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Ms. Willia.   What do you think of when I say “Greece”? Warm-Up Question.

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Presentation on theme: "Ms. Willia.   What do you think of when I say “Greece”? Warm-Up Question."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ms. Willia

2   What do you think of when I say “Greece”? Warm-Up Question

3 Ancient Greece  The Greek city-states, especially Athens, developed cultural innovations that are still used today which transformed Greece into a “classical civilization”

4 Ancient Greece  After the river valley era, a number of classical civilizations developed in the Mediterranean and in Asia  The first major classical civilization was ancient Greece  Classic cultures created high levels of achievement in art, science, & technology that impacted future ages

5   Europe’s earliest major culture was the Minoan civilization of Crete  largest of the Greek islands  Minoan culture was strongly influenced by Egypt  Minoan civilization is the source of the Greek myth about the hero Theseus who entered the labyrinth (a maze) and slayed the Minotaur Ancient Greece

6  Identify 1 geographic feature & propose how it might impact the culture of Greece

7 Ancient Greece  Mountains covered about 75% of Greece which divided the people & made unifying the Greek people nearly impossible

8   Greece is a mountainous and rocky peninsula with little good farmland, but its long irregular coastline and numerous islands provided fine harbors  Greek people were able to:  make a living by fishing and trading  establish colonies  dominate trade in the eastern Mediterranean and Black Seas  Greek communities isolated by mountains developed into independent self-governing city-states that often fought one another  leading city-states were:  Sparta- strong military government  Athens- the present-day capital of Greece Ancient Greece

9  The Greeks developed independent city-states, called polis, within each valley & its surrounding mountains

10 Ancient Greece  Despite their lack of unity, the Greeks shared some common characteristics:  Greeks shared the same language  Greek writing was influenced by the Phoenician alphabet & became the basis for Latin

11   2 epic (meaning long and heroic) poems by Homer  The Iliad takes place during the Trojan War when the Greeks used a large wooden horse with soldiers hidden inside to defeat the defenders of Troy in Asia Minor  The Odyssey recounts the adventures of the hero Odysseus who had to overcome many obstacles during his 10-year voyage home from the war in Troy  These poems are the first literary works of Western Civilization  In both poems, reason and wisdom are more powerful than physical strength  The heroes of Greek myths served as models of excellence for the ancient Greeks The Iliad and the Odyssey

12 Greek Gods  Greeks were polytheistic & believed that the gods were immortal but had human qualities; Religion became the basis for Greek mythology  Zeus- King of the gods  Athena- Goddess of wisdom  Aphrodite- Goddess of love  Apollo- God of sun & music  Ares- God of war  Hades- God of underworld  Hera- Goddess of family  Poseidon- God of the seas

13 Greek Gods  People emulated the Gods’ behavior  Anthropomorphic  Influenced peoples’ actions  Gods lived on Mt. Olympus  Each God controlled a specific part of the universe

14 Greek Military  Each city-state had citizen-soldiers  A new method of fighting emerged called “ phalanx ”  A massive formation of heavily armed foot soldiers that moved in unison

15 Ancient Greece  Most Greek city- states had an agora that was the center for trade & government  City-states had an acropolis, a temple on a hill dedicated to a sacred god

16   The Greeks established the polis :  an association of free male citizens who served as the soldiers who defended their city-state from attack  managed the government  chose leaders to govern the city-state for a limited period of time, often a year  Most of the Greek city-states did not have democratic governments, and even in Athens, citizens were a minority of the population because women, slaves, and foreign-born persons did not qualify as citizens. Athens

17   Despite similar language & religion, the Greek polis were very different from each other, especially how they were governed  Some polis had a monarchy, a gov’t ruled by a king  Some polis had an aristocracy, a gov’t ruled by elite nobles Ancient Greece

18   Some polis like Sparta had an oligarchy, a gov’t ruled by a small group of citizens  Some polis like Athens had a direct democracy, a gov’t ruled by citizens who vote on decisions Ancient Greece

19 Athens  It is the place where democracy was born  Only those with both parents born in Athens could have citizenship  Athens had a direct democracy: all male citizens had the right to attend the Assembly and a vote.  met 40 times a year  No elections, leaders chosen by drawing lots  Member of 500

20 Athens  “Our constitution is called a democracy because power is in the hands not of a minority but of the whole people. We alone regard a man who takes no interest in public affairs not as harmless, but as a useless character.” -Pericles’ 431 B.C.

