3 Positioning Act of designing the company’s offering and image to occupya distinctive place in the mind ofthe target market.
4 Choosing a Positioning Strategy Step 1. Identifying Possible Competitive AdvantagesStep 2. Selecting the Right Competitive AdvantageStep 3. Communicating and Delivering the Chosen Position
5 Defining Associations Points-of-parity(POPs)Associations that are not necessarily unique to the brand but may be shared with other brandsPoints-of-difference (PODs)Attributes or benefits consumers strongly associate with a brand, positively evaluate, and believe they could not find to the same extent with a competitive brand
6 Consumer Desirability Criteria for PODs RelevanceDistinctivenessBelievability
7 Deliverability Criteria for PODs FeasibilityCommunicabilitySustainability
8 Examples of Negatively Correlated Attributes and Benefits Low-price vs. High qualityTaste vs. Low caloriesNutritious vs. Good tastingEfficacious vs. MildPowerful vs. SafeStrong vs. RefinedUbiquitous vs. ExclusiveVaried vs. Simple
9 Developing and Communicating a Positioning Strategy Positioning: How many ideas to promote?Unique selling propositionFour major positioning errorsUnderpositioningOverpositioningConfused positioningDoubtful positioning