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Presentation on theme: "Macromolecules."— Presentation transcript:

1 Macromolecules

2 Carbon can form covalent bonds with as many as 4 other atoms.
Molecules of Life Macromolecules are large organic molecules which are carbon-based 4 Types: Carbohydrates Proteins Nucleic Acids Lipids Carbon can form covalent bonds with as many as 4 other atoms.

3 Polymers Molecules made from repeating units of similar compounds called MONOMERS linked together by a series of covalent bonds. Macromolecules are POLYMERS. Each macromolecule has a monomer or building block.

4 Monomers of Macromolecules

5 Dehydration Synthesis
Forms polymers by combining monomers by “removing water”. An enzyme catalyzes a reaction that forms a covalent bond.

6 Hydrolysis Reaction Separates monomers by “adding water”

7 Dehydration Synthesis
Chemical Reactions Dehydration Synthesis Bonds formed Energy Stored Endergonic Anabolic Hydrolysis Rxn Bonds broken Energy Released Exergonic Catabolic

8 Let’s Review!!! A B

9 How Are Macromolecules Formed?
Catabolic or Anabolic? Release Energy or Store Energy? Endergonic or Exergonic?

10 How are Macromolecules separated or digested?
Catabolic or Anabolic? Release Energy or Store Energy? Endergonic or Exergonic?

11 Carbohydrates General Function: Energy storage Structural Support
Starch (Plants) Glycogen (Liver) Structural Support Cellulose (Plant Cell Wall)

12 Carbohydrates Compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
C(1):H(2):O(1) ratio C6H12O6 glucose -saccharides Monosaccharide Disaccharide Polysaccharide

13 Carbohydrate Function
Polysaccharide: many sugar units Carbohydrate function: energy storage and structural support

14 Anatomy Application Why Carb Load?
Glycogen stored primarily in liver and skeletal muscles. The skeletal muscles and the liver are the two chief storage facilities for glycogen. Approximately 1% of muscle mass is glycogen; between 8% and 10% of the liver's weight is stored glycogen. The skeletal muscles store two times as much glycogen as does the liver.


16 Lipids General term for compounds which are not soluble in water.
NonPolar/Hydrophobic Examples: Fats Oils Waxes Phospholipids Steroid & Cholesterol Triglyceride Not soluble=does not dissolve in water

17 Fat storage for energy

18 Building Blocks of Lipids
Fatty Acids Saturated or Unsaturated Glycerol Saturated fats are solid at room temperature Unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature TRIGLYCERIDE

19 Phospholipids Responsible for the structure and function of the cell membrane. Where do we find these?

20 Steroids Class of lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings

21 Saturated vs Unsaturated


23 Hydrogenated things What have you heard about hydrogenated and/or partially hydrogenated things? Why so bad? Can be bad: not easily broken down. Accumulates in your body tissue and arteries Trans fat video

24 Proteins FUNCTION Enzymes Defense Transportation Support Motion
Hormones storage

25 Proteins Monomer of Protein = Amino Acid
Polymer of Protein = polypeptide Storage: beans (seed proteins) Movement: muscle fibers Cell surface proteins: labels that ID cell as self vs. foreign Antibodies: recognize the labels ENZYMES!!!!

26 Proteins (Polypeptides)
Building Blocks: AMINO ACIDS 20 different Amino Acids Same structure except for R group Amino Acids Carboxylic Acid Group Amino Group R group (variable) Central Carbon Carboxylic Acid Group Amino Group A protein consists of 1 or more polypeptides


28 Effect of different R groups: Nonpolar amino acids
nonpolar & hydrophobic Why are these nonpolar & hydrophobic?

29 Effect of different R groups: Polar amino acids
polar or charged & hydrophilic Why are these polar & hydrophillic?

30 Protein Structure Shape determines function in protein structure
Each level in structure represents a fold in protein More folds = more complex protein

31 What determines the AA sequence?
Primary structure The Amino Acid chain Sequence of amino acids is unique for each polypeptide Slight changes in AA sequence can result in major differences Polypeptide bonds What determines the AA sequence?

