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V. President + Bureaucracy 1 V. President + Bureaucracy/ Foreign Policy.

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1 V. President + Bureaucracy 1 V. President + Bureaucracy/ Foreign Policy

2 2V. President + Bureaucracy A. Qualities of Leadership Assign Requirements: Assign Requirements:Requirements: Presidential Hopefuls Presidential HopefulsHopefuls

3 3V. President + Bureaucracy B. Article TWO sets the stage for “Executive Power to be Vested in a president...” 1. Constitutional Requirements (a) 35 or older (b) natural born (c) 14 years of residency (d) term limits (22 amendment-2 terms plus2) (e) disability of president turns to 25th amendment + succession process. A new non-elected VP needs approval from both houses. (f) popularly elected, sometimes (accidential presidents) Many world leaders not elected but selected by someone. i.e., PM’s are chosen by the majority party or selected.

4 4V. President + Bureaucracy 2. Formal powers as chief executive a. domestic 1) chief legislator-State of the Union, advises, approves or vetos legislation 2) Administrative powers - enforce the laws, select gov’t officials (w/Senate approval); run the bureaucracy via “Executive Orders”. “Take Care” clause of Article II. 3) Judicial powers - reprieves, pardons, commute federal felons; nominate federal judges w/ Senate majority confirmation.

5 5V. President + Bureaucracy b. Foreign powers 1) National Security a) commander in chief b) Head of State (receives ambassadors and other heads of state) c) Chief Diplomat– Initiates treaties w/ Senate approval.

6 6V. President + Bureaucracy 3. Informal powers established over time: a. presidential precedent (Washington turning to a cabinet for advice) b. Actions of Congress - giving president power i.e. 1965 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution v. War Powers Act. c. Media’s use of the Bully Pulpit. Prez goes directly to the people. i.e. Clinton in ‘97 budget freeze...Congress lost that battle. d. Managing a Divided Gov’t- 16 of the 23 Congressional + Prez elections since 1952 have produced divided gov’ts. (1) George Bush’s administration of 2000 was only the 3rd time since 1969 that ONE party controlled both the WHite House and Congress, and the first time since 1953 that the Republicans ruled... and that lasted only one year. WHY? e. Chief of Party.

7 7V. President + Bureaucracy C. Running the Executive Branch- 1. VP is a heart beat away... a. Political + party pro, eases one into the congressional gridlock. (i.e. Gore was a Congressional pro, as was LBJ b. faithful follower which might deter his own presidential ambitions. i.e., Bush + Gore. IF one wishes the top spot... VP is a grooming area...can spend a lot of time courting party faithful and $$$$ IF one wishes the top spot... VP is a grooming area...can spend a lot of time courting party faithful and $$$$ c. Bring home the EC votes, i.e. key states or region; or bloc of voters. (i.e. Cheney; Obama, McCain...) d. Prez Roosevelt went thru 4 VP’s and Truman was picked because he was the least feared. e. He DOES become President of the Senate... f. Can a Prez get along with his chief party opponent?

8 2. Cabinet positions 2. Cabinet positions -14 secretaries and the AG Cabinet positions Cabinet positions All must be confirmed by the Senate. Not a constitutional entity! a. Responsibilities- execute presidential and congressional policy directives. b. Requirements- Prez supporters, usually partisan selections, and that can become a rough time when appeasing the Senate! These are party faithful or close allies...what a better way to pay off a friend... A “plum” job. 8V. President + Bureaucracy

9 9 3. Executive Office- EEOB EEOB More advisors for domestic and foreign policy. In theory partisan, in reality, civil servants who stay as presidents move on. Office heads Office heads appointed + confirmed by Senate (T- 43) Office heads a. NSC - crisis mg’ment- liaison to military, CIA b. CEA - economic trend management c. OMB- presidential budget oversight; watches Congress and the Bureaucracy

10 10V. President + Bureaucracy 4. White House staff- Partisan followers whose sole function is to support the president. If not, find another job. West Wing residents whose purpose is to oversee the political and policy interests of the prez- If not, find another job. West Wing residents whose purpose is to oversee the political and policy interests of the prez-West Wing West Wing no Senate confirm here!

