Presentation on theme: "WORLD HISTORY- ANCIENT UNIT 3: THE WORLD IN TRANSITION CHAPTER 8: THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE, KIEVAN RUSSIA AND THE MONGOLS While Barbarians plundered the western."— Presentation transcript:
1 WORLD HISTORY- ANCIENT UNIT 3: THE WORLD IN TRANSITION CHAPTER 8: THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE, KIEVAN RUSSIA AND THE MONGOLSWhile Barbarians plundered the western part of the Roman Empire in the AD 400’s and 500’s, the Byzantine Empire thrived in the East.
2 CHAPTER 8: SECTION 1: THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE A.The Reign of Justinian1. had an exceptional knack for judging the abilities of others.2. Theodora parents were in the circus, convinced Justinian to improve the status of women, also convinced him to fight not flee during the NikaRevolt(a) dowry women could own land3. Belisarius commander of the army4. Decline after Justinian(a) declined because of external and internal conflictsB. Strengths of the Empire1. political strength: highly centralized, powerful ruler, arranged marriages2. military strength : Greek fire, instructional manual3. economic strength: trade, agriculture, manufacturing flourished
3 CHAPTER 8: SECTION 1: THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE C. The Christian Church1. Patriarch of Byzantine the most powerful religious leader, didn’t recognize the authority of the Pope in Rome.2. icons(a) iconoclasts icons constituted idol worship(b) iconoclastic controversy battle over having/not having icons as worship3. Heresy and excommunication were declared to anyone who practiced iconoclastsD. Byzantine Culture1. Art was devoted to religion, mosaics (pictures or designs composed of inlaid pieces of stone, glass, or enamel.2. Architecture, religious and one of their greatest works was The Hagia Sophia
4 CHAPTER 8: SECTION 1: THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE E. The Preservation of Roman Law1. Corpus juris civilis ( body of civil law)(a) The Digest (b) The Code(c) The Institutes(d) The NovelsF. Decline of the Empire1. Saljuq Turks, and the beginning of the Crusades2. Fourth Crusade resulted in the west conquering the Byzantine Empire.
5 CHAPTER 8: SECTION 2: THE RISE OF RUSSIA A. Geography1. The physical geography of this area allowed for easy migration by early people. With a flat, treeless plain (steppe) and many rivers (Vistual, Don, Neman, Dvina, Dniester, Dnieper, Volga, Ural)B. Slavs and Vikings1. Slavs settle in 200 A.D. - occasionally conquered by Huns, Avars, and Magyars. Vikings Invade 800s A.D. all groups of which occupied the area for a time. Trade routes.C. The Birth of Kievan Russia (following Viking Invasions)1. Rurik - military leader of the Rus became the ruler of Novgorod and his dynasty became known as the Rus.2. Prospered because of their location along the trade route.3. Other principalities paid tribute to the prince in Kiev in exchange for military protection, their loyalty varied depending on the Kievan prince’s power.
6 CHAPTER 8: SECTION 2: THE RISE OF RUSSIA D. Government1. Boyars (nobles) were the prince’s advisors2. Yaroslav the Wise ruled from A.D to A.D. 1054, which was a great period in Russian history. He built many churches and introduced Russia’s first law code, known as the Pravda Russkia (Russian justice).E. Religion1. Christian Missionaries2. Vladimir and Religiona. Roman vs Eastern Churchb. Tolerance of alcohol3. metropolitan chief Bishop of the Kievan ChurchF. Economy1. Agriculture(a) taiga abundant forest with 4 month growing season(b) steppe longer growing season2. tradeG. Social Classes1. Princes, Boyars, merchants, clergy, artisans and peasants, which made up the largest class of people.
7 CHAPTER 8: SECTION 3: THE RISE OF THE MONGOLS A. The Mongols in Eastern EuropeMongols attackMongols had conquered most of Kievan Russia-3. Cross Carpathians, but do not stay in Hungary, PolandB. Kievan Russia Under the Mongols1. Retained Customs2. Harsh Taxes3. Landlords - collected taxes and administered justice4. Mongol Influencea. Roadsb. Languagec. Communicationd. Taxation
8 CHAPTER 8: SECTION 3: THE RISE OF THE MONGOLS C. Kievan Russia and Its Neighbors1. Little contact between Eastern and Western Slavs2. Mistrust and Religious conflict remains even today,west influenced by western Christianity and the east influenced by Greek Orthodox faith.D. The Rise of Moscow1. Ivan the Great (III) overthrew Mongol rule, est. absolute monarchy.2. Ivan the Terrible (IV) only 3 years old, ruled by Boyars at firsta. czar (caesar), heir to Roman and Byzantine Empireb. oprickniki ( personal army)E. The Growth of the Church1.land holding increased as a result of gifts and believe that gift meant heaven2. Third Rome, would bring spiritual light to the world3. Beautiful artwork (excessive?)