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Chapter 28 Section 1 The Civil Rights Movement Riddlebarger.

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1 Chapter 28 Section 1 The Civil Rights Movement Riddlebarger

2 What happens to a dream deferred? Does it dry up like a raisin in the sun? Or fester like a sore- And then run? Does it stink like rotten meat? Or crust and sugar over- like a syrupy sweet? Maybe it just sags like a heavy load. Or does it explode? -Langston Hughes, “Lenox Avenue Mural”

3 The rights of citizens to political and social freedom and equality.

4  Began with opposition to slavery in colonial days  Abolitionist movement  Post-Reconstruction brings legalized racism back  14 th Amendment :  “Equal protection under the laws”  1896: Plessy v. Ferguson ruling establishes “separate but equal”  Courts allow for legalized segregation  W.E.B. DuBois and others form NAACP in early 1900’s to battle for racial equality

5  A. Philip Randolph forces a federal ban on discrimination in defense-related work.  Founding of CORE - Congress of Racial Equality  Dedicated to non-violent protest  Desegregation of military  Integration of baseball  Jackie Robinson breaks the color barrier in baseball.

6  NAACP focuses on attacking racism through the courts  1930’s: began attacking “separate but equal”.  Focuses on segregation in education  Charles Hamilton Houston and Thurgood Marshall, NAACP lawyers, begin to chip away at Plessy case.


8  1950’s: Thurgood Marshall & NAACP focus on segregation of elementary & high schools  African-American schools almost always inferior to white schools  Brown v. Topeka Board of Education- Supreme Court rules that segregated schools violates Constitution’s guarantee of equal protection under the law.  14th Amendment guaranteed equal protection under the law  School segregation declared illegal

9 Chief Justice Earl Warren “Education is perhaps the most important function of local and state governments…It is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an education. Such an opportunity…is a right that must be made available to all on equal terms…Does segregation of children in schools solely on the basis of race…deprive the children of the minority group of equal educational opportunities? We believe it does.”

10  At the time of Brown, 21 states had schools that were segregated by law  Court ruling in Brown declared segregation in schools illegal but gave no guidance on how or when to desegregate.  Some states move quickly to integrate  Others show strong opposition  Virginia Senator organizes “massive resistance” to block integration.  Va. Legislaure passes laws forcing closure of schools that integrate

11  1957: Governor Orval Faubus violates Federal court order to integrate Little Rock Central High School  Claims extremists threaten violence and that there will be “blood in the streets”  Faubus orders Arkansas National Guard to keep black students out of Central High.

12  Sept. 4, 1957: A crowd of angry whites harass black students as they arrive for 1st day.  Soldiers turn them away as they reach the door  For 3 weeks, Guard keeps out Little Rock Nine  Pres. Eisenhower tries to persuade Faubus to change his mind.


14  Sept. 24: Eisenhower orders Federal troops to end the stand-off.  Little Rock nine enters the school the next day.  They endure great abuse the rest of the year.


16  Brown decision has enormous impact upon society.  While only directly impacting schools, most other aspects of Southern society remain segregated.  Many will now work to change that- beginning with the bus system of Montgomery, Alabama.

17  Bus system of Montgomery, Alabama is segregated  Blacks had to enter back of bus and sit in rear  Must give up seat to whites if front fills up  Blacks account for 2/3 of bus riders

18  1955: Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat and move to the back of the bus.  She’s arrested  NAACP recognizes opportunity her arrest presented.

19  NAACP calls for bus boycott in Montgomery.  1st day: 90% of blacks don’t ride  Causes hardships as many depend on bus for transportation  Police harass blacks who take part

20  Local Minister, Martin Luther King, Jr. is chosen to lead boycott  King and other leaders become targets of violent threats.  Supreme Court rules that bus segregation is unconstitutional.

21  Success of Montgmery boycott inspires others elsewhere.  Several groups join together to form Southern Chrisitian Leadership Conference, or SCLC  King is elected leader  Committed to mass, nonviolent action.

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