11 11V. President + Bureaucracy a. White House access a. Access- The closer to the prez, the more power you pack, i.e. First Lady! (1) Pyramid Prez Chief of Staff (who is he?) and so on depending on rank (2) Circular - all have equal access and power status...i.e. Carter (3) ad hoc -- If you are willing and accessible, c’mon down to talk to numero uno. alienates cabinet members...but allows for free flow of ideas. Most presidents try to be original but eventually return to the pyramid approach to get something accomplished.

12 12V. President + Bureaucracy 5. Sub cabinet positions... filled by “federal” employees (85%) unless truly specialists in a given field (lawyers or businesspersons). a. Party ID not that relevant because... b. Appease caucus groups: Hispanics, women, blacks, elderly, far right constituents. Here are your participants in the issue network.

13 13V. President + Bureaucracy D. Presidential Leadership- How get others to follow - 1. Act of Persuasion - Constitution is vague on what the PRESident can great leaders get creative -- a. Powers enhanced by: 1) national constituency - 2) ceremonial head of state - and party, at least in first term. This can erode quickly if one’s party deserts you and others compete in the primaries against you! It’s tough to beat an incumbent!

14 14V. President + Bureaucracy 2. Three target audiences a. DC political pundits - can one do the job? Can one possess power- (charismatic leadership) One gets 100 days to show your stuff! Make it count because the “honeymoon is over.” One gets 100 days to show your stuff! Make it count because the “honeymoon is over.” b. partisan grassroots- Chief of Party- Be a good Republican or Democrat c. Joe Public- USe the polls to your advantage. TV spots are what you make them. When you are hot, your legislation flows, your fellow party people get re-elected. (coat-tail effect) polls

15 15V. President + Bureaucracy 3. Chief Legislator... in name only... the power is shared with Congress a. Advises- (1) shapes policy (2) consults Congr (3) bargains (4) appeals to partisans (friends to the party) b. Disapprovals (1) Veto - It takes 2/3 of Hse + Sen to override. - 10 day limit or its law. Overrides seldom happen a) pocket veto - Congr adjourns; After 10 days it passes or the prez VETOS it w/ no override...BUTTTT b) line-item veto- State guvs can eliminate portions of a bill... ‘96 Congr approved and Prez agreed for an “enhanced rescission” of legislation. Prez had 5 days to “line-out” legislation. BUT Supreme Ct ruled it unconstitutional (Clinton v. City of NY) c) Executive signing statement....

16 16V. President + Bureaucracy c. Agenda setting- 1.) party support - 2/3 of the time party discipline prevails. But lack of consensus on policies and diversity of constituents hurts the president. Congresspersons follow constituents first... 2). Off year elections are not popular for Prez’s except for Clinton in ’98 + GW in ’02. In ’06, 2010.... history prevailed. 3). Public approval gives leverage, not commanding influence. “Going Public” Going Public”Going Public” 4). Q:Does one pursue a number of issues (Clinton) or just three or four (Reagan). OR create an historical moment? What has President Obama attempted to do? A grade for his first two years in office.... grade

17 17V. President + Bureaucracy d. Economy _ SOTU 1) Prez needs a strong economy to boost his agenda. agenda. 2) Major economic indicators...that he has little control over. (a) Is it a recession? Are there two consecutive economic indicator decreases? If yes = REC recession? (1) Employment rate... If it is running around 6-7 percent, America isn’t happy. Double digit is political suicide. Show me the #’s. Employment rate. Employment rate.

18 (2). INFLATION...THE CPI...consumer price index measures the cost of goods + services... INFLATION. (3) Lack of GDP growth = output of US citizens b. All 3 economists ( Keynes (Pro Gov) Friedman (pro Business) Galbraith), all had theories to manage the economies. Do you want Business or Gov’t to manage econ? e. President has two alternatives (1) Monetary policy thru FRB’s (lends $$ to banks) discount rate control that lowers interest rates! (2) Fiscal policy: w/ congress, let’s stimulate the “E”. Of is a global economy... Cartoon18CartoonV. President + Bureaucracy

19 Recession 09-2010 Consumers Producers Buy stuff Sell stuff Credit procurors Job makers Gov’t Banks Fiscal policy (VATS)Lend MoneyCredit givers Monetary policy Stock Market investments – 401’s 403’s 19V. President + Bureaucracy

20 Fiscal policy a) Fiscal policy – Federal budget impact... Spending, taxing... And unfortunately, borrowing...A “stimulus” package by gov’t attempts to provide “gov’t” incentives through tax breaks...or rebates ($600) to get people to spend... Which hopefully inspires the prvt sector, who then hires more... $$$$>> PS>>Hires more>> More personal and business income to tax>> Econ soars. 20V. President + Bureaucracy

