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XI. Testing and Individual Differences

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Presentation on theme: "XI. Testing and Individual Differences"— Presentation transcript:

1 XI. Testing and Individual Differences
Kristine Nicholson Period 6

2 Major Theories to the Structure of Personality
Freud’s Theory of Psychosexual Needs Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Alfred Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory Trait & Type Theory of Personality

3 Freud’s Theory of Personality
Sigmund Freud Three levels of awareness: Unconscious: not aware of thoughts, feelings, wishes, and drives Conscious: information is in one’s immediate awareness Preconscious: information can easily be made conscious Every person possesses a certain amount of psychological energy- creates the structures of personality: Id: irrational, illogical, impulsive Ego: rational, planful, mediating [reality] Superego: moralistic, judgmental, perfectionist [morals]

4 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Carol Rogers & Abraham Maslow Humans tend to strive to fulfill potential and capabilities Several qualities a person must meet to be self-actualized- ranging from physical needs, to psychological needs, to self-fulfillment needs

5 Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory
Alfred Bandura Emphasizes the importance of: Observational Learning: learning by observing the actions of others Conscious cognitive processes Social Experiences Self-Efficiency Beliefs: degree to which one is subjectively convinced of their capabilities and effectiveness in meeting the demands of a situation Reciprocal Determinism: person's behavior both influences and is influenced by personal factors and their social environment People are seen actively processing information from their social experiences Influences their goals, expectations, beliefs, and behavior as well as the environment they choose.

6 Trait Personalities Trait perspective
Trait: predisposition to behave in a certain way. Trait Theory: focuses on identifying, describing and measuring individual differences Two types of traits: Surface Traits: Characteristics/attributes that can be inferred from observation Source Traits: Most fundamental dimensions of personality; the broad, basic traits that are hypothesized to be universal and relatively few in number

7 Type Personalities Type perspective Type A Type B
Exaggerated sense of time urgency, try to do more in less time General sense of hostility, display anger & irritation Intense ambition and competitiveness Type B More relaxed and laid back

8 Major Theories on the Structure of Intelligence
Charles Spearman General Intelligence (g factor): Responsible for an individual’s overall performance on mental ability test General cognitive ability Can be expresses by a general IQ test Stems from Lewis Terman’s approach Louis Thurstone Disagreed with Spearman Believed there were seven different primary mental abilities Verbal comprehension, numerical ability, reasoning, perceptual speed, etc. Thurstone’s g factor- overall average score of independent abilities, less important that individual’s specific pattern of mental abilities Stems from David Wechsler’s approach

9 Major Theories Continued…
Howard Gardner Multiple intelligences Suggested mental abilities are independent from each other Believed in multiple intelligences Linguistic, musical, spatial, personal, etc intelligences Robert Sternberg Agrees with Gardner Intelligence is broader than the narrow range of mental abilities tested by a controversial IQ test Said if an individual lacked the ability to reason or plan in your head, you would be unable to function in any culture. Triarchic Theory of Intelligence: 3 forms of intelligence Componential Intelligence: mental process used in learning how to solve problems Experiential Intelligence: ability to deal with novel situations by drawing on existing skills/knowledge Contextual (Practical) Intelligence: involves the ability to adapt to the environment

10 Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
Jean Piaget Children actively try to make sense of their environment 4 Stages of cognitive development: The Sensorimotor Stage: From Birth to Age Two       Sensorimotor Stage: first cognitive development, from birth to about age two; the period during which the infant explores the environment and acquires knowledge through sensing and manipulating objects.       Objective Permanence: understanding that an object continues to exist even when it can no longer be seen. The Preoperational Stage: From Age Two to Age Seven       Preoperational Stage: second cognitive development, characterized by increasing use of symbols and pre-logical thought processes.       Symbolic Thought: The ability to use words, images, and symbols to represent the world.       Egocentrism: inability to take another person’s perspective or point of view       Irreversibility: inability to mentally reverse a sequence of events or logical operations.       Centration: the tendency to focus, or center, on only one aspect of a situation and ignore other important aspects of the situation.       Conservation: understanding that two equal quantities remain equal even though the form or appearance is rearranged, as long as nothing is added or subtracted.

