2Carbon can form covalent bonds with as many as 4 other atoms. Molecules of LifeMacromolecules are large organic molecules which are carbon-based4 Types:CarbohydratesProteinsNucleic AcidsLipidsCarbon can form covalent bonds with as many as 4 other atoms.
3PolymersMolecules made from repeating units of similar compounds called MONOMERSlinked together by a series of covalent bonds.Macromolecules are POLYMERS.Each macromolecule has a monomer or building block.
9How Are Macromolecules Formed? Catabolic or Anabolic?Release Energy or Store Energy?Endergonic or Exergonic?
10How are Macromolecules separated or digested? Catabolic or Anabolic?Release Energy or Store Energy?Endergonic or Exergonic?
11Carbohydrates General Function: Energy storage Structural Support Starch (Plants)Glycogen (Liver)Structural SupportCellulose (Plant Cell Wall)
12Carbohydrates Compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen C(1):H(2):O(1) ratioC6H12O6 glucose-saccharidesMonosaccharideDisaccharidePolysaccharide
13Carbohydrate Function Polysaccharide: many sugar unitsCarbohydrate function: energy storage and structural support
14Anatomy Application Why Carb Load? Glycogen stored primarily in liver and skeletal muscles.The skeletal muscles and the liver are the two chief storage facilities for glycogen. Approximately 1% of muscle mass is glycogen; between 8% and 10% of the liver's weight is stored glycogen. The skeletal muscles store two times as much glycogen as does the liver.
18Building Blocks of Lipids Fatty AcidsSaturated or UnsaturatedGlycerolSaturated fats are solid at room temperatureUnsaturated fats are liquid at room temperatureTRIGLYCERIDE
19PhospholipidsResponsible for the structure and function of the cell membrane.Where do we find these?
20SteroidsClass of lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings
21Saturated vs Unsaturated UNSATURATED (cis)UNSATURATED (trans)COMPLETELY FULL OF HYDROGENNOT FULL OF HYDROGENCHEM. PROCESS TO ADD IN MORE HYDROGEN “HYDROGENATED”ALL SINGLE BONDS IN F.ADOUBLE BONDS IN F.A.STRAIGHT TAILBENT TAILDENSLEY PACKED TAILLESS DENSLY PACKED TAILDENSE PACKEDSOLID AT ROOM TEMPLIQUID AT ROOM TEMPSEMI-SOLID AT ROOM TEMPEX: BUTTEREX: OLIVE OILEX: CRISCO
23Hydrogenated thingsWhat have you heard about hydrogenated and/or partially hydrogenated things?Why so bad?Can be bad: not easily broken down. Accumulates in your body tissue and arteriesTrans fat video
24Proteins FUNCTION Enzymes Defense Transportation Support Motion Hormonesstorage
25Proteins Monomer of Protein = Amino Acid Polymer of Protein = polypeptideStorage: beans (seed proteins)Movement: muscle fibersCell surface proteins: labels that ID cell as self vs. foreignAntibodies: recognize the labelsENZYMES!!!!
26Proteins (Polypeptides) Building Blocks: AMINO ACIDS20 different Amino AcidsSame structure except for R groupAmino AcidsCarboxylic Acid GroupAmino GroupR group (variable)Central CarbonCarboxylic Acid GroupAmino GroupA protein consists of 1 or more polypeptides
28Effect of different R groups: Nonpolar amino acids nonpolar & hydrophobicWhy are these nonpolar & hydrophobic?
29Effect of different R groups: Polar amino acids polar or charged & hydrophilicWhy are these polar & hydrophillic?
30Protein Structure Shape determines function in protein structure Each level in structure represents a fold in proteinMore folds = more complex protein
31What determines the AA sequence? Primary structureThe Amino Acid chainSequence of amino acids is unique for each polypeptideSlight changes in AA sequence can result in major differencesPolypeptide bondsWhat determines the AA sequence?
32Changes to primary structure Sickle Cell AnemiahydrophilicSigns and Symptoms Related to PainSudden pain throughout the body is a common symptom of sickle cell anemia. This pain is called a "sickle cell crisis." Sickle cell crises often affect the bones, lungs, abdomen, and joints.A sickle cell crisis occurs when sickled red blood cells form clumps in the bloodstream. (Other cells also may play a role in this clumping process.) These clumps of cells block blood flow through the small blood vessels in the limbs and organs. This can cause pain and organ damage.The pain from sickle cell crises can be acute or chronic, but acute pain is more common. Acute pain is sudden and can range from mild to very severe. The pain usually lasts from hours to a few days. Chronic pain often lasts for weeks to months. Chronic pain can be hard to bear and mentally draining. This pain may severely limit your daily activities.Almost all people who have sickle cell anemia have painful crises at some point in their lives. Some have these crises less than once a year. Others may have 15 or more crises in a year.Many factors can play a role in a sickle cell crisis. Often, more than one factor is involved and the exact cause isn't known. You can control some factors. For example, your risk for a sickle cell crisis increases if you're dehydrated (your body doesn't have enough fluid). Drinking plenty of fluids can lower your risk for a painful crisis. Other factors, such as an infection, you can't control.Painful crises are the leading cause of emergency room visits and hospitalizations of people who have sickle cell anemia.Complications of Sickle Cell AnemiaThe effects of sickle cell crises on different parts of the body can cause a number of complications.Hand-Foot SyndromeSickle cells can block the small blood vessels in the hands or feet. This condition is called hand-foot syndrome. It can lead to pain, swelling, and fever. One or both hands and/or feet may be affected at the same time.You may feel the pain in the many bones of the hands and feet. Swelling often occurs on the back of the hands and feet and moves into the fingers and toes. Hand-foot syndrome may be the first sign of sickle cell anemia in infants.Splenic CrisisThe spleen is an organ in the abdomen. Normally, it filters out abnormal red blood cells and helps fight infection. In some cases, the spleen may trap cells that should be in the bloodstream. This causes the spleen to grow