32 Changes to primary structure
Sickle Cell Anemia hydrophilic Signs and Symptoms Related to Pain Sudden pain throughout the body is a common symptom of sickle cell anemia. This pain is called a "sickle cell crisis." Sickle cell crises often affect the bones, lungs, abdomen, and joints. A sickle cell crisis occurs when sickled red blood cells form clumps in the bloodstream. (Other cells also may play a role in this clumping process.) These clumps of cells block blood flow through the small blood vessels in the limbs and organs. This can cause pain and organ damage. The pain from sickle cell crises can be acute or chronic, but acute pain is more common. Acute pain is sudden and can range from mild to very severe. The pain usually lasts from hours to a few days. Chronic pain often lasts for weeks to months. Chronic pain can be hard to bear and mentally draining. This pain may severely limit your daily activities. Almost all people who have sickle cell anemia have painful crises at some point in their lives. Some have these crises less than once a year. Others may have 15 or more crises in a year. Many factors can play a role in a sickle cell crisis. Often, more than one factor is involved and the exact cause isn't known. You can control some factors. For example, your risk for a sickle cell crisis increases if you're dehydrated (your body doesn't have enough fluid). Drinking plenty of fluids can lower your risk for a painful crisis. Other factors, such as an infection, you can't control. Painful crises are the leading cause of emergency room visits and hospitalizations of people who have sickle cell anemia. Complications of Sickle Cell Anemia The effects of sickle cell crises on different parts of the body can cause a number of complications. Hand-Foot Syndrome Sickle cells can block the small blood vessels in the hands or feet. This condition is called hand-foot syndrome. It can lead to pain, swelling, and fever. One or both hands and/or feet may be affected at the same time. You may feel the pain in the many bones of the hands and feet. Swelling often occurs on the back of the hands and feet and moves into the fingers and toes. Hand-foot syndrome may be the first sign of sickle cell anemia in infants. Splenic Crisis The spleen is an organ in the abdomen. Normally, it filters out abnormal red blood cells and helps fight infection. In some cases, the spleen may trap cells that should be in the bloodstream. This causes the spleen to grow large and leads to anemia. If the spleen gets too clogged with sickle cells, it won't work right. This can cause the spleen to shrink. If this happens, you may need blood transfusions until your body can make more cells and recover. Infections Both children and adults who have sickle cell anemia have a hard time fighting infections. This is because sickle cell anemia can damage the spleen, an organ that helps fight infections. Infants and young children who have damaged spleens are more likely to get infections that can kill them within hours or days. Pneumonia is the most common cause of death in young children who have sickle cell anemia. Meningitis, influenza, and hepatitis are other infections that are common in people who have sickle cell anemia. Acute Chest Syndrome Acute chest syndrome is a life-threatening condition linked to sickle cell anemia. It's similar to pneumonia. The condition is caused by an infection or sickle cells trapped in the lungs. People who have this condition usually have chest pain and fever. They also often have abnormal chest x ray results. Over time, lung damage from acute chest syndrome may lead to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Damage to the small blood vessels in the lungs makes it hard for the heart to pump blood through the lungs. This causes blood pressure in the lungs to rise. Increased blood pressure in the lungs is called pulmonary arterial hypertension, or PAH. Shortness of breath and problems with breathing are the main symptoms of PAH. Delayed Growth and Puberty in Children Children who have sickle cell anemia often grow more slowly than other children. They also reach puberty later. A shortage of red blood cells causes the slow growth rate. Adults who have sickle cell anemia often are slender or smaller in size than other adults. Stroke Two forms of stroke can occur in people who have sickle cell anemia. One form occurs when a blood vessel in the brain is blocked. The other form occurs when a blood vessel in the brain bursts. A stroke can cause learning disabilities and/or lasting brain damage, long-term disability, paralysis (an inability to move), or death. Eye Problems Sickle cells also can clog the small blood vessels that deliver oxygen-rich blood to your eyes. This can damage the retinas-thin layers of tissue at the back of your eyes. The retinas take the images you see and send them to your brain. Without enough blood, the retinas will weaken. This can cause serious problems, including blindness. Priapism Males who have sickle cell anemia may have painful and unwanted erections. This condition is called priapism (PRI-a-pizm). It happens because the sickle cells block blood flow out of an erect penis. Over time, priapism can damage the penis and lead to impotence. Gallstones When red blood cells die, they release their hemoglobin. The body breaks down this protein into a compound called bilirubin. Too much bilirubin in the body can cause stones to form in the gallbladder. Gallstones may cause steady pain that lasts for 30 minutes or more in the upper right side of the belly, under the right shoulder, or between the shoulder blades. The pain may happen after eating fatty meals. People who have gallstones may have nausea (feeling sick to the stomach), vomiting, fever, sweating, chills, clay-colored stools, or jaundice (a yellowish color of the skin or whites of the eyes). Ulcers on the Legs Sickle cell ulcers (sores) usually begin as small, raised, crusted sores on the lower third of the leg. Leg sores occur more often in males than in females. These sores usually appear between the ages of 10 and 50. The cause of sickle cell ulcers isn't clear. The number of ulcers can vary from one to many. Some heal quickly, but others persist for years or come back after healing. Multiple Organ Failure Multiple organ failure is rare, but serious. It happens if you have a sickle cell crisis that causes two out of three major organs (lungs, liver, or kidney) to fail. Symptoms of this complication are a fever and changes in mental status, such as sudden tiredness and loss of interest in your surroundings. hydrophobic

