What is Biotechnology? _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________. Or... The use of advances in life science to create products and services for our world.
The History of Biotechnology Humans have been using biology to improve their lives since the beginning of recorded time.
Applications of Biotechnology ____________________________: therapeutics, diagnostics Agriculture and food: crop yields, pest resistance, milk production, food processing _______________: from corn syrup, switchgrass, agricultural waste Environmental protection: waste clean-up, pollution reduction, alternatives to plastics _______________________: DNA fingerprinting, biodefense Industrial products: lots! Enzymatic laundry detergent, stonewash” jeans, paper manufacturing, etc. Instrumentation and suppliers Scientific research
The Evolution of Biotechnology Modern biotechnology has exploded since the development of genetic engineering: – Genetic engineering is the ________________ ______________________________________. ___________________________are organisms that contain genes from a different species.
The Evolution of Biotechnology We are seeing an increasing variety of biotechnology products:
Critical Components of Biotechnology 1.______________________________(rDNA) technology: the ability to cut and paste (recombine) DNA molecules (1970’s) – Can transfer genes from one organism to another 2.DNA manipulation technology (1980’s) – _______: makes copies of short pieces of DNA – ________________: producing genetically identical organisms 3.__________________________ & _________________ (1990’s) – Provides the raw data to maniuplate 4.___________________________________(2000’s) – Understanding protein structure and function are key to designing majority of biomanufacturing products 5.Cell culture & manipulation (1980’s - present day) – Ability to grow cells in a controlled environment and introduce foreign genes into cells
Genetically Modified Organisms Genetically modified organisms (_________): organisms and/or cells that have been genetically altered, typically by the introduction of DNA from another organism that results in a new trait. Involves the creation of recombinant DNA, where DNA from two different sources are pasted together, or recombined.
Example of how a GMO can be made
Some examples of GMOs Tobacco plant expressing a gene from fireflies “Obese mouse:” Animal model to study obesity. Mice are missing genes Involved in sensing “fullness” Transgenic chickens produce therapeutic human proteins in their eggs “Enviropigs:” Produce less Phosphorus waste in their manure b/c they express an enzyme to break down phosphate better Alba, glowing bunny commissioned by French artist Eduardo Kac as “transgenic art” (jellyfish green fluorescent protein)
Majority of GMOs are cells expressing a gene from another organism EX: ___________bacterial cells can produce human proteins – First GMOs to produce human protein were E. coli containing the gene for the human growth hormone EX: ______________can produce human proteins – One of the first genetically engineered products to be sold was a blood clot-dissolving enzyme (t-PA) that can be used to clear blocked blood vessels after a heart attack. See next slide for diagram of how human t-PA can be produced in animal cells
Production of human t-PA in animal cells Gene for t-PA is isolated from human cells and inserted into a DNA vector, creating t-PA recombinant DNA. Recombinant t-PA DNA is put into animal cells. Animal cells produce t- PA protein. t-PA protein is isolated from CHO cells and given to patients.
Production of Insulin Insulin is produced in much the same way using _____________________________technology. The gene for making human insulin is transferred into simple cells such as bacteria or baker’s yeast. The insulin made by those cells is identical to insulin made by the human pancreas, and there is an unlimited supply.
Human Genome Project International effort to sequence and map all the _________ on the _____ human chromosomes. Sequence ~ completed by Much work still remains: – Identifying genes – Learning functions of genes – Understanding how and when genes are turned on and off – Understanding the function of DNA that does not encode genes (only ~1.5% of human DNA codes for genes!)
Agricultural Biotechnology 5 Main Areas identifies by the USDA where biotech can help farmers and consumers: 1.Combating human disease – Plant and animals can be used to ___________________________for human use. 2.Promoting human health – Make food more _______________________ – Remove ____________________ from food
Agricultural Biotechnology 3.Combating animal disease – Make ____________________ for animals 4.Fighting hunger – Increase crop ____________ – Allow groups to grow where they normally wouldn’t – Make crops disease resistant 5.Helping the environment – Reduce the need for chemical based fertilizers, insecticides, and herbicides.
