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Radiation Safety Innov-X Systems X-Ray Fluorescence

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Presentation on theme: "Radiation Safety Innov-X Systems X-Ray Fluorescence"— Presentation transcript:

1 Radiation Safety & Start Up Training Innov-X Systems Ken Smith National Sales Manager

2 Radiation Safety Innov-X Systems X-Ray Fluorescence
Bill Caughie – Regional Sales Mgr. Office: Fax:

3 Call Innov-X Systems !!!

4 Training Objective SAFETY! Understand Radiation!
Understand Regulations Understand Instrumentation

5 Electromagnetic Radiation
Radiation wavelength in angstrom units 10 8 6 4 2 -2 -4 -6 X-Rays Radio Infrared V i s b l e Ultra-Violet Light Gamma Rays Cosmic Rays - -8 Photon energy in million electron volts (MeV)

6 Radiation Overview Radiation - form of energy (particles/waves)
Electromagnetic Radiation Spectrum -EMR Radio frequency Microwave Infra-red Visible Light Ultraviolet - UV X-Ray Gamma Radiation

7 Types of Radiation Radiation - Form of Energy Ionizing >10eV
Cause ionization of atoms Eject electrons atoms - Make “charged” atoms non - Ionizing Does NOT Cause ionization

8 Ionizing Radiation Particles (FAST!) Waves (High Energy Light!)
alpha particles (2 neutrons + 2 protons) beta particles (electrons) neutrons Waves (High Energy Light!) X - Rays Gamma Rays

9 Radiation Types

10 X-Ray Production Vacuum Tube Tube Leakage Vacuum Tube Tube Leakage
Cathode - Electrons Anode - Target (W) (Ag) Wire Filament Filter Power

11 Penetration of Ionizing Radiation
GAMMA & X-RAY BETA ALPHA In radiation safety, one of the primary concerns is the penetration ability of the radiations involved. As discussed, alpha particles cannot penetrate the dead layer of skin, and are not an external hazard; however, alpha radiation is a very serious internal hazard. Alpha particles are not a concern in radiation safety with XRF devices. Beta radiation is more penetrating than alpha, but less than gamma rays. Gamma radiation is the same as x-ray radiation, with the exception of the fact that it is originated in the nucleus and x-rays originate in the electron cloud surrounding the nucleus. Gamma rays and x-rays are highly penetrating radiations and they are what we must be concerned with in radiation safety for XRF use. Most of the safety concerns have been addressed already by the design of the XRF, which incorporates shielding, collimation, and shutters to minimize exposure from the radioactive sources inside.

12 Radiation Safety RAD = Radiation Absorbed Dose
REM = Roentgen Equivalent Man REM = RAD X Factor (Factors X-ray=1, Alpha=20)

13 Roentgen Equivalent Man?? Now that’s a mouthful!

14 It’s Everywhere!

15 Biological Effects of Radiation
Most Sensitive - Rapidly dividing cells Bone Marrow Lining of digestive tract Some skin cells Least Sensitive Bone Muscle Nerves

16 Standards & Guidelines
Maximum Permissible Limits (MPL’s) National Council on Radiation Protection International Commission on Radiological Protection ALARA Radiation Doses 5 rems per year (whole body) 50 rems (extremity or individual organ) 0.5 rems during pregnancy

17 Exposure Calculations
<0.1 mREM/hr. X 25 hr/day = 2.5 mREM/day X 400 days/year = 1,000 mREM/year or 1 REM/year = 2% of reportable exposure

18 Safety Factors Time, Distance, Shielding Time - Limit Exposure Dose
Distance - Maintain Safe Distance Inverse square law Shielding - High Density Materials

19 Radiation Safety Summary
Radiation Overview Types of Radiation Biological Effects of Radiation Standards and Guidelines Monitoring Instruments Safety Factors (Time, Distance, Shielding) Control Programs

20 XRF Work Practices

21 A few words about Radiation Safety
The Innov-X analyzers does produce radiation and the user should be aware of this Radiation exposure is negligible with proper use and small with occasional incorrect use

22 A few more words about radiation safety
Practice “ALARA.” All radiation exposure should be “As Low As Reasonably Achievable” This means: Do not put fingers, or any other body part in front of the analyzer window. Verify that no one else stands within 3 paces of the analyzer window when instrument is on. Correct operation of instrument involves leaving one hand on handle, and making sure the other hand is away from the window.

23 Safety Factors Time, Distance, Shielding Time - Limit Exposure Dose
Distance - Maintain Safe Distance Inverse square law Shielding - High Density Materials

24 Standards & Guidelines
Maximum Permissible Limits (MPL’s) National Council on Radiation Protection International Commission on Radiological Protection ALARA Radiation Doses 5 rems per year (whole body) 50 rems (extremity or individual organ) 0.5 rems during pregnancy

25 Typical Radiation Exposures
Airline Attendant 1,000 mR/yr Nuclear Power Worker 700 mR/yr Grand Central Station 120 mR/yr Medical Personnel 70 mR/yr Lead Inspector 20 mR/yr University Researcher <10 mR/yr Chest X-ray mR/each

26 Exposure Calculations @ Trigger
<0.1 mREM/hr. X 25 hr/day = 2.5 mREM/day X 400 days/year = 1,000 mREM/year or 1 REM/year = 2% of reportable exposure

27 Misuse Example #1 Dose to fingers and/or hand in this example is a maximum of 28,000 mrem/hour. Over exposure occurs in 2 hours of window exposure at the hand.

28 Misuse Example #2 Dose at exit of sampling window is approximately 28,000 mrem/hr. A 10 second exposure in contact with Torso = 77.8 mrem Repeat misuse 64 times/year exceeds 5,000 mrem limit.