21 Athenian Wealth & Culture  Athens had a direct democracy in which both rich & poor citizens could vote & hold public office

22 Athenian Wealth & Culture  Pericles had Architects built the Parthenon to honor the goddess Athena  goddess of wisdom and war and the patron goddess of Athens  The Parthenon is the main building on the Acropolis  It is one of the most influential buildings in the history of Western architecture  Served as a model for important buildings in much of the world including the Lincoln Memorial in the United States

23 Athenian Wealth & Culture  Artists created realistic sculptures  Theater had both comedies & tragedies

24 Athenian Wealth & Culture  Philosophers Socrates, Plato, & Aristotle questioned assumptions & the use of logic to find answers to questions

25   Humanism=  reason was the true source of knowledge and that a wise person was the best person; reason, not emotion, should rule our lives  Ancient Greeks considered human beings to be the center of existence  Philosophy and arts of classical Greece were more concerned with the value of human beings on earth  can be seen in Greek art that portrayed the human body realistically  Greek humanism emphasized order in daily life, nothing in excess, a balance between extremes known as “ The Golden Mean ”  In school, for example, both the body and the mind were trained.  Greek humanism would help shape the Renaissance and the Enlightenment in Europe 2,000 years later Humanism

26  The Three Great Greek Thinkers

27 The Three Great Greek Thinkers: SOCRATES  “…the unexamined life is not worth living.”  “Socratic Method”  question & answer approach; helped people recognize they didn’t have all the answers!  “Know thy self”…  Self-examination leads to correct behavior and ethical living.

28 The Three Great Greek Thinkers: SOCRATES  Socrates on Trial-  Seen by many to not believe in the gods  Feared that he was corrupting the minds of the youth!  He is found guilty and put to death! A scapegoat…

29 The Three Great Greek Thinkers: SOCRATES  Encouraged his students to question accepted wisdom including government policies.  Socrates did not leave behind written works  his philosophy was carried forward by his student, Plato

30 The Three Great Greek Thinkers: SOCRATES  How does it depict this famous man?  Noble, dignified & forceful.  He is ready to meet his death but not before he speaks his mind! “The Death of Socrates” Painted in France in 1787

31 The Three Great Greek Thinkers: PLATO  Author of The Republic  No family or personal property; common good government  Yet the government should regulate every aspect of its citizens lives  Philosopher king should rule  Plato warned that clever leaders could easily manipulate citizens who knew little about the important issues of the day  Started a school called The Academy

32 The Three Great Greek Thinkers: ARISTOTLE  Student of Plato  Wrote Politics  Supports family & personal property  A government that features three social classes  Favored a single, strong ruler  Taught Alexander the Great

33 Sparta  Military Society  Government:  led by two kings and 20 counselors  largest and most sophisticated army in the known world  Forbade:  trade, travel and free speech!  Needed army to control slave (helot) population  Outnumbered 20 to 1  Control lasted over 250 years

34 Sparta  Army governed life  What did it mean for a man?  Trained in military  Started at age 7  Marry at 20 but live in barracks  Retire at 60  53 years of service!  Males can vote at 30

35 Spartan Differences  Spartan society focused on military strength, not freedom & learning  Spartan men served in the military until 60 years old  Boys began military training at age 7  Women ran family estates while men trained or fought

36 Athens vs. Sparta  Athens & Sparta competed for influence in Greece & developed a strong rivalry that eventually led to the Peloponnesian War  Sparta defeated Athens, but the war weakened the Greeks

37   Where would you rather live: Athens or Sparta? Why? Closure Activity

38   What are the top 3 Greek innovations? Explain how our world is better because of these 3 achievements. Warm-Up Question

39 The Phoenicians  What does this map reveal about the Phoenicians?

40 The Phoenicians  What were they famous for?  Invented the alphabet

41 The Phoenicians  Persian Empire under Darius, 521-486 B.C.E.

42   Divided into twenty provinces  ruled by a Persian satrap or governor  Persian control:  building and patrolling the royal roads  use of secret agents  Why were the Persians successful rulers?  willing to adapt to local circumstances, to learn from those with experience, and to utilize the skills of non- Persians Persian Rule

43 Persian Wars  Greek wealth & innovation made it a target to outside invasion  Centered in present day Iran, the Persian Empire stretched from the Middle East to India  From 493 B.C. to 479 B.C., Persian kings Darius & Xerxes tried (but failed) to conquer the Greeks in the Persian Wars

44   The threat of the powerful Persian empire united the Greek city-states.  Around 500 B.C. Greeks were attacked by the Persians  Greeks joined together to fight Persians  3 Persian Wars (499-479 BCE)  Battle of Marathon- Greeks repelled a larger invading force of Persians  legend says a Greek soldier ran nearly 26 miles from the battlefield to Athens where he died after delivering news of the victory  This legend is the basis for the modern marathon foot race Persian Wars

