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Developmental Psychology Learning to Read: Looking at typically developing children and Deaf children.

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Presentation on theme: "Developmental Psychology Learning to Read: Looking at typically developing children and Deaf children."— Presentation transcript:

1 Developmental Psychology Learning to Read: Looking at typically developing children and Deaf children

2 Outline Introduction Different ways to read words Stage theory of Reading Development The Great Debate: How do children learn to read? Arguments for phonological reading Evidence from Deaf children’s reading development Alphabetic knowledge as a predictor of reading skill Individual differences Summary & Conclusions

3 Different ways to read words Whole-word or direct procedure Cues? Phonics procedure

4 Stage Theory of Learning to Read Frith (1985) 1. Logographic Stage. 2. Alphabetic Stage. Grapheme-phoneme-correspondences 3. Orthographic Stage.

5 Phase theory - Ehri Pre-alphabetic Phase Gough (1992) Partial Alphabetic Phase Full alphabetic Phase Consolidated Alphabetic Phase

6 The Great Debate: How do children learn to read? Alegria et al (1982) Seymour & Elder (1986) ‘white’ as ‘green’, ‘children’ as ‘girl’ Connelly (1993) Teaching method

7 Is phonological awareness the key to successful reading development? Definition Odd-one-out Phoneme deletion Rhyming The key?

8 What is the evidence that suggests that Phonological Awareness is the key to successful reading development? Bradley & Bryant (1983) Share et al (1984) Ellis & Large (1987) Goswami & Bryant (1990) Training studies Lundberg (1987) Wise et al (1989)

9 Snowling (1987) Dixon, Stuart & Masterson (2002)

10 Evidence from Deaf children Conrad (1979) Harris & Beech (1998): 24 x 5 year old deaf children vs control group. A positive relationship between implicit PA and reading (but note that implicit PA is different from phonemic encoding)

11 Sterne & Goswami (2000) Talk about under-specified phonological representations 3 experiments (15 deaf children in 2 and 14 in the other compared to CA and RA matches) Looked at PA at 3xlinguistic levels; rhyme, syllable and phoneme. On syllabic awareness deaf = equivalent On rhyme deaf = above chance but poorer than RA When phonemic recoding strategies required deaf = significantly poorer than younger RA controls

12 Alternative explanations for poor reading in deaf children Hearing parents Parental Involvement Poor language skills and vocabulary deficits Structure of Sign Language Phonological awareness Over-reliance on logographic strategies? Lewis (2003)

13 The importance of alphabetic knowledge Gallagher, Frith & Snowling (2000) De Jong & van der Leij (1999) Barlow-Brown & Connelly (2002)

14 Peter Bryant (1991): "The empirical evidence, and theoretical rationale, for children's early phonological skills playing the part of a pre-cursor of reading seem very strong at the moment and the connection is worth knowing about for practical and for theoretical reasons. But one must always remember that the connection probably does not affect every child and also that there are other pre-cursors and other aspects of reading as well. Reading, after all, is a very complicated business, and there is no reason at all why everyone should tackle it in the same way."

15 Summary and Conclusions Stage/Phase theory Influence of teaching method Phonological awareness is a key factor in learning to read Alphabetic knowledge is a pre-requisite of PA Deaf and Blind children and Dyslexics can be used to support these arguments. Reading seems to involve some underlying processes that are the same across populations

16 Some Suggested Reading: You should read a variety of material. Please ask if you are unsure as to the relevance of any additional material you find. Beech, J.R. & Harris, M. (1997) The prelingually deaf young reader: A case of reliance on direct lexical access? Journal of Research in Reading, 20 (2), 105-121. (available online) Castles, A. & Coltheart, M. (2004) Is there a causal link from phonological awareness to success in learning to read? Cognition, 91, 77-111. (available online) Frost, R. (1998) Towards a strong phonological theory of visual word recognition: true issues and false trails. Psychological Bulletin, 123 (1), 71-99. (available online) [n.b. from p.90 onwards, a very good discussion of some empirical false trails!] Goswami,U & Bryant,P. (1990) Phonological Skills and Learning to Read. LEA.

17 Harris, M. & Moreno, C. (2006) Speech reading and learning to read: a comparison of deaf children with good and poor reading ability Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 11, 189-201. (available Harris, M. & Moreno, C. (2004) Deaf children's use of phonological coding: Evidence from reading, spelling and working memory Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 9, 253-268. (available Kyle, F..E & Harris, M. (2006) Concurrent correlates and predictors of reading and spelling in deaf and hearing school children Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 11, 273-288. (available McBride-Chang, C. & Kail, R.V. (2002) Cross-Cultural Similarities in the Predictors of Reading Acquisition. Child Development, 73 (5), 1392-1407. (available online) Muter,V., Hulme,C., Snowling,M. & Taylor,S. (1997) Segmentation, not rhyming, predicts early progress in learning to read. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 65 (3), 370-396. (available online)

18 Muter,V., Hulme, C., Snowling, M. J, & Stevenson, J. (2004) Phonemes, Rimes, Vocabulary, and Grammatical Skills as Foundations of Early Reading Development: Evidence From a Longitudinal Study. Developmental Psychology. 40(5) 665-681 (available online). Nation, K. & Snowling, M.J. (2004) Beyond phonological skills: broader language skills contribute to the development of reading. Journal of Research in Reading, 27 (4), 342-347. (available online) Oakhill,J. & Beard,R. (1999) Reading development and the teaching of reading : a psychological perspective. Blackwell Publishers;Oxford. Sterne, A. & Goswami, U. (2000) Phonological awareness of syllables, rhymes, and phonemes in deaf children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41, 609-625. (a good review article summarizing relevant work with deaf children – this will be on counter loan before term ends – try during the last week of teaching) Wagner,R.K. & Torgeson,J.K (1987) The nature of phonological processing and its role in the acquisition of reading skills. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 192-212. Some key names for literature searches include: U.Goswami, U.Frith, M.Snowling, M.Stuart, P.Bryant, R.Johnston, K.Stanovich, D.Share, L.Ehri.

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