Presentation on theme: "Gifted Native American Students— Overlooked and Underserved A Long-Overdue Call for Research and Action Marcia Gentry, Ph.D., C. Matthew Fugate, and Jiaxi."— Presentation transcript:
Gifted Native American Students— Overlooked and Underserved A Long-Overdue Call for Research and Action Marcia Gentry, Ph.D., C. Matthew Fugate, and Jiaxi Wu, Purdue University
Purposes 1.Test literature-based assumptions about gifted Native American students 2.Set a research agenda for the field of gifted education that addresses needs and gaps concerning the discovery and development of giftedness, creativity, and talent among Native American populations
Background In the GCT literature…limited number of empirical studies, scholarly articles, chapters, and government reports in the past 30 years. This literature yielded 4 themes and underlying assumptions. Literature is largely dated Native Americans are frequently homogenized as one group of people rather than as culturally diverse populations, leading to stereotyping and overgeneralization Little knowledge exists of needs and talent pathways Other literature takes a deficit viewpoint (e.g., poverty, learning deficiencies, violence, substance abuse)
Methods We searched ERIC and PsycINFO for publications (search terms: gifted/talented, Native American/American Indian), which revealed a limited number of empirical studies, scholarly articles, chapters, and government reports in the past 30 years (e.g., Bradley, 1989; Christensen, 1991; George, 1987; Grigg, Moran, & Kuang, 2010; Hartley, 1991; Herring, 1996; Kirschenbaum, 1989; Maker, 1989; Mead, Grigg, Moran, & Kuang, 2010; Montgomery, 2001; Omdal, Rude, Betts, & Toy, 2010; Peterson, 1999; Tonemah, 1991). Participants N=100 teachers, aides, and administrators (50% Native American, 46% White, 4% Hispanic) n=20 Diné, n=16 Lakota, n=64 Ojibwe
Methods 2 Focus groups (Diné, Lakota) and 1 professional development group (Ojibwe) responded to the literature- based assumptions using Tony Stead’s (2006) Reading Analysis of Non-Fiction Framework (RAN): A modification of the traditional KWL chart KWL charts are limiting They do not sufficiently support the research process The do not take into account misinformation
Methods RAN process What we think we know Assumptions that are believed to be true Yes, we were right! Confirmation of assumptions Misconceptions Assumptions that should be disregarded New Information Additional information not stated in our assumptions that should be considered Wonderings Important research questions raised based upon the new information
Theme 1: Talent Development Talented youth exist among Native Populations Recognition, development, services, and programs are needed to nurture these youth More youth can achieve at higher levels than current expectations indicate Consideration should be give to develop spiritualistic, naturalistic, leadership, visual/spatial, artistic, musical CPS, and communication strengths Programs and curriculum should be tied to culture Group work and solving relevant problems should be a focus Early and on-going identification and enrichment should be done in a variety of areas
Theme 1: Talent Development Misconceptions All three tribal groups agreed with the assumptions found in the literature regarding talent development. No misconceptions identified.
Theme 1: Talent Development New Understandings DinéLakotaOjibwe Boys see women as dominate in the family structure Need for positive, male role models Group work and problems should be aligned with students’ needs Some Diné students prefer to work individually Native Americans’ strengths in verbal and mathematical areas should be acknowledged A lack of knowledge exists among Lakota students regarding their post- secondary and career options There is a lack of understanding between Lakota students and non- Native educators Students are aware of and want to be part of the global community Cultural teachings should begin with the home and with elders
Theme 2: Culture and Traditions Collective society Matriarchal society Respect for authority and elders Traditions/cultural knowledge important for future generations Oral traditions, ceremonies, and storytelling are important Present, cyclical view of time Religion and spirituality are ways of life Live in harmony with nature Non-materialistic Patience and self-control are valued Tribal leaders, spiritual leaders, & medicine people are valued
Theme 2: Culture and Traditions: Misconceptions DinéLakotaOjibwe Collective society Non-materialistic Tribal leaders, spiritual leaders, & medicine people are valued Collective society Matriarchal society Live in harmony with nature Tribal leaders, spiritual leaders, & medicine people are valued Religion and spirituality are ways of life Live in harmony with nature Non-materialistic Patience and self-control are valued