45   Impact of the Persian Wars:  Athens emerged as the most powerful city-state.  Athens used the Delian League (alliance of 150 city states) to create an Athenian empire.  With Pericles as its leader, Athens enters into its Golden Age! Persian Wars

46 Peloponnesian Wars  After the Persian Wars, the Greek city-states, led by rivals Athens & Sparta, fought each other in the Peloponnesian Wars  The Peloponnesian Wars left the Greeks weak & open to invasion

47  Peloponnesian Wars

48   Causes:  Sparta formed the Peloponnesian League  Sparta and Athens rivaling for supremacy…  27 year war ensues  Pericles brings all the people into the city  He depends on the navy, high walls and food supplies to string out the war Peloponnesian Wars

49  Effects:  Persia gained control of many city-states  Defeated democracy in Greece  Sparta would eventually fall to Persia  Athen’s cultural influence continues

50 Macedonia  In 338 B.C., King Philip II of Macedonia attacked & conquered the Greeks, but he died soon after  Macedonians viewed themselves as Greeks & shared much of their culture; King Philip II hired Aristotle to tutor his son Alexander

51   Alexander the Great (336-323) B.C.E.  Accomplishments:  Conquers Egypt, Mediterranean Sea region, Persia, and far as Pakistan  Declared pharaoh in Egypt  Alexander had encouraged blending by marrying a Persian woman and adopting Persian customs.  Builds capital of Alexandria and many other “Alexandria's” The Empire of Alexander the Great

52  Alexander was only 20 years old when he became king of Macedonia:  But he proved to be ambitious & a brilliant military strategist  Once in power, Alexander began to expand his empire

53 The Empire of Alexander the Great  Alexander began his conquest by crushing a Greek revolt in Thebes; He ordered the death of 6,000 people & sold everyone else into slavery; His brutality convinced other Greeks to not rebel  Alexander set his sights on the Persian Empire & began his attack by conquering Egypt; Egyptians viewed Alexander as a liberator

54  The Empire of Alexander the Great In 331 B.C., Alexander attacked & defeated the mighty Persian army led by King Darius III Alexander destroyed the capital of Persepolis Alexander led his army to conquer India; After taking the Indus River Valley, Alexander’s troops begged him to return home after 11 years away from their homes while conquering the empire

55  The Empire of Alexander the Great

56  By 323 B.C., Alexander had conquered a massive empire & began plans to govern & unify his kingdom, but he fell ill & died at the age of 32

57 The Empire of Alexander the Great  Alexander left behind an important legacy:  He spread Hellenic (Greek) innovations & culture throughout his empire  In each territory he conquered, Alexander left behind a Greek-styled city named Alexandria

58 The Empire of Alexander the Great Alexandria in Egypt was the most significant of these cities & best represented Hellenism (the spread & blending of Greek culture ) Alexandria became the center for Hellenistic culture & trade for the Mediterranean world Alexandria had a museum & library that preserved Greek, Egyptian, Persian, Indian cultures & attracted scholars for centuries

59  Alexandria of Egypt

60 The Empire of Alexander the Great  Alexander's empire was the largest of the classical era, but it was short-lived (13 years) & was never unified or governed  When Alexander died without an heir, his empire was divided among his top 3 generals

61 The Empire of Alexander the Great  Summary of Alexander the Great:  He was a military genius & well educated  His interest in Greek history & culture as well as Persian, Egyptian, & Indian ideas led to a vibrant new culture, Hellenism, that shaped future civilizations  But, his empire did not last long enough to compete with future empires, such as those ruled by Rome and the Mongols

62   Was Alexander the Great a Hero or Villain??  Read the following descriptions of Alexander the Great and decide whether he was a hero or villain. You must explain WHY Closure Activity

63   “In town after town, when natives resisted or tried to flee, the Macedonian forces adopted a single tactic: slaughter all males, and enslave all women and children. In one 9 month period, Alexander’s forces traveled down the Indus River and killed as many as 80,000 people.” Description #1

64   “Alexander treated some of the rebels with compassion. His troops brought before him one Theban woman who had killed a Macedonian general. The woman was not apologetic, and she remained defiant even to Alexander. Still, he decided to spare her life because he admired her courage.” Description #2

65   “Despite the advice of even his closest aides, Alexander stole the city’s riches for himself. Then, in a drunken state, he allowed his men to burn down the Great Palace and its surrounding temples.” Description #3

66   “Alexandria flourished in part because of Alexander’s great respect for knowledge and various cultural traditions – not only those he brought with him from Greece, but those he found in Egypt as well.” Description #4

67   “Alexander used to have the floors sprinkled with exquisite perfumes and with fragrant wine and incense was burned before him. Also, all the bystanders kept silent or spoke words only of good omen because of fear.” Description #5

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