2What is Biotechnology?_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.Or . . .The use of advances in life science to create products and services for our world.
3The History of Biotechnology Humans have been using biology to improve their lives since the beginning of recorded time.
4Applications of Biotechnology ____________________________: therapeutics, diagnosticsAgriculture and food: crop yields, pest resistance, milk production, food processing_______________: from corn syrup, switchgrass, agricultural wasteEnvironmental protection: waste clean-up, pollution reduction, alternatives to plastics_______________________: DNA fingerprinting, biodefenseIndustrial products: lots! Enzymatic laundry detergent, stonewash” jeans, paper manufacturing, etc.Instrumentation and suppliersScientific research
5The Evolution of Biotechnology Modern biotechnology has exploded since the development of genetic engineering:Genetic engineering is the ________________ ______________________________________.___________________________are organisms that contain genes from a different species.
6The Evolution of Biotechnology We are seeing an increasing variety of biotechnology products:
7Critical Components of Biotechnology ______________________________(rDNA) technology: the ability to cut and paste (recombine) DNA molecules (1970’s)Can transfer genes from one organism to anotherDNA manipulation technology (1980’s)_______: makes copies of short pieces of DNA________________: producing genetically identical organisms__________________________ & _________________ (1990’s)Provides the raw data to maniuplate___________________________________(2000’s)Understanding protein structure and function are key to designing majority of biomanufacturing productsCell culture & manipulation (1980’s - present day)Ability to grow cells in a controlled environment and introduce foreign genes into cells
8Genetically Modified Organisms Genetically modified organisms (_________): organisms and/or cells that have been genetically altered, typically by the introduction of DNA from another organism that results in a new trait.Involves the creation of recombinant DNA, where DNA from two different sources are pasted together, or recombined.
10Some examples of GMOs“Obese mouse:” Animal model to study obesity. Mice are missing genes Involved in sensing “fullness”Transgenic chickens produce therapeutic human proteins in their eggsTobacco plant expressinga gene from fireflies“Enviropigs:” Produceless Phosphorus wastein their manureb/c they expressan enzyme to breakdown phosphate betterAlba, glowing bunny commissionedby French artist Eduardo Kac as “transgenic art” (jellyfish green fluorescent protein)
11Majority of GMOs are cells expressing a gene from another organism EX: ___________bacterial cells can produce human proteinsFirst GMOs to produce human protein were E. coli containing the gene for the human growth hormoneEX: ______________can produce human proteinsOne of the first genetically engineered products to be sold was a blood clot-dissolving enzyme (t-PA) that can be used to clear blocked blood vessels after a heart attack.See next slide for diagram of how human t-PA can be produced in animal cells
12Production of human t-PA in animal cells Gene for t-PA is isolated from human cells and inserted into a DNA vector, creating t-PA recombinant DNA.Recombinant t-PA DNA is put into animal cells.Animal cells produce t-PA protein.t-PA protein is isolated from CHO cells and given to patients.
13Production of InsulinInsulin is produced in much the same way using _____________________________technology.The gene for making human insulin is transferred into simple cells such as bacteria or baker’s yeast. The insulin made by those cells is identical to insulin made by the human pancreas, and there is an unlimited supply.
14Human Genome ProjectInternational effort to sequence and map all the _________ on the _____ human chromosomes.Sequence ~ completed by 2002.Much work still remains:Identifying genesLearning functions of genesUnderstanding how and when genes are turned on and offUnderstanding the function of DNA that does not encode genes (only ~1.5% of human DNA codes for genes!)
15Agricultural Biotechnology 5 Main Areas identifies by the USDA where biotech can help farmers and consumers:Combating human diseasePlant and animals can be used to ___________________________for human use.Promoting human healthMake food more _______________________Remove ____________________ from food
16Agricultural Biotechnology Combating animal diseaseMake ____________________ for animalsFighting hungerIncrease crop ____________Allow groups to grow where they normally wouldn’tMake crops disease resistantHelping the environmentReduce the need for chemical based fertilizers, insecticides, and herbicides.
