and she remained defiant even to Alexander. Still, he decided to spare her life because he admired her courage.”
65Description #3“Despite the advice of even his closest aides, Alexander stole the city’s riches for himself. Then, in a drunken state, he allowed his men to burn down the Great Palace and its surrounding temples.”
66Description #4“Alexandria flourished in part because of Alexander’s great respect for knowledge and various cultural traditions – not only those he brought with him from Greece, but those he found in Egypt as well.”
67Description #5“Alexander used to have the floors sprinkled with exquisite perfumes and with fragrant wine and incense was burned before him. Also, all the bystanders kept silent or spoke words only of good omen because of fear.”