Theme 2: Culture and Traditions New Understandings DinéLakotaOjibwe Clan system following mother’s family. Uncle serves as the role model. In school, group work usually follows clan groups. Increased materialism among youth Tribal leaders are politicians, not respected like elders and medicine people Alcoholism affects everyone Teachers are valued Adults returning to school, spiritual awakening More women than men in workforce Self-determination is valued Collective society is generational, not as prevalent with youth Move away from matriarchal society Importance of tradition/culture varies among families Culture integrated into school curriculum Value of religion/spirituality varies by family Harmony with nature is a 1970’s stereotype Non-materialism due to poverty Tribal leaders=politicians Practice “give-away” Ceremonies/pow-wows more important than oral traditions Focus on present with little consideration of future Value of religion/spirituality varies by family Gang affiliations replacing search for spirituality Widespread abuse of nature…but escape to woods Possessions=status; Money=power and happiness Little patience, lack of self- control
Theme 3: Cognitive Styles and Learning Preferences Public display of knowledge is not encouraged Cooperative and sharing Anonymity Non-competitive, non- aggressive Watch, learn, then do Practice Hands-on participation Spatial strengths Simultaneous processing Naturalistic, holistic views Story telling, auditory learning Psychomotor, physical learning Concern for accuracy over speed
Theme 3: Cognitive Styles and Learning Preferences Misconceptions DinéLakotaOjibwe Public display of knowledge is not encouraged Concern for accuracy over speed Anonymity Naturalistic, holistic views Non-competitive, non- aggressive Practice Naturalistic, holistic views
Theme 3: Cognitive Styles and Learning Preferences New Understandings DinéLakotaOjibwe Differences exist between urban and rural (Rez) youth Fear rejection by peers for being smart “not cool” Level of anonymity depends on individual Self-discipline leads to perfectionism Students prefer to learn through modeling Little connection to Earth, focus on instant gratification Quiet, guarded, most prefer to work individually Fighting and aggression are common Younger generation pushed to be assertive, leading to aggression Instant gratification/self preservation Practice is viewed as a sign of weakness Naturalistic views replaced by ideals of pop culture
Theme 4: Communication Soft, slow speech, quite, few interjections, delayed responses Non-verbal communication emphasized Indirect, non-verbal cues to speaker or listener May be fluent in two or more languages Introspective rather than questioning Feelings unlikely to be openly expressed
Theme 4: Communication Misconceptions DinéLakotaOjibwe May be fluent in two or more languages
Theme 4: Communication New Understandings DinéLakotaOjibwe Diné is an oral language Educators view Navajo language as a liability Diné students frequently lack fluency in both languages Strong visual and spatial skills incorporated into traditional Diné communication Concern that lack of expression may contribute to alcoholism Many Lakota students placed in special education due to a lack of understanding of their communication norms Majority of students speak only English Many students speak in gang-related slang Takes time for Lakota students to warm up to their non-Native peers Few are fluent in the Ojibwe language, which some see as a dying language
A Call for Future Research SIG initiative to bring recognition to these underserved populations within our field Native children face many barriers and are frequently overlooked by researchers. Barriers include: marginalization; living in remote, rural areas; poverty; and issues with obtaining a quality education (infrastructure, technology, funding, teacher quality, dropout rates, access to post- secondary opportunities)
Culture & Tradition How do 21 st century skills align with tribal practices? How do youth fit into the assumptions of tradition and culture? How are cultural values changing? How do (can) teachers integrate cultural mores and values? How does knowledge of traditional ways affect students’ sense of self, self-esteem, and achievement?
Family Roles and Connections What enrichment can be developed/provided for parents of gifted students? What role does family play in school success? How can home-school connections be strengthened? What methods can be used to connect students to the “outside” world?
Gender What methods best address the needs of gifted Diné, Lakota, or Ojibwe boys (or girls)? What implication does gender have on educational services and their delivery? How does a matriarchal society affect the social and emotional development of the whole child? What can be done about gangs? How can youth be connected to school and education?
Curricular and Instructional Considerations How can the non-verbal, visual, and spatial strengths of these youth enhance their learning and success? How can curriculum be adapted to fit the knowledge, background, and experiences of the children? What is the role of PBL in educating these populations? Can teachers better meet students’ needs through accountability, goal setting, and reflective practice?
Technology What is the role of technology for this generation of learners? How can technology bring learning to the reservation? How does technology inform the culture of today’s generation of Native students? How can the need for infrastructure in many schools be addressed?
Connections to the Future How can innovation and creativity be promoted among this generation of learners to improve infrastructure and living conditions on the reservations? What steps can be taken to address the tension between educational attainment and the poor job market on the reservations? How can educated young people effectively bring their knowledge and skills home to the Reservation?
