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Presentation on theme: "MARKETING MANAGEMENT 13th edition"— Presentation transcript:

10 Crafting the Brand Positioning Kotler Keller

2 Marketing Strategy Segmentation Targeting Positioning

3 Positioning Act of designing the company’s
offering and image to occupy a distinctive place in the mind of the target market.

4 Choosing a Positioning Strategy
Step 1. Identifying Possible Competitive Advantages Step 2. Selecting the Right Competitive Advantage Step 3. Communicating and Delivering the Chosen Position

5 Defining Associations
Points-of-parity (POPs) Associations that are not necessarily unique to the brand but may be shared with other brands Points-of-difference (PODs) Attributes or benefits consumers strongly associate with a brand, positively evaluate, and believe they could not find to the same extent with a competitive brand

6 Consumer Desirability Criteria for PODs
Relevance Distinctiveness Believability

7 Deliverability Criteria for PODs
Feasibility Communicability Sustainability

8 Examples of Negatively Correlated Attributes and Benefits
Low-price vs. High quality Taste vs. Low calories Nutritious vs. Good tasting Efficacious vs. Mild Powerful vs. Safe Strong vs. Refined Ubiquitous vs. Exclusive Varied vs. Simple

9 Developing and Communicating a Positioning Strategy
Positioning: How many ideas to promote? Unique selling proposition Four major positioning errors Underpositioning Overpositioning Confused positioning Doubtful positioning

10 Differentiation Strategies
Product Personnel Channel Image

11 Product Differentiation
Product form Features Performance Conformance Durability Reliability Reparability Style Design Ordering ease Delivery Installation Customer training Customer consulting Maintenance

12 Identity and Image Identity: The way a company aims to identify or
position itself Image: The way the public perceives the company or its products

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