2 Consider: accommodations, modifications, personnel supports, settings LRE Decision ProcessDocument current level of performanceDevelop student IEP objectivesDetermine how the objective or related set of objectives can be taught in the general education classroom.Consider: accommodations, modifications, personnel supports, settings
3 LRE process cont.Determine alternative LRE instructional settings for those objectives that cannot be taught in the general ed setting with the “use of supplementary aids and services.”Identify what additional settings or activities will provide opportunities for interactions with nondisabled peers.6. Determine how student performance on IEP objectives will be evaluated
4 Personnel SupportsGeneral Education: student with a disability is served in the general ed class with no additional personnel support.Consultation: student receives at least one segment per month of direct service from the special education teacherSupportive instruction: student receives services from personnel other than a certified teacher in the general education classroom
5 The LRE Process Determine & document current levels of performance Develop student’s IEP objectivesHow can the objective(s) be taught in the general ed classroom?The LRE ProcessMods & Accomms.SettingsPersonnel SupportsFor objectives that can’t be taught in GenEd, identify SpEd & community settingsIdentify additional settings/activities to provide opportunity for interaction with nondisabled peers
6 What is Co-Teaching?Co-teaching involves two or more certified professionals who contract to share instructional responsibility for a single group of students primarily in a single classroom or workspace for specific content or objectives with mutual ownership, pooled resources and joint accountability.Friend & Cook, 2000
7 Co-Teaching Involves two or more professionals Involves heterogeneous groups of studentsShared delivery of instructionShared physical space
8 Advantages to the General Educator ALL students learn - label or not .More time to learn content & share learning strategies.Less focus on individual problems.2X the opportunity to assist students.Background info on special education students is provided.With help of special educator, meet the needs of individual student learning styles.Support for students who need organizational strategies!Peer pressure for appropriate behavior--negative behaviors are decreased.Professional growth greater personal satisfaction!
9 Advantages for the Special Educator Time effectiveTeach with a content area expert and learn the expectations of the general education classroom.Spend more time and energy in assisting students to develop motivation, effort, and responsibility for their own learning.Have more opportunities to use learning strategies within content areas and to move toward generalization."Reality check" for student goals within the general education setting.Partnership with a colleague in support of student IEP goals.Rewards of viewing first hand students' success and establishing credibility among their peers.Improved student behaviors.Mutual learning and appreciation for each other's expertise.Professional growth greater personal satisfaction!
10 Advantages for ALL Students More time spent working cooperatively, learning content, and understanding students with different abilities.Strong emphasis on learning skills, organizational responsibility and preparedness.Diverse learning techniques and teaching techniques available.More contact time with teachers for school and personal issues.Unique learning needs met to the greatest extent possibleImproved self-esteem.Opportunities for leadership and growth within the least restrictive environment.Less fear of failure due to successful experiences.Enhanced sense of responsibility.Better / more meaningful grades
11 Framework for Co-Teaching Shared system of beliefsPrerequisite skillsCollaborationClassroom PracticesAdministrative Issues
12 Shared system of beliefs Teacher rolesStudent participation levelBehavior management stylesEqual partnership
13 Category of teacher belief How my co-teacher believes Sharing BeliefsCategory of teacher beliefHow my co-teacher believesHow I believeNoiseNoisy classrooms interfere with some students’ learningA noisy classroom can be a busy and productive placeMaintaining student notebooksfor a gradeAll students responsible for maintaining daily updated notebookStudents w/ organizational difficulties need structure built into the class for this
14 Prerequisite Skills Individual prerequisites Personal qualities and skillsPedagogical qualities and skillsDiscipline-specific qualities and skills
16 Approaches to Co-Teaching One teach/one observeOne teach/one circulateStation teaching modelParallel teachingAlternative teachingTeam teaching
17 Cooperative LearningAll students are assigned to heterogeneous groups and, under the guidance of the teacher, help one another master content previously presented by the teacher.
18 Administrative Issues Create culture for collaborationCreates opportunities for problem-solvingA neutral 3rd partyCreates logistics that make co-teaching feasible
19 Issues for Co-Teaching Content and modificationsPlanningInstructional formatParityUse of classroom spaceNoise levelRoutinesDisciplineFeedbackStudent assessmentTeaching choresConfidentialityPet peevesWhose students are these?
20 Lesson PlanningGeneral education teachers usually plan for groups of studentsSpecial education teachers typically plan for individuals
21 Co-Planning Lessons Who will be in each group or activity? What activities will keep each student motivated and busy?When, where, and for how long will the lesson plan be taught?Who is primarily responsible for each of the activities and assessments?Identify theme, topic, or goal of lessonLocate content in textbook and/or printed curriculumWhich students cannot benefit from that content?all or nearly all students?by most of the students?some of the students?None of the students?How will activities take place?
22 Definitions“…to make fit or suitable by changing or adjusting” (Webster’s Third World Dictionary, 1994)“a thing resulting from adapting; a change in structure, function, or form that improves the chance of survival…within a given environment.”“any device or material that is used to accomplish a task in everyday life.”To adaptAn adaptationAdaptive device
23 Deciding to Use an Adaptation Instruction in specific skills cannot quickly meet the student’s need because the students disability prohibits the completion of the task in the same manner as the other students
24 Considerations Is the adaptation portable for use across environments? Is the adaptation age-appropriate?Is the adaptation durable for frequent use or use over time?Does the adaptation appear to be the least intrusive during activities and the natural flow of events?Will funding of the adaptation be an issue?Is the adaptation accessible within the team and resource parameters of the education team?
25 Successful Adaptations Must be feasible for teachers to implementMust be lively, engaging, and funMust be developed with the goal of workingtoward independence, with a gradual fading and eventual elimination of the adaptationMust have a definite purpose
26 Successful Adaptations Should be part of a comprehensive planShould benefit the student and enhance, or at least not detract from the learning of other studentsDo not place undue attention on the student or put the student in a potentially embarrassing situationAre continually evaluated
27 4 Types of AdaptationsEnvironmentalMaterialInstructionalActivity
29 Material Adaptations Alter COMPLEXITY of format Alter MOTOR requirementsAlter SENSORY requirementsUse of technology
30 Instructional Modifications Instructional GroupingsTeaching FormatRate of InstructionAlternative Approaches
31 Instructional Modifications cont. Adjust language levelReduce amount of instruction given at one timeSequence activities in a logical mannerSettings where skills can be functionally taughtAdvanced organizers
32 Activity AdaptationsUse adapted or functional materials that parallel the regular activityDetermine the functional outcome of the activity and allow for alternative student responsesEngage student in selected parts of an activity
33 Activity Adaptations Reduce the number of required responses Within an activity, define different outcomesAllow additional time to complete an activityIncrease amount of demonstrations and hands on experiences