Presentation on theme: "XI. Testing and Individual Differences"— Presentation transcript:
1 XI. Testing and Individual Differences Kristine NicholsonPeriod 6
2 Major Theories to the Structure of Personality Freud’s Theory of Psychosexual NeedsMaslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsAlfred Bandura’s Social Cognitive TheoryTrait & Type Theory of Personality
3 Freud’s Theory of Personality Sigmund FreudThree levels of awareness:Unconscious: not aware of thoughts, feelings, wishes, and drivesConscious: information is in one’s immediate awarenessPreconscious: information can easily be made consciousEvery person possesses a certain amount of psychological energy- creates the structures of personality:Id: irrational, illogical, impulsiveEgo: rational, planful, mediating [reality]Superego: moralistic, judgmental, perfectionist [morals]
4 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Carol Rogers & Abraham MaslowHumans tend to strive to fulfill potential and capabilitiesSeveral qualities a person must meet to be self-actualized- ranging from physical needs, to psychological needs, to self-fulfillment needs
5 Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory Alfred BanduraEmphasizes the importance of:Observational Learning: learning by observing the actions of othersConscious cognitive processesSocial ExperiencesSelf-Efficiency Beliefs: degree to which one is subjectively convinced of their capabilities and effectiveness in meeting the demands of a situationReciprocal Determinism: person's behavior both influences and is influenced by personal factors and their social environmentPeople are seen actively processing information from their social experiencesInfluences their goals, expectations, beliefs, and behavior as well as the environment they choose.
6 Trait Personalities Trait perspective Trait: predisposition to behave in a certain way.Trait Theory: focuses on identifying, describing and measuring individual differencesTwo types of traits:Surface Traits: Characteristics/attributes that can be inferred from observationSource Traits: Most fundamental dimensions of personality; the broad, basic traits that are hypothesized to be universal and relatively few in number
7 Type Personalities Type perspective Type A Type B Exaggerated sense of time urgency, try to do more in less timeGeneral sense of hostility, display anger & irritationIntense ambition and competitivenessType BMore relaxed and laid back
8 Major Theories on the Structure of Intelligence Charles SpearmanGeneral Intelligence (g factor):Responsible for an individual’s overall performance on mental ability testGeneral cognitive abilityCan be expresses by a general IQ testStems from Lewis Terman’s approachLouis ThurstoneDisagreed with SpearmanBelieved there were seven different primary mental abilitiesVerbal comprehension, numerical ability, reasoning, perceptual speed, etc.Thurstone’s g factor- overall average score of independent abilities, less important that individual’s specific pattern of mental abilitiesStems from David Wechsler’s approach
9 Major Theories Continued… Howard GardnerMultiple intelligencesSuggested mental abilities are independent from each otherBelieved in multiple intelligencesLinguistic, musical, spatial, personal, etc intelligencesRobert SternbergAgrees with GardnerIntelligence is broader than the narrow range of mental abilities tested by a controversial IQ testSaid if an individual lacked the ability to reason or plan in your head, you would be unable to function in any culture.Triarchic Theory of Intelligence: 3 forms of intelligenceComponential Intelligence: mental process used in learning how to solve problemsExperiential Intelligence: ability to deal with novel situations by drawing on existing skills/knowledgeContextual (Practical) Intelligence: involves the ability to adapt to the environment
10 Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Jean PiagetChildren actively try to make sense of their environment4 Stages of cognitive development:The Sensorimotor Stage: From Birth to Age Two Sensorimotor Stage: first cognitive development, from birth to about age two; the period during which the infant explores the environment and acquires knowledge through sensing and manipulating objects. Objective Permanence: understanding that an object continues to exist even when it can no longer be seen.The Preoperational Stage: From Age Two to Age Seven Preoperational Stage: second cognitive development, characterized by increasing use of symbols and pre-logical thought processes. Symbolic Thought: The ability to use words, images, and symbols to represent the world. Egocentrism: inability to take another person’s perspective or point of view Irreversibility: inability to mentally reverse a sequence of events or logical operations. Centration: the tendency to focus, or center, on only one aspect of a situation and ignore other important aspects of the situation. Conservation: understanding that two equal quantities remain equal even though the form or appearance is rearranged, as long as nothing is added or subtracted.