Human Gene Therapy Scientists are trying to reduce human susceptibility to disease through genetic alteration. ______________________is an experimental procedure aimed at replacing, manipulating, or supplementing nonfunctional or malfunctioning genes with healthy genes. Very complex!
Bioremediation Bioremediation means to use biological organisms to solve an environmental problem such as contaminated soil or groundwater. In a non-polluted environment, bacteria, fungi, protists, and other microorganisms are constantly at work breaking down organic matter. Bioremediation of a contaminated site typically works in one of two ways. 1.The growth of whatever pollution-eating microbes might already be living at the contaminated site is _____________________. 2.In the second, less common case, specialized microbes are ______________ to degrade the contaminants.
Bioremediation Bioremediation can work well to clean up __________ contamination (like an oil spill). However, it doesn’t work for everything. Nonetheless, bioremediation provides a technique for cleaning up pollution by enhancing the same biodegradation processes that occur in nature. Bioremediation may be safer and less expensive than alternative solutions such as incineration or landfilling of the contaminated materials. It also has the advantage of treating the contamination in place so that large quantities of soil, sediment or water do not have to be dug up or pumped out of the ground for treatment.
Bioethics The study of __________ implications that arise from advances in biology, medicine, and technology. Unlike scientific questions, ethical questions cannot be tested or answered using scientific methodologies – Based on personal feelings and beliefs – Wide range of opinions can be argued
Bioethical issues: who decides? Government agencies – ________: regulates use and production of food, feed, food additives, veterinary drugs, human drugs, & medical devices. – ________: regulates the use and production of plants, plant products, plant pests, veterinary supplies, and genetically modified plants and animals. – _______: regulates use and production of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi), plant pesticides, and genetically modified microorganisms Scientists, lab workers – Accuracy of data collection, honesty in data reporting, following safety rules
Biotech & Biomanufacturing Jobs ______________________________________ – ex: laboratory assistant, laboratory technician, greenhouse worker, animal caretakers ______________________________________ – ex: Material handlers, manufacturing assistant or technician, instrumentation & calibration technicians _____________________________ – ex: Quality control technician, progress up to manager _______________________________________ – ex: sales rep, customer service rep, technical support rep _______________________________________
Biotech in North Carolina North Carolina is ranked is one of the nations leaders in the biotechnology industry. This has an enormous impact on the economy of our state, and on the job market.
Biotechnology Workplaces Mainly: Biotechnology companies also: University and government research labs – “basic” or “pure” scientific research: main purpose is to learn about a biological question – Clinical research: directed at understanding and treating disease – Research for biodefense Environmental & wildlife labs – Cleaning up waste & pollutants – Studying and protecting endangered species DNA Forensics lab
Biotech & Biomanufacturing Industry: types of products ➊ _____________________________ – ex: Drugs, vaccines, diagnostics ➋ ______________________________ – ex: GM crops, products used in food production ➌ _____________________________________ – ex: laundry detergents, denim jean treatments, waste treatment. ➍ _____________________________________ – ex: Laboratory supplies, technical equipment ➎ _____________________________ – ex: DNA sequencing, protein purification
BT/BM Industry Contributions More than 325 million people worldwide have been helped by the more than 130 biotechnology drugs and vaccines approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Of the biotech medicines on the market, 70 percent were approved in the last six years. There are more than 350 biotech drug products and vaccines currently in clinical trials targeting more than 200 diseases, including various cancers, Alzheimer's disease, heart disease, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, AIDS and arthritis. Biotechnology is responsible for hundreds of medical diagnostic tests that keep the blood supply safe from the AIDS virus and detect other conditions early enough to be successfully treated. H
BT/BM Industry Contributions Environmental biotechnology products make it possible to clean up hazardous waste more efficiently by harnessing pollution-eating microbes without the use of caustic chemicals. Industrial biotechnology applications have led to cleaner processes that produce less waste and use less energy and water in such industrial sectors as chemicals, pulp and paper, textiles, food, energy, and metals and minerals. For example, most laundry detergents produced in the United States contain biotechnology-based enzymes. DNA fingerprinting, a biotech process, has dramatically improved criminal investigation and forensic medicine, as well as afforded significant advances in anthropology and wildlife management.