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ORCA RESEARCH. studies have been carried out on Resident Killer whales who live in small groups called pods. The size of a resident pod varies from as.

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Presentation on theme: "ORCA RESEARCH. studies have been carried out on Resident Killer whales who live in small groups called pods. The size of a resident pod varies from as."— Presentation transcript:

1 ORCA RESEARCH

2 studies have been carried out on Resident Killer whales who live in small groups called pods. The size of a resident pod varies from as few as 3 to as many as 50 individuals who tend to travel within specific ranges. Resident Killer Whales live and travel in groups or pods organized along lines of maternal relatedness. Studies of resident killer whales have been able to identify maternal lineage through the tight bond between mother and offspring. Transients on the other hand often travel alone, or in groups of two to seven individuals, and their travelling ranges are unpredictable. The social system of transients is more fluid than the stable associations of residents. A typical transient group might comprise of a mother and two or three off-spring, or perhaps of several adult females of unknown relationship. Some offspring leave their mother's group as adolescents, often following the birth of a younger sibling. Adult male transients are seldom found travelling solely with other adult males. Socializing among killer whales includes a great variety of interactions between members of the group. Behaviours seen during socializing episodes include various aerial displays including breaching, spy-hopping, tail slapping, beach rubbing, and flipper slapping. Whales may also interact with inanimate objects such as kelp and have also been seen to surf in the wake of passing boats. KILLER WHALE BEHAVIOUR

3 Killer whales can also be distinguished by the kinds of underwater communication sounds they produce - squeals, squawks, and screams are used for social communication within and between groups. Killer Whale clans, like dolphins, can be distinguished by their different dialects. Echolocation enables them to locate objects by projecting high-frequency sound waves and listening for echoes. Killer whales echo-locate by producing clicking sounds and then receiving and interpreting the resulting echo Killer whales have acute hearing and also acute vision both in and out of the water. Photo taken by dr Ingrid visser KILLER WHALE SCENES AND COMMUNICATION

4 Resident Killer Whales eat predominantly fish (Salmon, Lingcod, halibut, greenling, and various small flatfish). Although they are often seen in the vicinity of other marine mammals they usually ignore them. There are only a few examples of resident pods attacking seals or porpoises. Transients Killer Whales, in contrast to Residents, feed almost exclusively on marine mammals or seabirds. The favoured prey of transients is harbour seals, sea lions, and porpoises. Very little is known about the diet of the Off Shore species, but it is believed that they prey on fish for at least part of the year, however preying on Marine Mammals is also possible. New Zealand orca feed on eagle rays and that is counted as their diet Photo taken by dr Ingrid visser FOOD AND DIET

5 New Zealand orca have been diagnosed with the highest levels of PCB and DDT in their system then any other marine mammal in New Zealand. The use of PCBs and DDTs have been band in New Zealand since 1970 but for some reason PCBs and DDTs are still being found in New Zealand orca. Ingrid Visser has found out that New Zealand orca feed on eagle rays which have been tested and resulted that they have high contaminants with PCBs and DDTs and a lot of flame retardant which are then passed on to orca and then into there baby's and when the baby’s are born there blood will be really contaminated and they will possibly die at a young age. Because of the results that are found the orca and the eagle ray Dr Ingrid Visser is doing every thing that she can do to ban some of the flame retardant that is used in New Zealand. Ingrid Visser is doing what ever it takes to save and protect orca whales which I hope to be apart of in the future. PCBS AND DDTS, FLAME RETARDANT FOUND IN NEW ZEALAND ORCA

6 Maximum length: 9.8m (32.2ft) males / 8.5m (27.9ft) females Adult weight: males: 11.1 tonnes max. / females 8.3 tonnes max. Life span: years Sexual maturity: years males / 6-10 years females Gestation: months Birth length: m (6-9ft) Birth weight: 180kg (300lbs) Dive duration: 20 minutes Distribution: common in all oceans Current world population: up to 100,000, the majority (70,000) in Antarctica. Orcas weren't targeted by whalers, threats are interactions with fisheries and from pollution Killer whales have brains that are five times bigger then the human brain which makes orca very intelligent photo taken by dr Ingrid visser While she is swimming with orca ORCA STATISTICS

7 Size & Weight: Mature females up to 7.9 metres and 3,800 kg. Mature males from metres and 5,600 kg. Calves up to 2.6 metres; 160 kg at birth. Physical Features: Striking black colouring with greyish saddle patch and white belly. Conical-shaped head with small beak and conical teeth on both sides of upper and lower jaw. Paddle-shaped flippers or pectoral fins, and distinct dorsal fin on its back (curved in females and immature males; straight and up to 2 metres in males). The male’s dorsal fin reaches full height at years. Natural History: Females give birth every three years starting at age 13. Mating usually takes place in summer, but calves are born year-round. Both females and males mature by age 10. Orcas display strong social bonds, belong to pods. Each pod has its own language, or dialect. Pods’ movements are determined by availability of food. Orca society is matriarchal. Although breeding occurs outside the family, both males and females return to their matriarchal groups. Diet & Life Span: Resident Orcas are fish eaters (salmon, cod, herring), kg per day. Males generally live into their 30s, females into their 50s (both can live years longer). When they die most just disappear below the surface of the water. Top Speed: 50 km/hr. Swim from km every 24 hours. Range: Commonly seen from June-September. J-pod is observed in the region’s waters year-round. During the winter, members of K and L pods have been seen well off the west coast of Vancouver Island and as far south as Monterey, California STATUS ORCA AROUND CANADA AND UNITED STATES


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