33 Hydrogen bonds Secondary structure Local folding patterns
α helix β pleated sheet Result of H bonding between backbone N and O. Hydrogen bonds

34 Secondary structure Hydrogen Bonding

35 Tertiary structure Disulfide “bonds” -SH
Overall 3D shape of the polypeptide Resulting from the interactions of R groups Examples: Hydrophobic disulfide bridges (cysteine AA) hydrogen bonds ionic bonds Disulfide “bonds” -SH

36 Quaternary structure Overall PROTEIN structure
More than one polypeptide chain bonded together to form a functional protein

37 Proteins denature when a protein unravels and loses its native conformation (shape) Loss of shape = loss of function Reversible or Irreversible Denaturation Renaturation Denatured protein Normal protein

38 Protein structure overview
Primary AA seq…bonds? Secondary Alpha or beta…Bonds? Tertiary bonds? Quaternary Multiple polypeptides interact to form functioning protein

39 Nucleic Acids FUNCTION Store Genetic Information
Transmit Genetic Information “recipe” for Proteins Two Types: DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) RNA (ribonucleic acid)

40 DNA vs. RNA Major Differences: DNA: deoxyribose sugar, ATCG
RNA: ribose sugar, AUCG

41 Nucleotide Structure Nucleotides include: 1.phosphate group
2.pentose sugar (5-carbon) 3.nitrogenous bases: adenine (A) thymine (T) DNA only uracil (U) RNA only cytosine (C) guanine (G) The only group that changes

42 Nucleotides Pyrimidines: single ring Purines: double ring Thymine
Cytosine Purines: double ring Adenine Guanine Complementary Base Pairing G-C=3 hydrogen bonds A-T=2 hydrogen bonds

43 Phosphodiester Linkage
Between Phosphate group of one nucleotide and 3” OH group of another nucleotide.

44 ATP…a very special nucleotide!!
Adenosine Triphosphate Power to drive cellular reactions ATP functions by transferring its phosphate group to another molecule creating a phosphorylated intermediate. phosphorylated intermediate is usually less stable (more reactive) than the original molecule, which drives the reaction


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