Limitations Findings from tribal communities, not generalizable to all tribal communities on these reservations nor to those members who live off the reservations. Red Lake data collection differed from that at Ganado and Standing Rock “I will not fill this out. If you need research about Natives, come and live with us for a year and visit with the families around here. It’s not even accurate because there are different degrees of being traditional.” --Red Lake (non) Participant
References 1.Anderman, L. H. & Freeman, T. (2004). Students’ sense of belonging in school. In M. L.Maehr & P. R. Pintrich (Eds.), Advances in motivation and achievement, Vol. 13. Motivating students, improving Schools: The legacy of Carol Midgley. Greenwich, CT: JAI. 2.Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. 3.Bandura, A. (1988). Self-regulation of motivation and action through goal systems. In V. Hamilton, G. H. Bower, & N. H. Frijda (Eds.), Cognitive perspectives on emotion and motivation (pp ). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer. 4.Bauch, P.A. (2001). School-community partnerships in rural schools: Leadership, renewal and a sense of place. Peabody Journal of Education, 76(2), Bernal, E.M. (2007). The plight of the culturally diverse student from poverty. In J. VanTassel-Baska & T. Stambaugh (Eds.), Overlooked gems: A national perspective on low-income promising learners (pp ). Washington, DC: National Association of Gifted Children. 6.Bradley, C. (1989). Give me the bow, I’ve got the arrow. In C. J. Maker & S. W. Schiever (Eds.), Critical issues in gifted education: Defensible programs for cultural and ethnic minorities. Volume II (pp ). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed. 7.Brandt, E. A. (1992). The Navajo area student dropout study: Findings and implications. Journal of American Indian Education, 31, Bryant, J.A. (2007). Killing Mayberry: The crisis in rural American education. The Rural Educator, 29, Callahan, C. M., & McIntire, J. A. (1994). Identifying outstanding talent in American Indian and Alaska Native students. Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement. 10.Christensen, R. A. (1991). A personal perspective on Tribal-Alaska Native gifted and talented education. Journal of American Indian Education, 31(1), Davidson, K. L. (1992). A comparison of Native American and White students’ cognitive strengths as measured by the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. Roeper Review, 14(3), Demmert, W. G., Grissmer, D., & Towner, J. (2006). A review and analysis of the research on Native American students. Journal of American Indian Education, 31, DeVoe, J. F., & Darling-Churchill, K. E. (2008). Status and trends in the education of American Indians and Alaska Natives: Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from 14.Faircloth, S. C., & Tippeconnic, III, J. W. (2010). The dropout/graduation rate crisis among American Indian and Alaska Native students: Failure to respond places the future of Native peoples at risk. Los Angeles, CA: The Civil Rights Project/Proyecto Derechos Civiles at UCLA;
References 15.Ford, D.Y. (1998). The under-representation of minority students in gifted education: Problems and promises in recruitment and retention. The Journal of Special Education, 32(1), Ford, D.Y. (2007). Diamonds in the rough: Recognizing and meeting the needs of gifted children from low SES bakgrounds. In J. VanTassel-Baska & T. Stambaugh (Eds.), Overlooked gems: A national perspective on low-income promising learners (pp ). Gifted Education Resource Institute. (2011) strategic plan. Retrieved from 17.Gentry, M. (2009). Developing talents and improving student achievement among traditionally underrepresented populations: An experimental investigation scaling-up the total school cluster grouping model. Grant proposal funded by the Institute for Education Sciences, Gentry, M. L., Richardson, J., Fugate, C. M., Wu, J., Jen, E. Y., Folyer, S., & Byers, W. (May, 2011). Putting the development of talents among Native American young on the national agenda: Future directions for research, partnership, and practices. Second Annual Leadership Summit: Identifying and Serving Gifted Native American Students. Ganado, AZ. 19.Garrison, L. (1989). Programming for the gifted American Indian student. In C. J. Maker & S. W. Schiever (Eds.), Critical issues in gifted education: Defensible programs for cultural and ethnic minorities. Volume II (pp ). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed. 20.George, K. R. (1987). A guide to understanding gifted American Indian students. Las Cruces, NM: Eric Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools. 21.Grigg, W., Moran, R., and Kuang, M. (2010). National Indian education study - part I: Performance of American Indian and Alaska Native students at grades 4 and 8 on NAEP 2009 reading and mathematics assessments (NCES 2010–462). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. 22.Hartley, E. A. (1991). Through Navajo eyes: Examining differences in giftedness. Journal of American Indian Education, 31, Herring, R. D. (1996). The unrecognized gifted: A more humanistic perspective for Indigenous students. Journal of Humanistic Education and Development, 35, Julien, P. D., & Ostertag, B. A. (1982). Behavioral characteristics of gifted Navajo students as correlated with intellectual ability and creativity. Retrieved from 25.Kirschenbaum, R. J. (1989). Identification of the gifted and talented American Indian students. In C. J. Maker & S. W. Schiever (Eds.), Critical issues in gifted education: Defensible programs for cultural and ethnic minorities. Volume II. (pp ). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
