Presentation on theme: "Start of Part 3 Eric W. Harris, PhD.. Basic Functional Subdivision of Neurons But, of course, there are exceptions – e.g., action potentials can originate."— Presentation transcript:
Neurotransmitters Glutamate, Aspartate - major excitatory neurotransmitters in the brain GABA - major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain Acetylcholine - many different actions in the brain; neuromuscular junction transmitter Serotonin – many different actions; associated with mood, sleep, perception (LSD) Dopamine – many different effects; associated with reward, attention, movement (PD) Opioid peptides (endorphins) – modulate pain signals Substance P – pain signaling Many others…
Summary of basic information processing in the brain http://biomedicalengineering.yolasite.com/neurons.php Action Potential Synapse…
But it’s not so simple - Excitation and Inhibition http://neuroscience.uth.tmc.edu/s1/introduction.html
Physiological plasticity Synapses are not static: With repeated use can show “habituation” With intense use can become stronger (“long-term potentiation”) Simultaneous strong inputs can potentiate each other (“fire together, wire together”) Harris & Cotman, 1986
Electroencephalography (EEG) http://www.brightmindsinstitute.com/blog/ http://quizlet.com/4239544/cog-sci-chapter-2-flash-cards/ http://www.acm.org/conferences/sac/sac2000/Proceed/FinalPapers/BC-07/ http://apotential.wordpress.com/2012/07/11/the-neurologist-explains-eegs-to-me/ Synaptic currents create a small electrical field along a neuron If neurons are lined up, the electric fields add together. x Using electrodes placed on the scalp and sensitive amplifiers… …one can record “brain waves”!
Quantitative EEG (QEEG) EEG is the sum of many brain waves, like this: EEG can be “de-convoluted” to find and measure the underlying components, e.g.: Frequency (Hz) 0 scidavis.sourceforge.net/manual/c4166.html newsoffice.mit.edu/2012/faster- fourier-transforms-0118 QEEG data can be looked at many ways, For example: http://simetronsac.com/dx_eeg2.php
And then there are glial cells… Astrocyte – various supportive functions Oligodendrocyte - makes myelin
The building blocks – Neurons and Glial Cells Ramon y Cajal, 1899 Miriam Ascagni, DIBIT San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Italy, 2010 Del Rio-Hortega, 1920 http://www.nedsahin.com/methods/fmri/
Good sources of info about the brain, The Society for Neuroscience (www.sfn.org) – in particular, “Brain Briefings”www.sfn.org “The Brain Science Podcast” – not for total beginners The Dana Foundation www.dana.orgwww.dana.org http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/neurok.html (“Neuroscience for Kids”) http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/neurok.html http://medicalxpress.com/neuroscience-news/ http://medicalxpress.com/neuroscience-news/ There is LOTS of new information every day…
Thank you for your attention Questions? Comments?