21 a. TARP + ARRP OR..... Gov’t spends.... (1) TARP - $750 billion went to shore up banks under GW 43...Critics claim it has been hard to account for funds. (2) American Recovery + Reinvestment Plan ($850 Billion) will spur federal spending in a variety of sectors including infrastructure, education + state development. Critics: Who will pay? Does more debt make it better? 21V. President + Bureaucracy

22 Monetary policy FRB controls the flow of money in the society by raising or lowering the discount rate...Independent agency that receives advice from the Prez and from Congress. Easy $$$ promotes more spending...tight $$$ lessens spending. 22V. President + Bureaucracy

23 ARRP $825 B Plan: 1. 1. Renewable energy initiatives that would double output w/in 3 years. 2. 2. Upgrade schools 3. 3. Make fed buildings more “E” efficient 4. 4. Triple undergrad and post grad science fellowships. 5. 5. Tax cuts; $1,000 per person 6. 6. $600 billion infrastructure development that creates local jobs. 7. 7. State block grants to shore up Medicare and unemployment plans. B) Monetary policy – Control $$$$ supply by manipulating interest rates....

24 4. 3 Major hurdles to recovery... Economist Roger Samuelson claims... 1. It’s global, not nat’l. Must convince Chinese and Indians to spend at home. Internalize one’s economy to create stability. 2. Consumer spending has collapsed. No risk takers now. 3. Investors have gone on strike. No credit is available to shore up credit or other finance businesses. All three must be dealt w/ simultaneously...and a A Prez may not have the means to do it. 24V. President + Bureaucracy

25 25V. President + Bureaucracy d. Crisis management Some created by one’s agenda...some inherited by past presidents. Some created by one’s agenda...some inherited by past presidents. Some domestic, Many are foreign. Constitutional factors that influence decision making: Some domestic, Many are foreign. Constitutional factors that influence decision making: 1. Chief Diplomat a) extend + terminate diplomatic recognition b) Negotiate treaties w/ 2/3rd Senate confirm. c) executive agreements- d) initiate nuclear war, the President’s call.

26 26V. President + Bureaucracy 2. Commander in Chief- Cold WAR V. HOT WAR or are they shadow wars? a) Global military reach- Going to war w/o declaring war - police actions - Korea+Vietnam, Panama, Grenada, Iraq 1) Foreign policy history: a)) Isolationism – Monroe Doctrine established the “homefront” – The America’s America’s b)) WWI we went “Over there” + Prez Wilson wanted involvement in a “League of Nations. Senate said no.

27 27V. President + Bureaucracy c)) WWII + Cold War – Defeated Japan + Germany and a power vacuum occurred that the Ruskies wished to fill. 1)) Containment policy vs. USSR’s Communist Expansion...Greece, Korea, Vietnam, Western Europe. NATO vs. Warsaw Pact. Also McCarthyism raging at home to thwart commie infiltration. d)) Era of Détente – Lessoning of nuke in the 70’s after the 60’s madness. e)) Ray Gun’s Star wars initiative“broke” the Soviets.

28 28V. President + Bureaucracy f)) USSR crumbles...China views a mixed economy. Eastern Europe throws off the yoke of Communism. USSR is liberated. The wall falls 1989 g)) Terrorism is the next target... 1)) Kuwait + the multi-lateral coalition vs. IRAQ 2)) Unilateral theory of Bush 43 to finish off Iraq + pursue the “Axis of Evil”. Any one who “harbors” or protects terrorists are against us. 3)) The hunt for WMD... h)) Obama’s world...A hand out to reconciliation. The US will not go it alone...

29 29V. President + Bureaucracy e. Instruments of Foreign Policy 1. Economic – sanctions, embargos, trade...Globalization prevails... “Soft power” 2. Military – conventional – unconventional- MAD scenarios – Hard Power MAD 3. Coalition building – “Smart Power” a) UN, CENTO, SEATO, OAS, EU b) Multi-national Corporations 4. The Players a) Prez + his major players – Defense, State, NSC b) Congress

30 30V. President + Bureaucracy 1) Prez can dispatch troops for 60 days w/o Congr approval...then 2) War Powers resolution - Congress must allocate funds or troops are coming home. Gulf War Congr issued a resolution in support... same in war on terrorism. War Powers War Powers

31 31V. President + Bureaucracy 3. Foreign Crisis Manager - a. Congress funds it, President directs it, Congressional oversight after its over. b. Presidential options in a foreign crisis. options (1) get information If Crisis is managed well...public approval rating soars. If Not, the Media jumps on the bandwagon to bring president under control!