17Human Gene TherapyScientists are trying to reduce human susceptibility to disease through genetic alteration.______________________is an experimental procedure aimed at replacing, manipulating, or supplementing nonfunctional or malfunctioning genes with healthy genes.Very complex!
18BioremediationBioremediation means to use biological organisms to solve an environmental problem such as contaminated soil or groundwater.In a non-polluted environment, bacteria, fungi, protists, and other microorganisms are constantly at work breaking down organic matter.Bioremediation of a contaminated site typically works in one of two ways.The growth of whatever pollution-eating microbes might already be living at the contaminated site is _____________________.In the second, less common case, specialized microbes are ______________ to degrade the contaminants.
19BioremediationBioremediation can work well to clean up __________ contamination (like an oil spill).However, it doesn’t work for everything.Nonetheless, bioremediation provides a technique for cleaning up pollution by enhancing the same biodegradation processes that occur in nature.Bioremediation may be safer and less expensive than alternative solutions such as incineration or landfilling of the contaminated materials.It also has the advantage of treating the contamination in place so that large quantities of soil, sediment or water do not have to be dug up or pumped out of the ground for treatment.
20BioethicsThe study of __________ implications that arise from advances in biology, medicine, and technology.Unlike scientific questions, ethical questions cannot be tested or answered using scientific methodologiesBased on personal feelings and beliefsWide range of opinions can be argued
21Bioethical issues: who decides? Government agencies________: regulates use and production of food, feed, food additives, veterinary drugs, human drugs, & medical devices.________: regulates the use and production of plants, plant products, plant pests, veterinary supplies, and genetically modified plants and animals._______: regulates use and production of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi), plant pesticides, and genetically modified microorganismsScientists, lab workersAccuracy of data collection, honesty in data reporting, following safety rules
22Biotech & Biomanufacturing Jobs ______________________________________ex: laboratory assistant, laboratory technician, greenhouse worker, animal caretakersex: Material handlers, manufacturing assistant or technician, instrumentation & calibration technicians_____________________________ex: Quality control technician, progress up to manager_______________________________________ex: sales rep, customer service rep, technical support rep
23Biotech in North Carolina North Carolina is ranked is one of the nations leaders in the biotechnology industry.This has an enormous impact on the economy of our state, and on the job market.
24Biotechnology Workplaces Mainly: Biotechnology companiesalso:University and government research labs“basic” or “pure” scientific research: main purpose is to learn about a biological questionClinical research: directed at understanding and treating diseaseResearch for biodefenseEnvironmental & wildlife labsCleaning up waste & pollutantsStudying and protecting endangered speciesDNA Forensics lab
25Biotech & Biomanufacturing Industry: types of products ➊ _____________________________ – ex: Drugs, vaccines, diagnostics ➋ ______________________________ – ex: GM crops, products used in food production ➌ _____________________________________ – ex: laundry detergents, denim jean treatments, waste treatment. ➍ _____________________________________ – ex: Laboratory supplies, technical equipment ➎ _____________________________ – ex: DNA sequencing, protein purification
26BT/BM Industry Contributions More than 325 million people worldwide have been helped by the more than 130 biotechnology drugs and vaccines approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Of the biotech medicines on the market, 70 percent were approved in the last six years.There are more than 350 biotech drug products and vaccines currently in clinical trials targeting more than 200 diseases, including various cancers, Alzheimer's disease, heart disease, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, AIDS and arthritis.Biotechnology is responsible for hundreds of medical diagnostic tests that keep the blood supply safe from the AIDS virus and detect other conditions early enough to be successfully treated. H
27BT/BM Industry Contributions Environmental biotechnology products make it possible to clean up hazardous waste more efficiently by harnessing pollution-eating microbes without the use of caustic chemicals.Industrial biotechnology applications have led to cleaner processes that produce less waste and use less energy and water in such industrial sectors as chemicals, pulp and paper, textiles, food, energy, and metals and minerals. For example, most laundry detergents produced in the United States contain biotechnology-based enzymes.DNA fingerprinting, a biotech process, has dramatically improved criminal investigation and forensic medicine, as well as afforded significant advances in anthropology and wildlife management.