References 26.Mead, N., Grigg, W., Moran, R., and Kuang, M. (2010). National Indian Education Study Part II: The Educational Experiences of American Indian and Alaska Native Students in Grades 4 and 8 (NCES 2010–463). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, Washington, D.C. 27.Miller, L.S. (2004). Promoting sustained growth in the representation of African Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans among top students in the United States at all levels of the education system (RM04190). Storrs, CT: National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented. 28.Montgomery, D. (1989). Identification of giftedness among American Indian people. In C. J. Maker & S. W. Schiever (Eds.), Critical issues in gifted education: Defensible programs for cultural and ethnic minorities. Volume II. (pp ). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed. 29.National Caucus of Native American State Legislators. (2008). Striving to achieve: Helping Native American students succeed. Denver, CO: Author. 30.Omdal, S., Rude, H., Betts, G., & Toy, R. (2011). American Indian students: Balancing Western and Native giftedness. In J. A. Castellano & A. D. Frazier (Eds.), Special populations in gifted education: Understanding our most able students from diverse backgrounds. (pp ). Waco, TX US: Prufrock Press. 31.Patrick, H., Anderman, L. H., & Ryan, A. M. (2002). Social motivation and the classroom social environment. In C. Midgley (Ed.), Goals, goal structures, and patterns of adaptive learning. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. 32.Peterson, J. S. (1999). Gifted--through whose cultural lens? An application of the postpositivistic mode of inquiry. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 22(4), Preston, V. (1991). Mathematics and science curricula in elementary and secondary education for American Indian and Alaska Native students. In Indian Nations At Risk Task Force Commissioned Papers. Washington, DC: Department of Education. 34.Robbins, R. (1991). American Indian Gifted and talented students: Their problems and proposed solutions. Journal of American Indian Education, 31(1), Sanders, D. (1987). Cultural conflicts: An important factor in the academic failures of American Indian students. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 15(2), Sarouphim, K. M. (2002). DISCOVER in high school: Identifying gifted Hispanic and Native American students. Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 14(1), Sarouphim, K. M. (2004). DISCOVER in middle school: Identifying gifted minority students. Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 15(2),
References 38.Sarouphim, K. M., & Maker, C. J. (2009, April). Ethnic and gender differences in the use of DISCOVER: A multi-cultural analysis. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, CA. 39.Schunk, D. H. & Pajares, F. (2009). Self-efficacy theory. In K. R. Wentzel & A. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of motivation at school. New York, NY: Routledge. 40.Shutiva, C. L. (1991). Creativity differences between reservation and urban American Indians. Journal of American Indian Education, 31(1), Sisk, D. A. (1989). Identifying and nurturing talent among the American Indians. In C. J. Maker & S. W. Schiever (Eds.), Critical issues in gifted education: Defensible programs for cultural and ethnic minorities. Volume II. (pp ). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed. 42.Stead, T. (2006). Reality checks: Teaching reading comprehension with nonfiction K-5. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers. 43.Thornton, B. & Sanchez, J. E. (2010). Promoting resiliency among Native American students to prevent dropouts. Education, 131, Tonemah, S. A. (1987). Assessing American Indian gifted and talented students’ abilities. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 10(3), Tonemah, S. A. (1991). Philosophical perspectives of gifted and talented American Indian education. Journal of American Indian Education, 31(1), Tonemah, S. A., & Brittan, M. A. (1985). American Indian gifted and talented assessment model. Norman, OK: American Indian Research and Development. 47.U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. (2003). A quiet crisis: Federal funding and unmet needs in Indian country.Washington, DC: U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. 48.U.S. Department of Education. (1993). National excellence: A case for developing America’s talent. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. Retrieved from 49.Wyner, J. S., Bridgeland, J. M., & Diiulio, Jr., J. J. (2009). Achievement trap: How America is failing millions of high-achieving students from lower- income families. Lansdowne, VA: Jack Kent Cooke Foundation and Civic Enterprises. Retrieved from knowledge/research-reports/ 50.Yoon, S. Y., & Gentry, M. (2009). Racial and ethnic representation in gifted programs: Current status of and implications for gifted Asian American Students. Gifted Child Quarterly, 53(2), Zintz, M. V. (1962). Problems of classroom adjustment of Indian children in public elementary schools in the southwest. Science Education, 46,