32 32V. President + Bureaucracy 2. Three forms of Diplomacy... It all depends on a balance of power. a) Uneven gets War b) Balance of gets peace c. Use or abuse of the gets... Propaganda...may be more successful than war or peace. rallying the masses w/ disinformation

33 33V. President + Bureaucracy f. Soooo...who has more power...Congress or Prez? 1. Domestically (a) Prez can “VETO” legislation (b) Congress can also prevent Presidential “actions” – LEGISLATIVE VETO – Prez can’t put actions into place until a 30-90 day waiting period...Congress submits a “resolution” to deny the Presidential action... (1) SC (Chadha case ) ruled it unconstitutional, (1) SC (Chadha case ) ruled it unconstitutional, Congress passes laws, Prez signs them into LAW... Congress passes laws, Prez signs them into LAW... (2) But Congress still uses the LEG VETO as a threat to control the bureaucracy! (2) But Congress still uses the LEG VETO as a threat to control the bureaucracy!

34 34V. President + Bureaucracy (c) Congress can pull back funding if Prez doesn’t spend the allocation....Impoundment of funds.. (1) Budget Reform ACT of 1974...Does the Prez have to spend all he gets...He can’t spend what he doesn’t get!!! (c) Congress can pull back funding if Prez doesn’t spend the allocation....Impoundment of funds.. (1) Budget Reform ACT of 1974...Does the Prez have to spend all he gets...He can’t spend what he doesn’t get!!! 2. Foreign Policy (a) War Powers Act 1973 – MUST notify Congress...but does he need their approval????

35 35V. President + Bureaucracy G. Impeachment - the indictment 1. Reason - House may charge the president, by majority vote, for “Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors. Submit Articles of Impeachment to the 2. Senate, which holds the trial with the Chief Justice and presiding judge. 2/3 of Senate votes to convict...That’s a supermajority vote. 3. Two Presidents have been impeached, NONE convicted. Johnson, + Clinton... Nixon resigned B4 trial.

36 36V. President + Bureaucracy 4. Clinton’s debacle - a) Special Prosecutor ((Ken Starr) - was chosen by the Justice Department to investigate the President’s financial wrongdoings (Whitewater) when he was guv of Arkansas. b) These investigations spiraled into charges of perjury, obstruction of justice, witness tampering and abuse of power concerning a young intern. (c) historically- 1) impeachment is not crime related 2) “grave” offenses are a subject of interpretation 3) policy disagreement does NOT constitute impeachment 4) Politically based...which involves Congress FishbowlFishbowl + Fishbowl Matrix Matrix FishbowlMatrix

37 37V. President + Bureaucracy (c) Formal indictments v. President Clinton ((1)) lying to a grand jury ((2)) obstructing justice. (d) House voted: 199d 3r voted no, 5d voted yes. (e) Senate voted w/ a majority vote to convict... but that was not enough. President Clinton was found not guilty. What was the vote?

38 38V. President + Bureaucracy E. The Federal Bureaucracy - Policy Implementation 1. Federal Civil Service -- powerless patronage - it’s what you can do (merit principle) instead of who you know( the spoils system) a. Pendelton Civil Service Act- 1883 established federal civil service b. Hatch Act- prohibits civil servants from becoming political activists while working. c. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) hires to fires. (1) GS rating determines pay and benefits (2).001 % are fired because of “incompetence” (3) Plum book, jobs that are directly appointed by the president. (in-and-outers) about 3,000 top level positions -

39 39V. President + Bureaucracy 2. Bureaucratic theories on how to run a gov’t a. Weberian Model - 1) Hierarchy\ 2) task specialization 3) merit base – not patronage. An assassins bullet changed the system. 4) Impartiality 5) A culture – “This is how it is done here” type of attitude. b. Acquisitive/Monopolistic 1) Maximize one’s budget- 2) Only show on the block - monopoly 3) fear of privatization c. Garbage can - Buy something and then find a use for it. Solutions are in search of problems. d. American bureaucracies share each of the above theories in administering to the needs of the American people.

