Presentation on theme: "The Holocaust Close Reading Analysis:"— Presentation transcript:
1The Holocaust Close Reading Analysis: Read Martin Niemöller’s short quotationIdentify: What is Niemöller’s argument?Evalute: To what extent does Niemöller’s argument relate to FDR’s Four Freedoms and U.S. Action before and during WWII?First they came for the communists, and I didn't speak out because I wasn't a communist.Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak out because I wasn't a trade unionist.Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak out because I wasn't a Jew.Then they came for me and there was no one left to speak out for me.
2Evaluating America’s Response to the Holocaust To what extent did U.S. action on the home front corroborate or contradict FDR’s Four Freedoms?Was U.S. action justified in the historical context of WWII America?
3Key Concepts: Tension Presentism Contextualization We all have a modern or presentist biasTendency to judge the past with a modern mindset, based on present-day beliefs, norms, principles and values.Tends to ignore or place less significance on historical contextImportant to recognize when you’re being presentist and check yourselfContextualizationKey historical thinking skillThe ability to recognize historical context and analyze events based on the beliefs, norms, principles and values that were important during the time period under study.In a sense, placing yourself in that time period and judging the past on its own termsA useful counter-weight to presentism, or way of balancing a presentist mindset with a historical mindset.
4Important:Contextualization does not excuse the immorality or injustice of the past—it simply helps the historian understand how and why these things occurred.
5Martin Niemöller German Lutheran pastor and theologian. Anti-Communist who supported Hitler's rise to power at first, but when Hitler insisted on the supremacy of the state over religion, Niemöller became disillusioned.Became the leader of a group of German clergymen opposed to Hitler.1937—Arrested and confined in Sachsenhausen and Dachau for "not being enthusiastic enough about the Nazi movement."1945—released by the Allies.Continued his career in Germany as a clergyman and as a leading voice of penance and reconciliation for the German people after World War II.To cope with his own inability to resist Hitler and Nazism, wrote about the dangers of political apathy on the part of bystanders.
6Nazi ideology Scientific racism (codified in the Nuremburg Laws, 1933) Racial hierarchy, Social DarwnismSuperiority of the Aryan raceAnti-Semitism and “Jewish materialism” as a scapegoat
7HolocaustSystematic, state-sponsored genocide (mass murder) of six million Jews during WWIISix million = 2/3 of European JewsOne million children; two million women; three million men.
8CampsNetwork of 40,000 facilities in Germany and German- occupied territory used to concentrate, hold, and kill Jews and other victims, including the Romani, the disabled, homosexuals, POW’s, the Polish, and the Soviets.Carried out in phases:Exclusionary Nuremberg Laws, 1935Concentration Camps (slave labor camps)Purging of Jews by paramilitary death squads (Einsatzgruppen) through mass shootingsExtermination camps (ghettos, gas chambers)
10American Response Read the Response to the Holocaust packet. Group & ResponseReasons/ motivationsAnalysis: Does U.S. Action or Inaction Corroborate/Contradict 4F?Is U.S. action justified in historical context? From a presentist lens? Explain.
11ProcessingTo what extent did American action at home during WWII corroborate or contradict the Four Freedoms articulated by FDR and Norman Rockwell?