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Failure Mode & Effect Analysis (FMEA) in Half the Time Howard C Cooper, MS, DFSS-BB May 13 th, 2014 INCOSE Michigan – May Dinner Meeting.

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Presentation on theme: "Failure Mode & Effect Analysis (FMEA) in Half the Time Howard C Cooper, MS, DFSS-BB May 13 th, 2014 INCOSE Michigan – May Dinner Meeting."— Presentation transcript:

1 Failure Mode & Effect Analysis (FMEA) in Half the Time Howard C Cooper, MS, DFSS-BB May 13 th, 2014 INCOSE Michigan – May Dinner Meeting

2 2 Introduction ●Failure Mode & Effects Analysis (FMEA) is an analytical tool and structured method to: –Recognize and evaluate the potential failure of a product/process and its effects – Identify and prioritize actions which could eliminate or reduce the chance of a potential failure – Document the process Before they are “baked” into a product Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, LogNo. 2014-07, 26 FEB 14

3 3 Common Types of FMEA ●Design FMEA –Identify and mitigate potential design problems early in the design cycle ●Process / Manufacturing FMEA –Improve quality and reliability, during set-up of initial manufacturing process ●Problem Solving / Six Sigma FMEA –Understand failure modes and effects to identify and solve quality or reliability issues Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, LogNo. 2014-07, 26 FEB 14

4 4 Where FMEA is Used Customer Reqmts: Vehicle Tech Specs Product Definition: Key product characterist ics, Design FMEA Process Definition: Process Flow Diagram (PFD) Process Failure Mode Analysis: Process FMEA Control Strategy: Control Plan, Error proofing Mfg: Work Instructions & Process Monitoring Six Sigma FMEA Common FMEA Usage Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, LogNo. 2014-07, 26 FEB 14

5 5 Failure Mode Example Design FMEA Prioritize Failure Modes by Risk Priority Number SEV X OCC X DET = (RPN) Items within the system being analyzed FM & Effects of each failure mode Severity Root Cause Relative Occurrence Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, LogNo. 2014-07, 26 FEB 14 Item

6 6 Potential Failure Mode Potential Effect(s) of Failure Sev Potential Cause(s)/Mechanism(s) of Failure Occur Current Process Controls Detection Detec RPN Process Function 3 - Front Door L.H. Manual application of chromate conversion coatings on exposed aluminum substrate (to retard corrosion) Insufficient chromate coating over specified surface. Deteriorated life of part leading to: - Unsatisfactory appearance due to rust through paint over time. - Impaired function of hardware. 5Manually inserted spray head not inserted far enough. 3Visual check each hour - 1/shift for film thickness (depth meter) and coverage. 575 Spray head clogged - Viscosity too high - Temperature too low - Pressure too low. 2Visual check each hour - 1/shift for film thickness (depth meter) and coverage. 330 Spray head deformed due to impact. 2Visual check each hour - 1/shift for film thickness (depth meter) and coverage. 220 Spray time insufficient.1Operator instructions and lot sampling (10 doors/shift) to check for coverage of critical areas. 210 Example Process FMEA Steps within the process being analyzed Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, LogNo. 2014-07, 26 FEB 14

7 7 Typical FMEA Process 1.Assemble team of people with diverse knowledge of process & product 2.Bound the problem 3.Identify functions 4.Identify potential failure modes 5.Populate FMEA details 6.Prioritize failure modes based on RPN 7.Mitigate failure modes Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, LogNo. 2014-07, 26 FEB 14

8 8 Mission to Improve FMEA Development ●Challenge Current FMEA problems:Opportunity: Time consumingRapid (> 2x faster) High rate of missed critical failure modes Critical failure modes are given top-priority Ad hoc identification of failure modes Process-driven identification of all failure modes Disjointed, undirected time- consuming discussion Focused, efficient development effort Allows prioritization only after FMEA development Prioritization can happen before FMEA development Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, LogNo. 2014-07, 26 FEB 14

9 9 Improved FMEA Process In 2012, GDLS developed process to prepare ‘efficient’ and ‘effective’ FMEA at greatly reduced time and cost Process involves four primary tools: Block / Process Diagram p-Diagram Decomposition Table FMEA Major innovation: Decomposition Table identifies and prioritizes Failure Modes (FMs) into FMEA. Focuses analysis on critical failure modes Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, LogNo. 2014-07, 26 FEB 14