11 Piaget’s Theory Continued… The Concrete Operational Stage: From Age Seven to Age Eleven Concrete Operational Stage: third stage of cognitive development, characterized by the ability to think logically about concrete objects and situations.The Formal Operational Stage: From Adolescence Through Adulthood Formal Operational Stage: fourth cognitive development, characterized by the ability to think logically about abstract principles and hypothetical situations
12 What Determines Intelligence? Intelligence: The global capacity to think rationally, act purposely, and deal effectively with the environment.Factors:Genetics vs. EnvironmentRace DifferencesCross-Cultural Differences
13 Genetics vs. Environment Possible number of combinations of one’s genetic make-up is astronomicalTherefore, the genetic makeup of siblings are different, although more similar than unrelated people.Intelligence is determined by the interaction of multiple genes, not just one.Heritability: percentage of variation within a population that is due to heredity..Environment:Not a single, stable factor- constantly changingI.e. divorce- affect siblings differentlySiblings experience different influences1st born- typically attain more attention from parentsMiddle child- have their siblings to contend withSickly/“Difficult”children: treated differently than healthier/less rambunctious siblings
14 Race Differences/ Cross-Cultural Differences Japanese/Chinese children score higher than White American children on intelligence and achievement testEarly childhood- no differencesGap appears after children have started school and increases per year.Japanese/ Chinese children spend more time in school, more time doing homework, experience more pressure/ support from their parents to achieve academicallyDifference is not Genetics, purely environment (educational system)The average IQ scores of groups that suffer social discrimination are frequently lower than average IQ scores of the dominant group.Children of minorities tend to score points lower on intelligence test, often 2-3 years behind in reading/math, are over-represented in remedial programs
15 Cultural Bias in TestStandardized testing reflect white, middle-class cultural knowledge and values.Minority members do poorly on the test not due to intelligence, but due to the unfamiliarity with the white, middle-class culture.Urban subjects do better than rural subjects, middle-class did better than lower-class, etc.Researchers have attempted to create “culture-fair” or “culture-free” test.Virtually impossible, intelligence is not free of cultural influences.Test will favor the people from the culture it was developed in.Test-taking behaviorDifferent cultures use different strategies solving problems/ organizing information
16 Measures of Intelligence Alfred Binet:Focused on elementary mental abilities, such as memory, attention, ability to understand similarities and differences.Believed test could identify “slow” children who could benefit special helpDiscovered intelligence was too complex to describe with a single numberRecognized many different individual factors (i.e.motivation)Mental age: Different from chronological age, “Mental Level”, expressed in terms of the individuals abilities in correspondence to a given age groupLewis Terman:Revised Binet’s test- Stanford-Binet Intelligence ScaleExpressed in terms of single numbers, called Intelligence Quotient (IQ)EX. Child: Age: 10, Mental Age: 13 IQ= 13/10 X 100 = 130David Wechsler:Tested adults from different cultural and socioeconomic backgroundsDesigned test called: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)Had two advantages:WAIS was specifically designed for adults, rather than childrenProvided scores on eleven subtest measuring different abilities (i.e. verbal, performance)Since it provided a profile on an individual’s strengths and weaknesses, marked a return to the attitudes and goals of Alfred Binet
17 Requirements to be a Psychological Test StandardizationTest is administered to a large, representative sample of people under uniform conditionsReliabilityTest must consistently produce similar scores on different occasionsValidityTest measures what it is supposed to measure
18 Other Types of Psychological Test Achievement Test:Measure a person’s knowledge, skill, or accomplishments in a particular areaAptitude Test:Assess a person’s capacity to benefit from education/ training
19 Use of the scores for making comparisons on other people Ethical IssuesConfidentialityProblems in reportingUse of the scores for making comparisons on other peopleSocial impact of tests
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.