29 Safety Features “Deadman” Trigger Software trigger lock
Software “proximity sensor” Test Stand

30 Deadman Trigger Trigger must be held for duration of test.
Releasing the trigger ends test This ensure that users intentionally start each test Prevents user from walking away and leaving instrument on If user picks up analyzer and inadvertently pulls trigger, test will end as soon as trigger is released

31 Deadman Trigger This feature may be disabled upon customer request AFTER complete radiation safety training It is recommended that this feature is only disabled for companies where only one or two users use the analyzer in a controlled setting Deactivation is NOT recommended in situations where instrument is shared by many users or in spaces occupied by large numbers of people.

32 Trigger Lock User must release software trigger lock before testing
Once released, trigger lock remains disabled until 5 minutes elapse after the end of a test

33 Software Trigger Lock

34 “Software Proximity Sensor”
Instrument will shut off after 1-2 seconds if sample is not present. Analyzer checks count rate, if count rate is not significantly above air rate, x-rays shut off

35 Test Stand Option Allows for “Hands-Free” Operation of instrument
Ideal for turnings and other small parts, Soil Samples, etc.

36 Use Common Sense! Remember, when energized, X-rays come out of the front of the analyzer and act accordingly. Prevent exposure to front of analyzer when instrument is on Pay attention to all warning lights on instrument

37 Basic Instrument Operation
Innov-X Analyzers

38 Hardware and Accessories

39 Trigger and Trigger Lock
Tests can be started and stopped via either the trigger or the iPAQ. Trigger lock should be put on immediately after pulling trigger to prevent inadvertent start of test.

40 Batteries Charge Batteries completely before use.
Only use Innov-X approved charger Insert batteries in base of unit - Battery is keyed to fix in correct position

41 iPAQ Power Considerations
iPAQ is powered by analyzer main battery. iPAQ’s internal processes consume power, even when not in use. A fully charge iPAQ can loose power sitting on a shelf for several weeks – leave iPAQ plugged in when not in use. If iPAQ battery is completely drained, it will not be possible to use iPAQ in analyzer until iPAQ is charged and date is set Any programs added to the main memory will be deleted, but Innov-X program and data are fine.

42 Storage Card All Innov-X Data and Programs are stored in storage card. They will not be erased even if iPAQ battery For proper operation, iPAQ must storage card firmly pushed into the card slot

43 Placing iPAQ in Analyzer
iPAQ must be seated properly to communicate Be careful with the connector! Slide iPAQ forward (towards snout) before lifting. Do not angle iPAQ upwards until it is clear of connector

44 Instrument Start-up

45 Power on instrument Main Power on rear of analyzer below LCD display
Momentary on switch Must hold for 3 seconds to turn off iPAQ has separate on/off switch

46 Start Software  Select Start from upper right hand corner of iPAQ screen. Select the Innov-X Systems Software from the drop down menu.

47 Radiation Notice Read Notice and click start

48 Select Mode Select mode by clicking on name

49 Initialization Analyzer electronics “warm up”
Detector is cooled to proper temperature Takes 2 minutes

50 Tap to Standardize Instrument requires standardization before measurements can be started Place standardization mask on front of analyzer Tap to Standardize

51 Standardization Standardization checks 316 standard
Checks detector resolution and peak position Needs to be done when instrument is powered on or after 4 hours of use

52 Standardization finished
Instrument displays result of standardization

53 Standardization Failures
Make sure battery is completely charged Reset iPAQ Turn instrument on and off, remove battery, make sure it is seated correctly

54 Ready to Test Tap Start or pull trigger to begin test

55 Test info Click INFO Enter data Data is stored until changed or erased

56 Test in progress Screen displays elapsed time and “Test in Progress”
LED on front of analyzer blinks indicating radiation is being emitted If view-live updates is on, results will be displayed after minimum time has elapsed

57 Results Display Results displayed—results in %.
Error displayed is 1-sigma Press start or pull trigger to start another test

58 Results Options View menu can change the way results appear on the screen Results shows only grade ID Chemistry shows all data Test info shows stored test info

59 Software Menus

60 Match Numbers When determining Grade/Fingerprint Matches, software calculates a “Match Number” This unit-less number is an indication of how good a match is. The lower the number, the better Typical cutoffs: 3 Analytical

61 Software overview Three screens Main—Select program, change password
Analytical—Set analysis parameters Results—view all results

62 Searching Libraries Analyzer only searches selected library
Make sure library being searched contains grades of interest

63 Check the screen Match number and selected libraries are shown on screen Analytical 3 Most general search includes all libraries

64 Menu Options File Menu—Standardize & Select Libraries
Edit Menu—Edit Library entries

65 Menu Options View—Open results screen. Turn on/off live screen updates
Options—Set testing and Match numbers. Exact match in Analytical

66 Editing Libraries Password protected function
Modify standard library with care

67 Troubleshooting

68 When in doubt, reset! Like all computers, iPAQs can occasionally lock up or “get confused” Two possible resets. Use “soft” reset. Hard reset is only used in extreme circumstances, usually when soft reset doesn’t work.

69 Exit Software!! Software has three layers of menus (Main, Analysis, and results). Must close Main to exit software. Use File-Exit to close

70 Make sure iPAQ is correctly seated
iPAQ must be firmly seated in analyzer. Must be attached to connector. iPAQ and storage card must be firmly pressed into the socket.

71 Verify settings If instrument is not matching, verify
Correct Library is being searched Match number is set correctly 3 Analytical Exact Match is off in Analytical

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