Presentation on theme: "Chapter 28 Section 1 The Civil Rights Movement Riddlebarger"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 28 Section 1 The Civil Rights Movement Riddlebarger Fighting SegregationChapter 28Section 1The Civil Rights MovementRiddlebarger
2What happens to a dream deferred? Does it dry uplike a raisin in the sun?Or fester like a sore-And then run?Does it stink like rotten meat?Or crust and sugar over-like a syrupy sweet?Maybe it just sags like a heavy load.Or does it explode?-Langston Hughes, “Lenox Avenue Mural”
3What are civil rights?The rights of citizens to political and social freedom and equality.
4The Civil Rights Movement Before 1954 Began with opposition to slavery in colonial daysAbolitionist movementPost-Reconstruction brings legalized racism back14th Amendment:“Equal protection under the laws”1896: Plessy v. Ferguson ruling establishes “separate but equal”Courts allow for legalized segregationW.E.B. DuBois and others form NAACP in early 1900’s to battle for racial equality
51940’s: Decade of ProgressA. Philip Randolph forces a federal ban on discrimination in defense-related work.Founding of CORE- Congress of Racial EqualityDedicated to non-violent protestDesegregation of militaryIntegration of baseballJackie Robinson breaksthe color barrier in baseball.
6Seeking Change in the Courts NAACP focuses on attacking racism through the courts1930’s: began attacking “separate but equal”.Focuses on segregation in educationCharles Hamilton Houston and Thurgood Marshall, NAACP lawyers, begin to chip away at Plessy case.
8Brown vs. Board of Education 1950’s: Thurgood Marshall & NAACP focus on segregation of elementary & high schoolsAfrican-American schools almost always inferior to white schoolsBrown v. Topeka Board of Education- Supreme Court rules that segregated schools violates Constitution’s guarantee of equal protection under the law.14th Amendment guaranteed equal protection under the lawSchool segregation declared illegal
9Chief Justice Earl Warren “Education is perhaps the most important function of local and state governments…It is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an education. Such an opportunity…is a right that must be made available to all on equal terms…Does segregation of children in schools solely on the basis of race…deprive the children of the minority group of equal educational opportunities? We believe it does.”Chief Justice Earl Warren
10After Brown decisionAt the time of Brown, 21 states had schools that were segregated by lawCourt ruling in Brown declared segregation in schools illegal but gave no guidance on how or when to desegregate.Some states move quickly to integrateOthers show strong oppositionVirginia Senator organizes “massive resistance” to block integration.Va. Legislaure passes laws forcing closure of schools that integrate
11The Little Rock Crisis1957: Governor Orval Faubus violates Federal court order to integrate Little Rock Central High SchoolClaims extremists threaten violence and that there will be “blood in the streets”Faubus orders Arkansas National Guard to keep black students out of Central High.
12Little Rock NineSept. 4, 1957: A crowd of angry whites harass black students as they arrive for 1st day.Soldiers turn them away as they reach the doorFor 3 weeks, Guard keeps out Little Rock NinePres. Eisenhower tries to persuade Faubus to change his mind.
16A Boycott in Montgomery, Alabama Brown decision has enormous impact upon society.While only directly impacting schools, most other aspects of Southern society remain segregated.Many will now work to change that- beginning with the bus system of Montgomery, Alabama.
17The Montgomery Bus System Bus system of Montgomery, Alabama is segregatedBlacks had to enter back of bus and sit in rearMust give up seat to whites if front fills upBlacks account for 2/3 of bus riders
18Rosa Parks1955: Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat and move to the back of the bus.She’s arrestedNAACP recognizes opportunity her arrest presented.
19Montgomery Bus Boycott NAACP calls for bus boycott in Montgomery.1st day: 90% of blacks don’t rideCauses hardships as many depend on bus for transportationPolice harass blacks who take part
20Martin Luther King, Jr.Local Minister, Martin Luther King, Jr. is chosen to lead boycottKing and other leaders become targets of violent threats.Supreme Court rules that bus segregation is unconstitutional.
21Birth of SCLC Success of Montgmery boycott inspires others elsewhere. Several groups join together to form Southern Chrisitian Leadership Conference, or SCLCKing is elected leaderCommitted to mass, nonviolent action.