40 40V. President + Bureaucracy 3. The Hierarchy a. Cabinet Departments- 15 of those - although some have been in jeopardy - i.e. What does “the Commerce” department do? Interior Cabinet InteriorCabinet Interior b. Regulatory Agencies - affect economy by making and enforcing rules designed to protect the public interest. Munn v. Illinois (1877) ICC followed in 1887 to regulate RR’s Small commission oversees agency. Appointed by president, confirmed by Senate for fixed terms - Oust via Just Cause! SIGS attempt to impact Regulatory agencies!

41 41V. President + Bureaucracy 1) FRB (Federal reserve Board - Regulates $$$ supply > interest rates. 2) NLRB (Nat’l Labor Relations Board) 3) FCC - licensing and managing the HUGE TV, telephone, internet; with some success. 4) FTC - monopoly watch - ad accuracy 5) SEC - police stock market.

42 42V. President + Bureaucracy c. Gov’t Corporations - like prv’t corps. Provide services and charge for them 1) TVA 2) US Post Office - the largest corp. 3) Amtrack d. Independent Executive Agencies - all the rest. Chiefs appointed by the president 1) GSA – General Service Administration 2) NSF - Nat’l Science Foundation 3) NASA – SOOOOO... Part D One on your Buro Demo...Where does your agency align within the Fed Bureaucracy?

43 43V. President + Bureaucracy 4. Policy Implementation - Congressional laws, Presidential orders, Judicial decisions and make them into policy. a) Assign (new or old) agency the task. b) Set up operational rules and develop guidelines c) Coordinate resources and personnel. d) BUT..... best laid plans go astray 1) Program design is faulty...What is said in Washington may not fly in Las Vegas.

44 44V. President + Bureaucracy 2) lack of clarity in the idea - i.e. Title IX equality for men and women sports. What does “equal” mean? law states “reasonable provisions” to provide equality...What is “reasonable”? OR - immigration keeps out the terrorists but allows immigrants into an open door country? 3) lack of resources - - AIDS prevention, INS problems, DOE auditting, FAA and IRS are undermanned. FDA and drug testing. 4) SOP’s + red tape - frustrate constituents-

45 45V. President + Bureaucracy 5) Administrator discretion - Politics is a factor. So is constituent pressure! 6) Diffusion of responsibility - the Drug War is Justice, customs (Treasury), military (Defense) State and more...and then Congress is involved. It often gets fragmented. html

46 Buro Demo Topics 1. Oil spill in Gulf2. Immigration 3. China making US toys4. Super Bowl 5. International airports6. Managing a Casino 7. Supermarkets (food wholesale or retailers) 8. Natural disaster i.e. Katrina...earthquake 9. Declaration of War or police action (you state the region 10. Space Shuttle Launch. 11. Iran nukes 12. Oil pipeline across US. 13. Drug intervention 14. Improving Educ. 15. Obamacare 16. Bank failures. 17. 2012 election 18. Interstate travel. 46V. President + Bureaucracy

47 47V. President + Bureaucracy 5. Policy regulation- a. The US Gov’t puts its stamp of approval on most every day matters. The private sector meets the gov’t face to face daily. 1) Munn v. Illinois opened the door a) NLRB – prevents unfair labor practices b) OSHA – promotes safety for workers c) EEOC – promotes civil rights d) FCC – Oversees electronic media

48 48V. President + Bureaucracy e) All possess: 1)) Congressional authority 2)) set rules and guidelines 3)) some means of enforcement to encourage compliance.

49 49V. President + Bureaucracy 6. Too much regulation? 1. Costs the private sector which means it costs the consumer. 2. Is America losing its competitive edge vs. foreign countries? 3. Does “red tape” strangle the system? Command and control policy vs. Incentive system = punish the offenders only Emphasize free market strategies.

50 50V. President + Bureaucracy 6. Controlling the Bureaucratic morass - a. Presidential orders 1) Appointments 2) issue executive orders 3) Budget squeezes 4) Re-organize (deregulation move) b. Congress 1) influence appointments 2) budget influence 3) hold hearings 4) rewrite legislation 5) Let the prv’t sector do it- deregulate!

51 51V. President + Bureaucracy c. SIGS - Iron Triangles impact sub governments - Tobacco industry and nuke power have seen major changes in last decade. d. issue Networks- Bureaucrats take an emotional approach to solving problems instead of maintaining objectivity.

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