10 10 Step 1: Bound the System Identifies and verifies: 1.System functions: lines crossing the dotted boundary 2.“Items” within the dotted line system boundary What Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, LogNo. 2014-07, 26 FEB 14 Boundary Diagram / Process Flow

11 11 Step 2: Characterize the Process Green blocks, identify functions of the system (or process) Yellow blocks ~ Noise Factors, Blue block, Control Factors, Pink blocks ~ Error States Why Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, LogNo. 2014-07, 26 FEB 14 What (From Boundary Diagram) P-Diagram

12 12 Outstanding Problem & Opportunity ●Boundary or Process Flow Diagram –Identifies “Items” for the FMEA, but not the Failure Modes (FM) of those “items” ●P-Diagram –Identifies system functions or requirements (even noise factors) but not the function or FMs of the “items” ●Opportunity –Develop a table that will identify and link “items” to their functions, and to their functional FMs Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, LogNo. 2014-07, 26 FEB 14

13 13 Step 3: Map Functions to Failure Modes System Functions P-Diagram Boundary / Process Diagram Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, LogNo. 2014-07, 26 FEB 14

14 14 Step 3: Map Functions to Failure Modes System Functions P-Diagram Boundary / Process Diagram Need to Identify Item / HW Functions Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, LogNo. 2014-07, 26 FEB 14

15 15 Step 3: Map Functions to Failure Modes System Functions P-Diagram Boundary / Process Diagram Identify Functions Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, LogNo. 2014-07, 26 FEB 14

16 16 Step 3: Map Functions to Failure Modes System Functions P-Diagram Boundary / Process Diagram Identify Functions Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, LogNo. 2014-07, 26 FEB 14

17 17 Step 3: Map Functions to Failure Modes System Functions P-Diagram Boundary / Process Diagram Identify Functions Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, LogNo. 2014-07, 26 FEB 14

18 18 System Functions Decomposition Table Structures FMEA From B-Diagram or Pr-Flow Chart 3-4 FMs per Function “X” indicates a Function (and 4 FMs in the FMEA) Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, LogNo. 2014-07, 26 FEB 14 functions translate to FMs

19 19 3 Purposes of the Decomposition Table Ensures all items are captured into the FMEA Ensures multiple function items and their potential failure modes are identified into the FMEA Provides opportunity to identify and prioritize by criticality of hardware or process functions before populating failure modes into the FMEA Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, LogNo. 2014-07, 26 FEB 14

20 20 System Decomposition Table Prioritizes Functions Criticality # rather than “X” Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, LogNo. 2014-07, 26 FEB 14

21 21 Preparation Flow into Decomp Table 1. P-Diagram Ideal Functions – to Design Functions in F-H Decomp. 2. B-Diagram or Process Flow inner blocks go to Decomp. Table 3. Identify all ‘Item’ Functions needed to accomplish each System Function 4. Mark with an “X” or with a “Criticality #” Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, LogNo. 2014-07, 26 FEB 14 System

22 22 Step 4: Use Decomp Table to Fill FMEA FMEA filled in from F-H Decomp Table 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 1 System Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, LogNo. 2014-07, 26 FEB 14 1 3 2

23 23 Pareto Chart (80/20 Rule) Benefits of Improved FMEA Development Four Step FMEA Process: ●Organizes and speeds FMEA failure mode identification ●Ensures all hardware-functions and FMs are identified ●Prioritizes critical hardware-functions for FMEA analysis ●Provides power of 80/20 Rule on FMs for best Reliability Growth ●Focuses attention and time on mitigation of “significant few” (the most critical failure modes (FMs) F-H Decomp Table now being used on multiple GDLS Contracts: for DFR, to facilitate earlier diagnostics planning, to meet Weight and Testability Requirements Addressing most critical FMs yields greatest reliability growth. Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, LogNo. 2014-07, 26 FEB 14

24 24 Cost Savings Attributed to New Process Before vs, After Facilitator Cost Savings on Facilitator Cost Facilitator Savings X 3 for FMEA Team, X 3 Programs in 2013 = Total Savings Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited, LogNo. 2014-07, 26 FEB 14

25 25 Questions? Presenters: Howard C Cooper, MS, DFSS-BB DFR Reliability Engineer cooperh@gdls.com Mark Petrotta, MS, DFSS-MBB Engineering Process Excellence petrotta@gdls.com


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