11 Piaget’s Theory Continued…
The Concrete Operational Stage: From Age Seven to Age Eleven       Concrete Operational Stage: third stage of cognitive development, characterized by the ability to think logically about concrete objects and situations. The Formal Operational Stage: From Adolescence Through Adulthood       Formal Operational Stage: fourth cognitive development, characterized by the ability to think logically about abstract principles and hypothetical situations

12 What Determines Intelligence?
Intelligence: The global capacity to think rationally, act purposely, and deal effectively with the environment. Factors: Genetics vs. Environment Race Differences Cross-Cultural Differences

13 Genetics vs. Environment
Possible number of combinations of one’s genetic make-up is astronomical Therefore, the genetic makeup of siblings are different, although more similar than unrelated people. Intelligence is determined by the interaction of multiple genes, not just one. Heritability: percentage of variation within a population that is due to heredity.. Environment: Not a single, stable factor- constantly changing I.e. divorce- affect siblings differently Siblings experience different influences 1st born- typically attain more attention from parents Middle child- have their siblings to contend with Sickly/“Difficult”children: treated differently than healthier/less rambunctious siblings

14 Race Differences/ Cross-Cultural Differences
Japanese/Chinese children score higher than White American children on intelligence and achievement test Early childhood- no differences Gap appears after children have started school and increases per year. Japanese/ Chinese children spend more time in school, more time doing homework, experience more pressure/ support from their parents to achieve academically Difference is not Genetics, purely environment (educational system) The average IQ scores of groups that suffer social discrimination are frequently lower than average IQ scores of the dominant group. Children of minorities tend to score points lower on intelligence test, often 2-3 years behind in reading/math, are over-represented in remedial programs

15 Cultural Bias in Test Standardized testing reflect white, middle-class cultural knowledge and values. Minority members do poorly on the test not due to intelligence, but due to the unfamiliarity with the white, middle-class culture. Urban subjects do better than rural subjects, middle-class did better than lower-class, etc. Researchers have attempted to create “culture-fair” or “culture-free” test. Virtually impossible, intelligence is not free of cultural influences. Test will favor the people from the culture it was developed in. Test-taking behavior Different cultures use different strategies solving problems/ organizing information

16 Measures of Intelligence
Alfred Binet: Focused on elementary mental abilities, such as memory, attention, ability to understand similarities and differences. Believed test could identify “slow” children who could benefit special help Discovered intelligence was too complex to describe with a single number Recognized many different individual factors (i.e.motivation) Mental age: Different from chronological age, “Mental Level”, expressed in terms of the individuals abilities in correspondence to a given age group Lewis Terman: Revised Binet’s test- Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale Expressed in terms of single numbers, called Intelligence Quotient (IQ) EX. Child: Age: 10, Mental Age: 13 IQ= 13/10 X 100 = 130 David Wechsler: Tested adults from different cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds Designed test called: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Had two advantages: WAIS was specifically designed for adults, rather than children Provided scores on eleven subtest measuring different abilities (i.e. verbal, performance) Since it provided a profile on an individual’s strengths and weaknesses, marked a return to the attitudes and goals of Alfred Binet

17 Requirements to be a Psychological Test
Standardization Test is administered to a large, representative sample of people under uniform conditions Reliability Test must consistently produce similar scores on different occasions Validity Test measures what it is supposed to measure

18 Other Types of Psychological Test
Achievement Test: Measure a person’s knowledge, skill, or accomplishments in a particular area Aptitude Test: Assess a person’s capacity to benefit from education/ training

19 Use of the scores for making comparisons on other people
Ethical Issues Confidentiality Problems in reporting Use of the scores for making comparisons on other people Social impact of tests

20 The End.

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