large and leads to anemia.If the spleen gets too clogged with sickle cells, it won't work right. This can cause the spleen to shrink. If this happens, you may need blood transfusions until your body can make more cells and recover.InfectionsBoth children and adults who have sickle cell anemia have a hard time fighting infections. This is because sickle cell anemia can damage the spleen, an organ that helps fight infections.Infants and young children who have damaged spleens are more likely to get infections that can kill them within hours or days. Pneumonia is the most common cause of death in young children who have sickle cell anemia.Meningitis, influenza, and hepatitis are other infections that are common in people who have sickle cell anemia.Acute Chest SyndromeAcute chest syndrome is a life-threatening condition linked to sickle cell anemia. It's similar to pneumonia. The condition is caused by an infection or sickle cells trapped in the lungs.People who have this condition usually have chest pain and fever. They also often have abnormal chest x ray results. Over time, lung damage from acute chest syndrome may lead to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH).Pulmonary Arterial HypertensionDamage to the small blood vessels in the lungs makes it hard for the heart to pump blood through the lungs. This causes blood pressure in the lungs to rise.Increased blood pressure in the lungs is called pulmonary arterial hypertension, or PAH. Shortness of breath and problems with breathing are the main symptoms of PAH.Delayed Growth and Puberty in ChildrenChildren who have sickle cell anemia often grow more slowly than other children. They also reach puberty later. A shortage of red blood cells causes the slow growth rate. Adults who have sickle cell anemia often are slender or smaller in size than other adults.StrokeTwo forms of stroke can occur in people who have sickle cell anemia. One form occurs when a blood vessel in the brain is blocked. The other form occurs when a blood vessel in the brain bursts.A stroke can cause learning disabilities and/or lasting brain damage, long-term disability, paralysis (an inability to move), or death.Eye ProblemsSickle cells also can clog the small blood vessels that deliver oxygen-rich blood to your eyes. This can damage the retinas-thin layers of tissue at the back of your eyes. The retinas take the images you see and send them to your brain.Without enough blood, the retinas will weaken. This can cause serious problems, including blindness.PriapismMales who have sickle cell anemia may have painful and unwanted erections. This condition is called priapism (PRI-a-pizm). It happens because the sickle cells block blood flow out of an erect penis. Over time, priapism can damage the penis and lead to impotence.GallstonesWhen red blood cells die, they release their hemoglobin. The body breaks down this protein into a compound called bilirubin. Too much bilirubin in the body can cause stones to form in the gallbladder.Gallstones may cause steady pain that lasts for 30 minutes or more in the upper right side of the belly, under the right shoulder, or between the shoulder blades. The pain may happen after eating fatty meals.People who have gallstones may have nausea (feeling sick to the stomach), vomiting, fever, sweating, chills, clay-colored stools, or jaundice (a yellowish color of the skin or whites of the eyes).Ulcers on the LegsSickle cell ulcers (sores) usually begin as small, raised, crusted sores on the lower third of the leg. Leg sores occur more often in males than in females. These sores usually appear between the ages of 10 and 50.The cause of sickle cell ulcers isn't clear. The number of ulcers can vary from one to many. Some heal quickly, but others persist for years or come back after healing.Multiple Organ FailureMultiple organ failure is rare, but serious. It happens if you have a sickle cell crisis that causes two out of three major organs (lungs, liver, or kidney) to fail.Symptoms of this complication are a fever and changes in mental status, such as sudden tiredness and loss of interest in your surroundings.hydrophobic
33Hydrogen bonds Secondary structure Local folding patterns α helixβ pleated sheetResult of H bonding between backbone N and O.Hydrogen bonds
35Tertiary structure Disulfide “bonds” -SH Overall 3D shape of the polypeptideResulting from the interactions of R groupsExamples:Hydrophobicdisulfide bridges (cysteine AA)hydrogen bondsionic bondsDisulfide “bonds”-SH
36Quaternary structure Overall PROTEIN structure More than one polypeptide chain bonded together to form a functional protein
37Proteins denaturewhen a protein unravels and loses its native conformation (shape)Loss of shape = loss of functionReversible or IrreversibleDenaturationRenaturationDenatured proteinNormal protein
38Protein structure overview PrimaryAA seq…bonds?SecondaryAlpha or beta…Bonds?Tertiarybonds?QuaternaryMultiple polypeptides interact to form functioning protein
39Nucleic Acids FUNCTION Store Genetic Information Transmit Genetic Information“recipe” for ProteinsTwo Types:DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)RNA (ribonucleic acid)
40DNA vs. RNA Major Differences: DNA: deoxyribose sugar, ATCG RNA: ribose sugar, AUCG
41Nucleotide Structure Nucleotides include: 1.phosphate group 2.pentose sugar (5-carbon)3.nitrogenous bases:adenine (A)thymine (T) DNA onlyuracil (U) RNA onlycytosine (C)guanine (G)The only group that changes
42Nucleotides Pyrimidines: single ring Purines: double ring Thymine CytosinePurines: double ringAdenineGuanineComplementaryBase PairingG-C=3 hydrogen bonds A-T=2 hydrogen bonds
43Phosphodiester Linkage Between Phosphate group of one nucleotide and 3” OH group of another nucleotide.
44ATP…a very special nucleotide!! Adenosine TriphosphatePower to drive cellular reactionsATP functions by transferring its phosphate group to another moleculecreating a phosphorylated intermediate.phosphorylated intermediate is usually less stable (more reactive) than the original molecule, which drives the reaction