Entry: Water Cycle Circulation of water in Earth Evaporation: changing of water from liquid to gas Transpiration: Release of water vapor from plant leaves Condensation: changing of vapor to liquid (cooled down) Precipitation: Water that returns to the earth
Sources of pollution 1. Nonpoint source: --- many smaller point sources Occurs as a result of runoff Caused by: septic tanks, cars, trucks, boats, farms, ranches, construction sites, cities, etc. Hard to manage Loss of aquatic species diversity, damage to coral reefs, algae blooms, sea grass bed decline, closure of beaches (swimming) and shelfish beds
2. Point source pollution Pollution originates from an identifiable source Ex: oil spills, algae blooms, industrial plants, sewage pipes
Nitrogen Fertilizers Overfertilization of crops Runoff Treated and untreated sewage Wastewater released from treatment plants Combined sewer overflows (CSO’s)
Pharmaceuticals Have negative effects on the reproduction of aquatic species and stimulate the development of antibiotic resistant bacteria Titanium, zinc, mercury Medications and hormones that have been used or discarded Treated and untreated sewage Landfills Vetranary medications Aquaculture (fish farms) Cattle feed lots
Chemicals Mercury & copper Power plants Lead gasoline Chromium, copper, arsenic, & zinc Boats and pilings PCB’s Pesticides (DDT) copper
Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill-2010 April 20 to July 15 4.9 million barrels of oil (210 million gal) Had to engineer a solution Exxon Valdez Oil Spill- 1989 11 million gal Covered 1,300 miles of coastline Covered 11,000 square miles of ocean Resulted in numerous environmental sanctions Petroleum
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